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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
Elements of a Safety Program
Safety Program Development
 Assignment of responsibility
 Hazard identification and control
 Training and communication
 Documentation and enforcement of safety rules
Safety Program
 Maintenance of safe working conditions
 Setting performance goals
 Rewarding safety performance
 Reviewing circumstances involved in incidents
◦ Taking appropriate correction actions
Safety Program (cont’d)
 Establishing Safety performance objectives for
all levels of management
 Including safety as part of management
performance reviews
 Measuring effectiveness
Benefits of a Safety Program
Benefits
 Reduced workers’ compensation claims
 Reduced expenses related to injuries and
illnesses
 Reduced absenteeism
 Lower employee complaints
Benefits (cont’d)
 Improved employee morale and satisfaction
 Increased productivity
 Reduction of hidden cost
 Reduced insurance cost
Consequences
Hidden Cost
 Workers Compensation Cost
 Replacement and training cost for new or
substitute employee
 Poor Quality
 Penalties for non-compliance
Establishing Project-Specific Activities
Planning a Project
 Develop goals and objectives
 Define project team
◦ Project Manager
◦ Site Supervisor
◦ Site Safety
 Other Programs
Roles and Responsibilities
 Supervisors/Management
◦ Establish safe work practices
◦ Enforce safety rules and regulations
◦ Train employees how to avoid hazards
◦ Enforce reporting work-related injuries, illnesses, and
near misses
 Investigate causes of incidents or near misses
 Take the appropriate action to prevent recurrence
◦ Ensure prompt medical attention
Roles and Responsibilities (cont’d)
 Safety Professional
◦ Develop and implement accident prevention
programs
◦ Advise management on company policies and
governmental regulations
◦ Evaluate effectiveness of existing safety programs
◦ Train management in safety observation techniques
Why Have a Plan?
 Designed to Protect
◦ Personnel
◦ Environment
◦ Public
◦ Operation and Equipment
Why Have a Plan (cont’d)
 Government Regulations
◦ OSHA
◦ EPA
◦ State/Local
 Public/Private Requirements
Typical Programs
 Recordkeeping
◦ OSHA 300 log and supplementary forms
◦ OSHA 301, accident investigations
◦ Workers' compensation cases
◦ Employee's medical history
Typical Programs (cont’d)
 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
◦ Proper use
◦ Employee training
◦ Enforcement
 Dusty Operations
 Unknown hazards
 Hazardous waste operations and Emergency Response
Typical Programs(cont’d)
 Hazard communication program
◦ Written program development and implementation
◦ Chemical Inventory
◦ Communicate safe work methods for:
 Jobs-Specific activities
 Non-routine tasks
 Labeling requirements
 MSDS
 Employee training (contractors)
Typical Programs(cont’d)
 Machine guarding
◦ Make sure that machine guarding is:
 Replaced and tested for proper function when removed for
maintenance
 Review electrical and mechanical interlocks to see if they
work properly
 Equipment Repair
◦ Inspect and repair and/or replaced defective parts
Typical Programs(cont’d)
 Lockout/Tagout
◦ Make sure that lockout/tagout procedures are established
◦ Employees trained
 Others
◦ Confined-space entry
◦ Excavation
◦ Heavy equipment
◦ Air monitoring
TopViolations
Citation Reference Description
◦ 29 CFR 1910.1200 (e)(1) Hazard Communication
◦ 29 CFR 1904.2 (a) Recordkeeping
◦ 29 CFR 1903.2 Signage
◦ 29 CFR 1910.147 Lockout/Tagout
TopViolations(cont’d)
Citation Reference Description
◦ 29 CFR 1910.212 (a)(1) Machine Guarding
◦ 29 CFR 1910.215 (b)(9) Abrasive Wheel Machinery
◦ 29 CFR Subpart I Personal Protective
Equipment
Formulating the Plan
 Team Effort Required
◦ Management
◦ Supervisors
◦ Laborers
Formulating the Plan (cont’d)
 Developing Scope ofWork
 Identifying Controls for Reducing Hazards
 Reviewing Hazards of eachTask
◦ Physical
◦ Chemical
◦ Biological
Formulating the Plan (cont’d)
 Review
◦ Facility
◦ Operations
◦ Hazardous Materials
 Points to Consider
◦ Details of the Plan
◦ Degree of Action Required
◦ Envision Potential Incidents
◦ Review Previous Incidents
Finalizing the Plan
 “User-Friendly” Plan
 Final Review
 Outside Audit
Implementing the Work Plan
 Essential in reducing injuries and illnesses
 Maintains a safe environment
 Designed to protect employees, company’s
facilities, and local community
Work Plan (cont’d)
 Pre-entry briefing to alert personnel of hazards
 Conduct Job Hazard Analysis as appropriate
 Periodic safety inspection
◦ Correct known deficiencies
 Must be available for review and updated as
required
Preparing Scope of Work
 Teamwork
◦ Brain Storming
 Project Impact Items
 Show Stoppers
 Delegating Responsibilities
 Project Review
General Requirements
 Company Policies
 Site Description, Background
 Site Security
 Emergency Response
Identifying Project-Specific Requirements
 Job Hazard Analysis
◦ Select activities with highest risk
◦ Break activity into individual components
◦ Identify potential hazards in each component
◦ Develop procedures to eliminate/reduce hazard
Contractor Pre-qualification
 Must complete pre-qualification
◦ Incident rates
◦ Experience Modification Rates (EMR)
◦ OSHA recordable cases
◦ General company information
◦ Safety programs
◦ Medical surveillance programs
◦ Management philosophy
Project Start-Up
 Review Contractor’s
◦ Scope of work
◦ H&S plan
 Site-Specific training
 Pre-Construction Meeting
Determine Contractor Relationship
 Identify who supervises contractor employees
 Must have on-site project supervisor/manager
 Must share responsibility/liability
Contractor Project Management
 Must share responsibility/liability
 Must be able to interpret/manage safety
programs, solve problems effectively
 Must have skills to recognize legal, financial, and
customer relations
Contractor-Management Responsibilities
