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Facilitylayout Planning: for the location of all machines, utilities, employee workstations, customer service areas, material storage areas, aisles, restrooms, lunchrooms, internal walls, offices, and computer rooms for the flow patterns of materials and people around, into, and within buildings infrastructure services such as the delivery of line communications, energy, and water and the removal of waste water all make up basic utilities
Characteristics of the Facility Layout Decision Infrequent Expensive to implement Studied and evaluated extensively Long-term commitments
Objectives of the Layout Strategy Develop an economical layout which will meet the requirements of: product design and volume (product strategy) Process equipment and capacity (process strategy) quality of work life (human resource strategy) building and site constraints (location strategy)
Importance of Layout Facilitates: Manufacturing process. Facilitates quick movements by reduction of transportation & waiting time Minimises material movement & handling. Efficient utilisation of resources: Men, Materials, Machines. Achieves efficiency by effective planning. Improves quality of operations by proper selection of plant, machinery, operations & sequencing.
Factors Affecting thePlant Layout Decision Types of Production Scale of Production Type of machines Type of Building Facilities Availability of Total Floor Area Possibility of Future Expansion Arrangement of Material Handling Equipment
7 MKS-BTMII-LEC2 Flow Pattern (b) L-Flow (a) I-Flow I-Flow: Separate receiving and shipping area L-Flow: When straight line flow chart to be accommodated U-Flow: Very popular as a combination of receiving and shipping. O-Flow: When it is desired to terminate the flow near where it is originated. S-Flow: When the production line is long and zigzagging on the production floor is required. (c) U-Flow (e) O-Flow (d) S-Flow
TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUTS 1. Product or Line layout 2. Process or Functional layout 3. Fixed Position or Project layout 4. Combination layout (Mixed layout)
ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. Low cost material handling 2. Smooth and uninterrupted operations 3. Continuous flow of work 4. Optimum use of floor space 5. Shorter processing time 6. Simple and effective inspection of work
Disadvantages 1. High initial capital investment 2. Heavy overhead charges 3. Lesser flexibility
ADVANTAGES OF FIXEDPOSITION LAYOUT 1. It saves time and cost involved on the movement of work from one work station to another 2. The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated 3. It is more economical when several orders in different stages of progress are being executed simultaneously
DISADVANTAGES OF FIXEDPOSITION LAYOUT 1. Production period being very long, capital investment is very heavy 2. Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product