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  1. 1. BSEd Mathematics III
  2. 2. It is the reorganized violation of cultural norms. It describes actions or behaviours that violate social norms, including formally- enacted rules (e.g., crime),as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).
  3. 3. Involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms. It occurs when people either reject, misinterpret, or are unaware of the norms.
  4. 4. Positive Deviance Overconformity to social expectations. Idealization of the group norms.
  5. 5. Positive Deviance is an approach to behavioral and social change based on the observation that in any community, there are people whose uncommon but successful behaviors or strategies enable them to find better solutions to a problem than their peers, despite facing similar challenges and having no extra resources or knowledge than their peers. ( )
  6. 6. The Relativity of Deviance The determination of which behavior or characteristics are deviant or normal. Audience Relativity Actor Relativity Situational Relativity
  7. 7. Audience Relativity Deviance is socially created by collective human judgements and ideas. The judgement of what is normal or deviant depends on the observer who witness and evaluate the act.
  8. 8. • Judgement depends on who is doing the act. Different positions, characteristics, and groups bring forth different expectations, and hence different conceptions as to what constitute deviant behavior.
  9. 9. Situational Relativity Judgement depends on a certain circumstances.
  10. 10. – There must exist a behavioral expectation, a norm that defines appropriate, acceptable behavior, ideas or characteristics. – some sort of violation of the norm must occur. – Avoiding, criticism, warnings, punishment or treatment to the violation.
  11. 11. The set of means of ensuring that people generally behave in expected and approve ways.
  12. 12. Types of Social Control– lies within the individual that developed during the socialization process. It is practising social control because it is the right thing to do. – is based on social sanctions, or the system of rewards and punishments designed to encourage desired behavior.
  13. 13. Biological Psychological Societal
  14. 14. • Deviant behavior as a form of illness caused by pathological factors that are specific to certain types of individuals. They assume that some people are “born criminals” who are biologically different from “non-criminals”.
  15. 15. Explained that certain people are born criminals. He described criminals as having low foreheads, prominent jaws and cheekbones, lots of body hair, and unusually long arms.
  16. 16. William Sheldon Suggested that body types predict criminality. Concluded that the muscular and athletic builds are more likely to commit crimes.
  17. 17. Deviance as a result of unsuccessful socialization, leading to some personality disorders. Sigmund Freud: most people learn in the process of growing up how to inhibit or productively channel their innate drives toward pleasure and aggression.
  18. 18. Deviance as a result of societal processes and structure rather than individual anatomies or psychologies. Functionalism and Deviance Social Conflict and Deviance Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance
  19. 19. Functionalism looks at the positive and negative consequences of deviance in the society. Emile Durkheim: Deviance is functional because.; 1. The ritual of punishment is an emotional experience that binds members of the group together and establishes a sense of community.
  20. 20. 2. It is useful in making necessary changes and in preparing people for change. – is the societal condition in which norms are weak, conflicting or absent, which became the basis of – structural strain theory.
  21. 21. Explains that conformity to social norms depends on the presence of strong bonds between individuals and society. Deviance happens when those bonds are weak.
  22. 22. – the ties of the individuals to their families, friends and institutions. – embracing conventional activities. – the expenditure of time and energy to conventional behavior. – bonds the individual to the rules of the larger society
  23. 23. Explains how people define deviance in everyday situations. Differential Association Theory -deviance is transmitted through socialization the same way as nondeviant behavior is learn