 29 CFR 1926.16(d)
◦ “Where joint responsibilities exists both the prime and their
subcontractor or subcontractors, regardless of tier, shall be
considered subject to the enforcement provisions of this Act”
 29 CFR 1926.16(c)
◦ “With respect to subcontracted work, the prime contractor
and any subcontractor or subcontractors shall be deemed to
have joint responsibility”
Develop Emergency Response
 Qualified to Perform
 Equipment/ResponseTime Adequate
 Aware of Operations and Hazards
Problems with Emergency Response
 Guidelines NOT Followed
 Improper Initial Response
 Non-functioning Equipment
 Environmental Conditions
Emergency Response Critique
 OSHA/EPA Requirements
 Reviews Incidents
 Develops New Procedures
 EnhancesTraining
Continual Improvement
 Guidelines must be created for improvement
◦ Company policies
◦ Contractors rules/procedures
◦ H&S Plan
 Learning from mistakes
 Safety must be measured and monitored
Reviewing On-Going Operations
 Conduct site safety inspections
 Review training records and work permits
 Review air monitoring data
 Review how deficiencies are detected and
corrected
 Conduct progress meetings
Summary
 Eliminate hazards
 Reduce risks when hazards cannot be
eliminated
 Provide warning devices
 Develop and implement procedures and
training
Summary (cont’d)
 Engineering controls
◦ Preferred
◦ Permanent
◦ Not as dependent on human errors as other types
of controls, and is less likely to fail
 Problem is usually corrected for good
Summary (cont’d)
 Accountability must be present
 Management commitment must be visible
 Teamwork is a requisite for success
 “Paper” safety programs are not acceptable
MODULE – 2
ACCIDENT PREVENTION
•Basic philosophy of accident prevention
•Nature & cause of accident
•Accident proneness
•Cost of accidents
•Accident prevention method
•Domino theory
•Safety education 7 training
•Training methods
•Motivation & communicating safety
•Personal protective equipments (PPE)
INCIDENT- Situations which have occurred and
that had the potential to harm to a person or
damage equipment or property.
ACCIDENT – Unexpected and undesirable event
which causes or likely to cause damage or harm or
injury.
.
COST OF ACCIDENTS
If it look unsafe you should
•Report
•Encourage
•Inspect
•Inform
•Alert
•Accountable
•Be safe
ACCIDENT PRONENESS
SAFETY COMMUNICATION
 Internal communication
• Presentation, staff & HSE committees, team
meetings, emails, videos, notice boards, news
letters, poster etc.
 External communication
• Annual reports, publications, telephone
enquiries etc.
1. HSE mission statement, policy, plan
2. HSE statistics
3. Safety induction
4. Risk assessment
5. Manuals, checklist and operating procedure
hazards, incidents and near misses
7. Training
8. HSE website
9. Brochures, Posters & Videos
10. Safety week
11. Public report
12. HSE conference
Communication Strategies
1. Barriers to effective communication
2. Language and words
3. Complaints and criticisms
4. Questioning
Basic Communication Tips
1. Think before you speak
2. Mind your body language
3. Be effective in speaking
4. Keep it simple
5. Consistent message
6. Provide support
7. Reinforce the message
8. Express appreciation
9. Know your employees
10.Set an example
MODULE 3
SAFETY MANAGEMENT & TECHNIQUES
Did You Know?
Workplace Hazards--
Can cause:
• Death
• Injury
• Damage to equipment
Inspections help…
• Maintain a safe work environment
• Control unsafe acts and conditions
• Ensure operational efficiency
WHAT TO INSPECT?
 The entire workplace
 Both interior & exterior work
environments.
Checklist Categories
• Building Safety
• Office Safety
• Fire Safety
• Electrical Safety
• Emergency Equipment
• Storage Methods
TYPES OF INSPECTIONS
• Formal Inspections
• Daily/Weekly Inspections
• Special Function Inspections
WHO CAN CONDUCT INSPECTIONS
• Employees
• Supervisors
• Safety Coordinators
• Management
• Safety Committee Members
• Outside Vendors/insurance companies
STEPS IN SAFETY INSPECTION
1. PALNNING
2. DEVELOPING
3. RECORDING
4. FOLLOW UP
5. MONITORING
SAFETY SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
• Defined as the grouping of dangerous
activities, processes, areas etc.
– Purpose of study
– Where to sample , what, who, how, analyze
SAFETY AUDIT
 Safety auditing is a core safety management
activity, providing a means of identifying potential
problems before they have an impact on safety.
The objective of safety audit is to:
 Verify compliance with established standards
(regulations, internal policies and industry wise
standards of practice)
 Identify deviation from designed and planned
operating and maintenance procedure and
standards.
 Identify conditions or operating procedures that
could lead to an accident and significant losses to life
or property.
• The General Safety Audit encompasses almost all
aspects of safety namely the Safety Management
System, Electrical Safety, Fire Safety, Mechanical
Safety, Maintenance, Physical & Chemical and
construction safety.
SAFETYAUDIT STEPS
1. Preparing for an Audit
2. Conduct the Audit
3. Create an Audit Report and Recommended
Actions
4. Set Corrective Action Priorities
5. Publish Audit Results
Safety surveys
• Safety surveys generally are cost-
effective, easy to administer and flexible
method for identifying hazards by
sampling the workforce opinion within
an organization.
• Surveys are used as a safety monitoring
tool to assess whether an existing
situation or organizational aspect is
satisfactory
•Anyone performing inspections should be
trained on how to conduct those inspections.
•Daily, all employees should make a visual
inspection of their workplace prior to
beginning work.
•Supervisors, Safety Coordinators, and
Management personnel, as part of their daily
work routine, should make continuous visual
inspections and take corrective action to
address any unsafe acts or unsafe conditions
observed.
