It is the reorganized violation of cultural
It describes actions or behaviours that
violate social norms, including formally-
enacted rules (e.g., crime),as
well as informal violations of
social norms (e.g., rejecting
folkways and mores).
Involves behavior that
fails to meet accepted
It occurs when people
reject, misinterpret, or
are unaware of the
Overconformity to social expectations.
Idealization of the group norms.
Positive Deviance is
an approach to behavioral
and social change based
on the observation that in
any community, there are
people whose uncommon
but successful behaviors
or strategies enable them
to find better solutions to
a problem than their
peers, despite facing
similar challenges and
having no extra resources
or knowledge than their
peers. (wikipedia.com )
The Relativity of Deviance
The determination of which behavior or
characteristics are deviant or normal.
Deviance is socially
created by collective
and ideas. The
judgement of what is
normal or deviant
depends on the
observer who witness
and evaluate the act.
• Judgement depends on who is doing the
positions, characteristics, and groups
bring forth different expectations, and
conceptions as to
Judgement depends on a
– There must exist a behavioral
expectation, a norm that defines
appropriate, acceptable behavior, ideas or
– some sort of violation of the norm
Avoiding, criticism, warnings, punishment or
treatment to the violation.
The set of means of ensuring that
people generally behave in expected
and approve ways.
Types of Social
Control– lies within the individual that
developed during the socialization process. It is
practising social control because it is the right
thing to do.
– is based on social sanctions, or the
system of rewards and punishments designed to
encourage desired behavior.
• Deviant behavior as a form of illness
caused by pathological factors that are
specific to certain types of individuals.
They assume that some people are “born
criminals” who are biologically different
Explained that certain
people are born
He described criminals
as having low
cheekbones, lots of
body hair, and
unusually long arms.
Suggested that body types predict
Concluded that the muscular and athletic
builds are more likely to commit crimes.
Deviance as a result of
socialization, leading to some
Sigmund Freud: most people
learn in the process of
growing up how to inhibit or
productively channel their
innate drives toward pleasure
Deviance as a result
of societal processes and
structure rather than
individual anatomies or
Social Conflict and
Functionalism looks at the positive and negative
consequences of deviance in the society.
Emile Durkheim: Deviance is functional
1. The ritual of punishment
is an emotional
experience that binds
members of the group
together and establishes a
sense of community.
2. It is useful in making necessary
changes and in preparing people for
– is the societal condition in
which norms are weak, conflicting or
absent, which became the basis of –
structural strain theory.
Explains that conformity to social norms
depends on the presence of strong bonds
between individuals and society.
Deviance happens when those bonds are
– the ties of the individuals to
their families, friends and institutions.
– embracing conventional
– the expenditure of time and
energy to conventional behavior.
– bonds the individual to the rules of
the larger society
Explains how people define deviance in
Differential Association Theory
-deviance is transmitted
through socialization the same way
as nondeviant behavior is learn