•Safety Coordinators, Management
personnel, and/or Safety Committee
Members may inspect workplaces, accident
scenes, etc. when necessary
Incident recall
• Critical incident recall is an
technique particularly suited to high risk
environments.
• This method is based on collecting
information on hazards, near-misses,
unsafe conditions and unsafe actions from
working people.
• It can be used to investigate man-machine
relationship and to improve equipment and
operations.
•The technique consists of interviewing
personnel regarding involvement in
accident or near-misses, errors,
mistakes, difficulties and conditions
which may cause accident.
•It accomplishes the same result as an
accident investigation. Even isolated
incidents reported by the technique can
be investigated to determine whether
corrective action is necessary or
advantageous.
Job safety analysis (JSA)
• A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which
helps integrate accepted safety and health
principles and practices into a particular task
or job operation.
• A systematic method of identifying hazards &
control measures to safely perform a specific
task.
BENEFITS OF JSA
• Training of new employees
• Accident investigation tool
• Supervisor evaluation tool
• Consistency in training
• Injury reduction
JSA PROCEDURE / STEPS
1. Select the job
2. Perform the Analysis / breaking the job
3. Identify hazards
4. Develop solutions
5. Conduct a Follow-up Analysis
6. Use of the Job Safety Analysis
7. Recordkeeping
Damage control
• The technique involves the systematic reporting,
investigation, costing and control of damage
accidents within an organization
1. Reporting
2. Investigation
3. Costing
4. Control
RISK MANAGEMENT
What is a "hazard?
An unsafe condition or practice that may or
may not cause damage to property,
equipment, materials or the environment OR
an injury or illness to an employee.
What is a risk :-
A risk is the chance that a hazard will actually
harm a worker
RISK ASSESMENT :-
• Overall Process of estimating the magnitude of
risk and deciding whether or not the risk is
tolerable.
• Risk factors to consider:
–Frequency: How many workers and how often
–Severity: How serious the harm
–Probability: How likely could it happen
RISK MANAGEMENT
• The process of identification, analysis, assessment,
control, and avoidance, minimization, or elimination
of unacceptable risks.
Involvement in safety
1. Role of management
 Management provides the leadership, vision, and resources
needed to implement an effective safety and health program.
Management leadership means that business owners,
managers, and supervisors:
• Make worker safety and health a core organizational value.
• Are fully committed to eliminating hazards, protecting
workers, and continuously improving workplace safety and
health.
• Provide sufficient resources to implement and maintain the
safety and health program.
• Visibly demonstrate and communicate their safety and
health commitment to workers and others.
• Set an example through their own actions.
• Communicate your commitment to a safety
and health program
• Define program goals
• Allocate resources
• Expect performance
2. ROLE OF SUPERVISOR
1. Coordinate employee training sessions
2. Take advantage of “teachable moments”
3. Model what employees learn in training
4. Discussing changes to safety and health
policies/procedures
5. Completing incident investigations
6. Performing safety and health inspections
7. Be familiar with safety and health policies and
procedures
8. Conduct regular inspections of your work area
9. Provide feedback to employees on inspection
findings
3.ROLE OF WORKMEN
1. Following established health and safety policies and
procedures.
2. Maintaining your personal work area in a clean and
orderly manner.
3. Wearing, maintaining and properly storing your
personal protective equipment (PPE).
4. Attending all safety training that your employer offers.
5. Volunteering to serve on your Safety Committee.
6. Using safe work practices to eliminate slips, trips and
falls.
7. Lifting safely and helping others to do the same.
8. Labeling all chemical containers and becoming familiar
with material safety data sheets.
9. Knowing evacuation procedures and the location of
emergency equipment.
4. ROLE OF UNIONS
THANK YOU
MODULE 4
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & HYGIENE
What is Industrial Hygiene?
Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating,
recognizing, evaluating, and controlling
workplace conditions that may cause workers'
injury or illness.
Key factors:
Employee exposure to hazards
Control for hazards to protect workers
Steps to Protect Employees
•Anticipate potential hazards
•Recognize potential hazards
•Evaluate exposure and risk
•Control exposure and risk
1. Anticipate potential hazards
Identify potential hazards in the work place
2. Recognize potential hazards
• Air contaminants
• Chemical hazards
• Biological hazards
• Physical hazards
• Ergonomic hazards
Air Contaminants
• Dusts
• Fumes
• Mist
• Vapors
• Fibers
• Gases
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0912
Hazards Due to
Chemical Properties
• Eye, nose, throat,
upper respiratory, skin
irritation
• Flu-like symptoms
• Difficulty breathing
• Fatigue
• Loss of coordination
• Memory difficulties
• Sleeplessness
• Mental confusion
Biological Hazards
• Bacteria
• Viruses
• Fungi
© Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0912
Physical Hazards
–Electromagnetic
radiation
–Noise
–Vibration
–Illumination
–Temperature
Ergonomic Hazards
– Eye strain
– Repetitive motion
injuries
– Lifting injuries
•Physiological Hazards
Awkward movements
Muscle strain
• Psychological Hazards
– Boredom
– Concentrated attention
– Simulated inputs
3.Evaluation
The extend of exposure to the chemical hazard,
physical, biological agents, adverse ergonomic
situation in the work place.
4. Control
1. Engineering controls: Remove hazard
Process change, Chemical substitution
Ventilation, Shielding, Guarding
Requires little or no employee action
2. Administrative controls: Manage exposure
Worker rotation, Procedures, Training
Trench shoring, Controlled access areas
Requires employee action
3. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Respirators, Gloves, Boots, Clothing
Fall protection equipment, Hard hats
Requires individual employee action
Benefits of occupational hygiene
•Improved worker health and increased life
expectancy
•Reduction in the number of people who have to
leave employment early through injury or illness
•Lower social and healthcare costs as well as
maximizing worker potential
•More efficient working processes with
technological improvements and increased
productivity.
Components occupational health services
•Health counseling
. Stress management
. Mental health
. And Physical health
. Rehabilitation programme
. Medical rehabilitation
. Social rehabilitation
. Educational rehabilitation
. Vocational rehabilitation
What is Occupational Hygiene?
Exposure
Work Activity
Disease
Occupational
Hygiene
Occupational
Medicine
Occupational
Health
What is a "hazard?“
An unsafe condition or practice that may or
may not cause damage to property,
equipment, materials or the environment OR
an injury or illness to an employee.
TYPES OF HAZARDS:-
1. PHYSICAL HAZARD
2. CHEMICAL HAZARD
3. MECHANICAL HAZARD
4. ELECTRICAL HAZARD
5. SOCIAL HAZARD
6. BIOLOGICAL HAZARD
7. ERGONOMICS HAZARD
8. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD
PHYSICAL HAZARD
A physical hazard is an agent, factor or
circumstance that can cause harm with or without
contact.
Physical Hazards include:
• Radiation: including ionizing, non ionizing (EMF’s,
microwaves, radio waves, etc.)
•High exposure to sunlight/ultraviolet rays
•Temperature extremes – hot and cold Constant
loud noise
CHEMICAL HAZARDS: Are present when a worker is exposed
to any chemical preparation in the workplace in any form
(solid, liquid or gas). Some are safer than others, but to
some workers who are more sensitive to chemicals, even
common solutions can cause illness, skin irritation, or
breathing problems.
Beware of:
•Liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids, solvents –
ESPECIALLY if chemicals are in an unlabeled container
• Vapors and fumes that come from welding or exposure to
solvents
•Gases like acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide and
helium
•Flammable materials like gasoline, solvents, and explosive
chemicals.
•Pesticides
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS: Associated with working with
animals, people, or infectious plant materials.
•Work in schools, day care facilities, colleges and
universities, hospitals, laboratories, emergency
response, nursing homes, outdoor occupations, etc.
may expose you to biological hazards.
Types of things you may be exposed to include:
• Blood and other body fluids
• Fungi/mold
•Bacteria and viruses
•Plants
• Insect bites
• Animal and bird droppings
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS:
Occur when the type of work, body positions
and working conditions put strain on your body.
The are the hardest to spot si ce ou do ’t alwa s
immediately notice the strain on your body or the
harm that these hazards pose.
Short ter e posure a result i sore uscles
the next day or in the days following exposure, but
long-term exposure can result in serious long-term
illnesses.
Ergonomic Hazards include:
• Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs
• Frequent lifting
• Poor posture
• Awkward movements, especially if they are
repetitive
• Repeating the same movements over and over
• Having to use too much force, especially if you
have to do it frequently
• Vibration
Mechanical Hazards
Mechanical hazards are created as a result of either
powered or manual (human) use of tools, equipment or
machinery and plant.
Where Mechanical Hazards Occur
•The point of operation: that point where work is
performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping,
boring, or forming of stock.
•Power transmission apparatus: all components of the
mechanical system that transmit energy to the part of the
machine performing the work. These components include
flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams,
spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.
•Other moving parts: all parts of the machine that move
while the machine is working. These may include
reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as
well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
Social hazard
Social hazards, also called complex
emergencies, seriously limit a populatio ’s
access to health services, water, food, and
transportation, all of which are
determinants of health.
Examples
•Living in an old toxic waste
•Smoking
•Job deals with harmful chemicals
•Diet
Environmental hazard
It is a substance, state or event which has the
potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment /
or adversely affect people's health,
including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and
earthquakes.
EXAMPLES
1. Air pollution
2. Overpopulation
3. Waste management
4. Noise pollution
5. Light pollution
6. Water pollution
7. Radiation
Tips for effective workplace housekeeping
•Prevent slips, trips and falls
•Eliminate fire hazards
•Control dust
•Avoid tracking materials
•Prevent falling objects
•Clear clutter
•Store materials properly
•Use and inspect personal protective equipment and tools
•Determine frequency
•Create written rules
•Think long-term
MODULE 5
INDUSTRIAL FIRE PROTECTION
2
fire
Definition
It is a chemical chain
reaction which takes place with
the evolution of heat and light.
3
Essentials of Fire
OxygenFuel FIRE
Heat
4
Oxygen Heat
Fuel
OXYGEN SOURCE HEAT SOURCES
Approx. 16% Required
Normal air contains 21% of oxygen
Some Fuels contains its own oxygen
supply
GASES
To Reach Ignition Temp.
Open Flame, the Sun,Hot Surface,
Sparks & Arcs, Friction, Chemical
Action, Elec. Energy & Gas Compression
LIQUIDS SOLIDS
Natural Gas,
Propane, CO,
Butane, Hydrogen,
Acetylene,
Gasoline, Kerosene,
Turpentine, Alcohol,
Paint, Varnish, Olive
oil, Lacquer
Coal, Wood, Paper,
Cloth, Wax, Grease,
Leather, Plastic,
Sugar, Grain, Hay,
.
Classification of Fires
• Class A Fires
(usually occur in ordinary
materials, like wood, paper, rags, &
rubbish)
• Class B Fires
(usually occur with a vapor-air
mixture over the surface of
flammable liquids such as gasoline,
oil, grease, and paints)
• Class C Fires
(electrical fires)
• Class D Fires
(usually occur in combustible metals
such as magnesium, titanium, and
potassium)
Classification of Fires (Cont.)
Classification of Fires (Cont.)
• Class F/ K Fires
(usually involve cooking greases or
cooking oils)
Fire prevention is a function
of many fire departments. The
goal of fire prevention is to
educate the public to take
precautions to prevent
potentially harmful fires, and
be educated about surviving
them. It is a proactive method
of reducing emergencies and
the damage caused by them.
9
Fire Prevention
The measures need to be adopted are given below:
•Prohibit smoking in storage areas of flammable materials.
•If electrical equipment is not working properly or if it
gives off an unusual odour disconnect the equipment and
call an approved electrician.
•Properly replace any electrical cord that is cracked or has
broken connection.
•When using extension cords, protect them from damage.
Do not put them across doorways or any place where they
will be stepped on or chafed. Check the amperage load
specified by the manufacturer.
•Do not plug an extension cord into another, and do not
plug more than one extension cord into one outlet.
10
Fire Prevention
•Keep all heat producing appliances away from the wall
and away from anything that might burn. Leave plenty of
space for air to circulate around equipment that normally
gives off heat.
•Make sure all appliances in your area such as hot plates,
ovens, toasters, mixers, grinders, geezers, clothing irons
are turned off when not in use.
•Use ash trays and empty them only when you are sure the
ashes, matches and butts are cold.
•Make sure that no one including visitors, has left
cigarettes smolderings in waste – baskets or on furniture’s,
sofas, beds, etc.
11
Fire Prevention
•Keep storage areas, stairway landings and other
out of way locations free of waste paper, empty
cartons, dirty rags and other material that could fuel
a fire.
•Report all fire hazards to the officer or any person
authorized.
•Create awareness to use fire retardant furniture’s,
carpets, curtains, etc.
•Follow good housekeeping practices – because a
clean house is a safe house.
12
Fire Protection Methods
1. Confining fire
2. Controlling smoke
3. Exits
4. Evacuation
5. Ventilation
6. Fire doors
7. Connections for sprinklers and standpipes
Controlling Fires
•Cool a fire
•Remove fuel from a fire
•Limit oxygen in a fire
•Interrupt the chain reaction in a fire
•Use extinguishing agents
FIRE RISK
IT IS THE LIKEHOOD THAT A FIRE WILL
OCCURE AND THE IMPACT OF THAT FIRE FOR THE
WORKERS IN THE SITE.
Fire load -
In simple terms fire loading is a
measurement used by fire-fighters and
other fire safety professionals to
determine the potential severity of
a fire in a given space.
Contributing factors to industrial fire
•Common Causal Factors:
- Design flaws in ventilation system
- Lack of hazard assessment
- Lack of prevention
•May cause explosion when:
- Dispersed in air or other oxidant
- Concentration is at or above minimum explosible
concentration
- Ignition source is present
- Dust is confined
Explosions can cause major damage and even
trigger secondary explosion.
Fire detector :-
It sense one or more of the products or
phenomena resulting from fire, such
as smoke, heat, infrared and/or ultraviolet light
radiation, or gas.
Types-
1. Heat detector
2. Flame
3. Smoke
4. Fire gas
What is a Fire Safety Plan?
A Fire Safety Plan is a detailed document
designed to deal with all aspects of fire safety relating
to a specific building or property. The document is
intended to be a reference manual outlining the fire
safety practices to be routinely used
Benefits of Implementing a Fire Safety Plan
•Reduces the incidence of fire
•Promotes fire hazard identification and
elimination
•Promotes employee safety and awareness
•Increases employee morale by allaying safety
concerns
•Coordinates business and fire department
resources during a fire emergency
•Reduces the potential impact of a fire on the
business and community (injuries, dollar losses,
liability, etc.)
•Enhances Fire Code compliance
STEPS IN SAFETY PLAN
Step 1 - Conduct a Fire Safety Audit
Step 2 - Appointment and Organization of Supervisory Staff
Step 3 - Develop Emergency Procedures
Step 4 - Fire Drill Procedures and Training
Step 5 - Maintenance of Building Facilities and Fire
Protection Equipment
Step 6 - Alternate Measures for Temporary Shutdown of
Fire Protection Equipment or Systems
Step 7 - Control of Fire Hazards
Step 8 - Fire Department Access For Fire Fighting and
Related Fire Suppression Information
Step 9 - Preparing Schematic Diagrams and Site Plans
Step 10 - Posting Emergency Procedures and Emergency
Phone Number
Fire Protection
Fire Protection
Fire Protection
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY
INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

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INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

  • 2. Elements of a Safety Program
  • 3. Safety Program Development  Assignment of responsibility  Hazard identification and control  Training and communication  Documentation and enforcement of safety rules
  • 4. Safety Program  Maintenance of safe working conditions  Setting performance goals  Rewarding safety performance  Reviewing circumstances involved in incidents ◦ Taking appropriate correction actions
  • 5. Safety Program (cont’d)  Establishing Safety performance objectives for all levels of management  Including safety as part of management performance reviews  Measuring effectiveness
  • 6. Benefits of a Safety Program
  • 7. Benefits  Reduced workers’ compensation claims  Reduced expenses related to injuries and illnesses  Reduced absenteeism  Lower employee complaints
  • 8. Benefits (cont’d)  Improved employee morale and satisfaction  Increased productivity  Reduction of hidden cost  Reduced insurance cost
  • 10. Hidden Cost  Workers Compensation Cost  Replacement and training cost for new or substitute employee  Poor Quality  Penalties for non-compliance
  • 12. Planning a Project  Develop goals and objectives  Define project team ◦ Project Manager ◦ Site Supervisor ◦ Site Safety  Other Programs
  • 13. Roles and Responsibilities  Supervisors/Management ◦ Establish safe work practices ◦ Enforce safety rules and regulations ◦ Train employees how to avoid hazards ◦ Enforce reporting work-related injuries, illnesses, and near misses  Investigate causes of incidents or near misses  Take the appropriate action to prevent recurrence ◦ Ensure prompt medical attention
  • 14. Roles and Responsibilities (cont’d)  Safety Professional ◦ Develop and implement accident prevention programs ◦ Advise management on company policies and governmental regulations ◦ Evaluate effectiveness of existing safety programs ◦ Train management in safety observation techniques
  • 15. Why Have a Plan?  Designed to Protect ◦ Personnel ◦ Environment ◦ Public ◦ Operation and Equipment
  • 16. Why Have a Plan (cont’d)  Government Regulations ◦ OSHA ◦ EPA ◦ State/Local  Public/Private Requirements
  • 17. Typical Programs  Recordkeeping ◦ OSHA 300 log and supplementary forms ◦ OSHA 301, accident investigations ◦ Workers' compensation cases ◦ Employee's medical history
  • 18. Typical Programs (cont’d)  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ◦ Proper use ◦ Employee training ◦ Enforcement  Dusty Operations  Unknown hazards  Hazardous waste operations and Emergency Response
  • 19. Typical Programs(cont’d)  Hazard communication program ◦ Written program development and implementation ◦ Chemical Inventory ◦ Communicate safe work methods for:  Jobs-Specific activities  Non-routine tasks  Labeling requirements  MSDS  Employee training (contractors)
  • 20. Typical Programs(cont’d)  Machine guarding ◦ Make sure that machine guarding is:  Replaced and tested for proper function when removed for maintenance  Review electrical and mechanical interlocks to see if they work properly  Equipment Repair ◦ Inspect and repair and/or replaced defective parts
  • 21. Typical Programs(cont’d)  Lockout/Tagout ◦ Make sure that lockout/tagout procedures are established ◦ Employees trained  Others ◦ Confined-space entry ◦ Excavation ◦ Heavy equipment ◦ Air monitoring
  • 22. TopViolations Citation Reference Description ◦ 29 CFR 1910.1200 (e)(1) Hazard Communication ◦ 29 CFR 1904.2 (a) Recordkeeping ◦ 29 CFR 1903.2 Signage ◦ 29 CFR 1910.147 Lockout/Tagout
  • 23. TopViolations(cont’d) Citation Reference Description ◦ 29 CFR 1910.212 (a)(1) Machine Guarding ◦ 29 CFR 1910.215 (b)(9) Abrasive Wheel Machinery ◦ 29 CFR Subpart I Personal Protective Equipment
  • 24. Formulating the Plan  Team Effort Required ◦ Management ◦ Supervisors ◦ Laborers
  • 25. Formulating the Plan (cont’d)  Developing Scope ofWork  Identifying Controls for Reducing Hazards  Reviewing Hazards of eachTask ◦ Physical ◦ Chemical ◦ Biological
  • 26. Formulating the Plan (cont’d)  Review ◦ Facility ◦ Operations ◦ Hazardous Materials  Points to Consider ◦ Details of the Plan ◦ Degree of Action Required ◦ Envision Potential Incidents ◦ Review Previous Incidents
  • 27. Finalizing the Plan  “User-Friendly” Plan  Final Review  Outside Audit
  • 28. Implementing the Work Plan  Essential in reducing injuries and illnesses  Maintains a safe environment  Designed to protect employees, company’s facilities, and local community
  • 29. Work Plan (cont’d)  Pre-entry briefing to alert personnel of hazards  Conduct Job Hazard Analysis as appropriate  Periodic safety inspection ◦ Correct known deficiencies  Must be available for review and updated as required
  • 30. Preparing Scope of Work  Teamwork ◦ Brain Storming  Project Impact Items  Show Stoppers  Delegating Responsibilities  Project Review
  • 31. General Requirements  Company Policies  Site Description, Background  Site Security  Emergency Response
  • 32. Identifying Project-Specific Requirements  Job Hazard Analysis ◦ Select activities with highest risk ◦ Break activity into individual components ◦ Identify potential hazards in each component ◦ Develop procedures to eliminate/reduce hazard
  • 33. Contractor Pre-qualification  Must complete pre-qualification ◦ Incident rates ◦ Experience Modification Rates (EMR) ◦ OSHA recordable cases ◦ General company information ◦ Safety programs ◦ Medical surveillance programs ◦ Management philosophy
  • 34. Project Start-Up  Review Contractor’s ◦ Scope of work ◦ H&S plan  Site-Specific training  Pre-Construction Meeting
  • 35. Determine Contractor Relationship  Identify who supervises contractor employees  Must have on-site project supervisor/manager  Must share responsibility/liability
  • 36. Contractor Project Management  Must share responsibility/liability  Must be able to interpret/manage safety programs, solve problems effectively  Must have skills to recognize legal, financial, and customer relations
  • 37. Contractor-Management Responsibilities  29 CFR 1926.16(d) ◦ “Where joint responsibilities exists both the prime and their subcontractor or subcontractors, regardless of tier, shall be considered subject to the enforcement provisions of this Act”  29 CFR 1926.16(c) ◦ “With respect to subcontracted work, the prime contractor and any subcontractor or subcontractors shall be deemed to have joint responsibility”
  • 38. Develop Emergency Response  Qualified to Perform  Equipment/ResponseTime Adequate  Aware of Operations and Hazards
  • 39. Problems with Emergency Response  Guidelines NOT Followed  Improper Initial Response  Non-functioning Equipment  Environmental Conditions
  • 40. Emergency Response Critique  OSHA/EPA Requirements  Reviews Incidents  Develops New Procedures  EnhancesTraining
  • 41. Continual Improvement  Guidelines must be created for improvement ◦ Company policies ◦ Contractors rules/procedures ◦ H&S Plan  Learning from mistakes  Safety must be measured and monitored
  • 42. Reviewing On-Going Operations  Conduct site safety inspections  Review training records and work permits  Review air monitoring data  Review how deficiencies are detected and corrected  Conduct progress meetings
  • 43. Summary  Eliminate hazards  Reduce risks when hazards cannot be eliminated  Provide warning devices  Develop and implement procedures and training
  • 44. Summary (cont’d)  Engineering controls ◦ Preferred ◦ Permanent ◦ Not as dependent on human errors as other types of controls, and is less likely to fail  Problem is usually corrected for good
  • 45. Summary (cont’d)  Accountability must be present  Management commitment must be visible  Teamwork is a requisite for success  “Paper” safety programs are not acceptable
  • 46.
  • 47. MODULE – 2 ACCIDENT PREVENTION •Basic philosophy of accident prevention •Nature & cause of accident •Accident proneness •Cost of accidents •Accident prevention method •Domino theory •Safety education 7 training •Training methods •Motivation & communicating safety •Personal protective equipments (PPE)
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  • 50. INCIDENT- Situations which have occurred and that had the potential to harm to a person or damage equipment or property. ACCIDENT – Unexpected and undesirable event which causes or likely to cause damage or harm or injury.
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  • 69. If it look unsafe you should •Report •Encourage •Inspect •Inform •Alert •Accountable •Be safe
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  • 77. SAFETY COMMUNICATION  Internal communication • Presentation, staff & HSE committees, team meetings, emails, videos, notice boards, news letters, poster etc.  External communication • Annual reports, publications, telephone enquiries etc.
  • 78. 1. HSE mission statement, policy, plan 2. HSE statistics 3. Safety induction 4. Risk assessment 5. Manuals, checklist and operating procedure hazards, incidents and near misses 7. Training 8. HSE website 9. Brochures, Posters & Videos 10. Safety week 11. Public report 12. HSE conference
  • 79. Communication Strategies 1. Barriers to effective communication 2. Language and words 3. Complaints and criticisms 4. Questioning
  • 80. Basic Communication Tips 1. Think before you speak 2. Mind your body language 3. Be effective in speaking 4. Keep it simple 5. Consistent message 6. Provide support 7. Reinforce the message 8. Express appreciation 9. Know your employees 10.Set an example
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  • 86. Did You Know? Workplace Hazards-- Can cause: • Death • Injury • Damage to equipment
  • 87. Inspections help… • Maintain a safe work environment • Control unsafe acts and conditions • Ensure operational efficiency
  • 88. WHAT TO INSPECT?  The entire workplace  Both interior & exterior work environments.
  • 89. Checklist Categories • Building Safety • Office Safety • Fire Safety • Electrical Safety • Emergency Equipment • Storage Methods
  • 90. TYPES OF INSPECTIONS • Formal Inspections • Daily/Weekly Inspections • Special Function Inspections
  • 91. WHO CAN CONDUCT INSPECTIONS • Employees • Supervisors • Safety Coordinators • Management • Safety Committee Members • Outside Vendors/insurance companies
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  • 93. STEPS IN SAFETY INSPECTION 1. PALNNING 2. DEVELOPING 3. RECORDING 4. FOLLOW UP 5. MONITORING
  • 94. SAFETY SAMPLING TECHNIQUE • Defined as the grouping of dangerous activities, processes, areas etc. – Purpose of study – Where to sample , what, who, how, analyze
  • 95. SAFETY AUDIT  Safety auditing is a core safety management activity, providing a means of identifying potential problems before they have an impact on safety. The objective of safety audit is to:  Verify compliance with established standards (regulations, internal policies and industry wise standards of practice)  Identify deviation from designed and planned operating and maintenance procedure and standards.  Identify conditions or operating procedures that could lead to an accident and significant losses to life or property.
  • 96. • The General Safety Audit encompasses almost all aspects of safety namely the Safety Management System, Electrical Safety, Fire Safety, Mechanical Safety, Maintenance, Physical & Chemical and construction safety.
  • 97. SAFETYAUDIT STEPS 1. Preparing for an Audit 2. Conduct the Audit 3. Create an Audit Report and Recommended Actions 4. Set Corrective Action Priorities 5. Publish Audit Results
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  • 100. Safety surveys • Safety surveys generally are cost- effective, easy to administer and flexible method for identifying hazards by sampling the workforce opinion within an organization. • Surveys are used as a safety monitoring tool to assess whether an existing situation or organizational aspect is satisfactory
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  • 102. •Anyone performing inspections should be trained on how to conduct those inspections. •Daily, all employees should make a visual inspection of their workplace prior to beginning work. •Supervisors, Safety Coordinators, and Management personnel, as part of their daily work routine, should make continuous visual inspections and take corrective action to address any unsafe acts or unsafe conditions observed.
  • 103. •Safety Coordinators, Management personnel, and/or Safety Committee Members may inspect workplaces, accident scenes, etc. when necessary
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  • 105. Incident recall • Critical incident recall is an technique particularly suited to high risk environments. • This method is based on collecting information on hazards, near-misses, unsafe conditions and unsafe actions from working people. • It can be used to investigate man-machine relationship and to improve equipment and operations.
  • 106. •The technique consists of interviewing personnel regarding involvement in accident or near-misses, errors, mistakes, difficulties and conditions which may cause accident. •It accomplishes the same result as an accident investigation. Even isolated incidents reported by the technique can be investigated to determine whether corrective action is necessary or advantageous.
  • 107. Job safety analysis (JSA) • A job safety analysis (JSA) is a procedure which helps integrate accepted safety and health principles and practices into a particular task or job operation. • A systematic method of identifying hazards & control measures to safely perform a specific task.
  • 108. BENEFITS OF JSA • Training of new employees • Accident investigation tool • Supervisor evaluation tool • Consistency in training • Injury reduction
  • 109. JSA PROCEDURE / STEPS 1. Select the job 2. Perform the Analysis / breaking the job 3. Identify hazards 4. Develop solutions 5. Conduct a Follow-up Analysis 6. Use of the Job Safety Analysis 7. Recordkeeping
  • 110. Damage control • The technique involves the systematic reporting, investigation, costing and control of damage accidents within an organization 1. Reporting 2. Investigation 3. Costing 4. Control
  • 111. RISK MANAGEMENT What is a "hazard? An unsafe condition or practice that may or may not cause damage to property, equipment, materials or the environment OR an injury or illness to an employee. What is a risk :- A risk is the chance that a hazard will actually harm a worker
  • 112. RISK ASSESMENT :- • Overall Process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding whether or not the risk is tolerable. • Risk factors to consider: –Frequency: How many workers and how often –Severity: How serious the harm –Probability: How likely could it happen
  • 113. RISK MANAGEMENT • The process of identification, analysis, assessment, control, and avoidance, minimization, or elimination of unacceptable risks.
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  • 115. Involvement in safety 1. Role of management  Management provides the leadership, vision, and resources needed to implement an effective safety and health program. Management leadership means that business owners, managers, and supervisors: • Make worker safety and health a core organizational value. • Are fully committed to eliminating hazards, protecting workers, and continuously improving workplace safety and health. • Provide sufficient resources to implement and maintain the safety and health program. • Visibly demonstrate and communicate their safety and health commitment to workers and others. • Set an example through their own actions.
  • 116. • Communicate your commitment to a safety and health program • Define program goals • Allocate resources • Expect performance
  • 117. 2. ROLE OF SUPERVISOR 1. Coordinate employee training sessions 2. Take advantage of “teachable moments” 3. Model what employees learn in training 4. Discussing changes to safety and health policies/procedures 5. Completing incident investigations 6. Performing safety and health inspections 7. Be familiar with safety and health policies and procedures 8. Conduct regular inspections of your work area 9. Provide feedback to employees on inspection findings
  • 118. 3.ROLE OF WORKMEN 1. Following established health and safety policies and procedures. 2. Maintaining your personal work area in a clean and orderly manner. 3. Wearing, maintaining and properly storing your personal protective equipment (PPE). 4. Attending all safety training that your employer offers. 5. Volunteering to serve on your Safety Committee. 6. Using safe work practices to eliminate slips, trips and falls. 7. Lifting safely and helping others to do the same. 8. Labeling all chemical containers and becoming familiar with material safety data sheets. 9. Knowing evacuation procedures and the location of emergency equipment.
  • 119. 4. ROLE OF UNIONS
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  • 124. What is Industrial Hygiene? Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions that may cause workers' injury or illness. Key factors: Employee exposure to hazards Control for hazards to protect workers
  • 125. Steps to Protect Employees •Anticipate potential hazards •Recognize potential hazards •Evaluate exposure and risk •Control exposure and risk
  • 126. 1. Anticipate potential hazards Identify potential hazards in the work place 2. Recognize potential hazards • Air contaminants • Chemical hazards • Biological hazards • Physical hazards • Ergonomic hazards
  • 127. Air Contaminants • Dusts • Fumes • Mist • Vapors • Fibers • Gases © Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0912
  • 128. Hazards Due to Chemical Properties • Eye, nose, throat, upper respiratory, skin irritation • Flu-like symptoms • Difficulty breathing • Fatigue • Loss of coordination • Memory difficulties • Sleeplessness • Mental confusion
  • 129. Biological Hazards • Bacteria • Viruses • Fungi © Business & Legal Reports, Inc. 0912
  • 131. Ergonomic Hazards – Eye strain – Repetitive motion injuries – Lifting injuries •Physiological Hazards Awkward movements Muscle strain • Psychological Hazards – Boredom – Concentrated attention – Simulated inputs
  • 132. 3.Evaluation The extend of exposure to the chemical hazard, physical, biological agents, adverse ergonomic situation in the work place.
  • 133. 4. Control 1. Engineering controls: Remove hazard Process change, Chemical substitution Ventilation, Shielding, Guarding Requires little or no employee action 2. Administrative controls: Manage exposure Worker rotation, Procedures, Training Trench shoring, Controlled access areas Requires employee action 3. Personal protective equipment (PPE) Respirators, Gloves, Boots, Clothing Fall protection equipment, Hard hats Requires individual employee action
  • 134. Benefits of occupational hygiene •Improved worker health and increased life expectancy •Reduction in the number of people who have to leave employment early through injury or illness •Lower social and healthcare costs as well as maximizing worker potential •More efficient working processes with technological improvements and increased productivity.
  • 135. Components occupational health services •Health counseling . Stress management . Mental health . And Physical health . Rehabilitation programme . Medical rehabilitation . Social rehabilitation . Educational rehabilitation . Vocational rehabilitation
  • 136. What is Occupational Hygiene? Exposure Work Activity Disease Occupational Hygiene Occupational Medicine Occupational Health
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  • 138. What is a "hazard?“ An unsafe condition or practice that may or may not cause damage to property, equipment, materials or the environment OR an injury or illness to an employee.
  • 139. TYPES OF HAZARDS:- 1. PHYSICAL HAZARD 2. CHEMICAL HAZARD 3. MECHANICAL HAZARD 4. ELECTRICAL HAZARD 5. SOCIAL HAZARD 6. BIOLOGICAL HAZARD 7. ERGONOMICS HAZARD 8. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD
  • 140. PHYSICAL HAZARD A physical hazard is an agent, factor or circumstance that can cause harm with or without contact. Physical Hazards include: • Radiation: including ionizing, non ionizing (EMF’s, microwaves, radio waves, etc.) •High exposure to sunlight/ultraviolet rays •Temperature extremes – hot and cold Constant loud noise
  • 141. CHEMICAL HAZARDS: Are present when a worker is exposed to any chemical preparation in the workplace in any form (solid, liquid or gas). Some are safer than others, but to some workers who are more sensitive to chemicals, even common solutions can cause illness, skin irritation, or breathing problems. Beware of: •Liquids like cleaning products, paints, acids, solvents – ESPECIALLY if chemicals are in an unlabeled container • Vapors and fumes that come from welding or exposure to solvents •Gases like acetylene, propane, carbon monoxide and helium •Flammable materials like gasoline, solvents, and explosive chemicals. •Pesticides
  • 142. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS: Associated with working with animals, people, or infectious plant materials. •Work in schools, day care facilities, colleges and universities, hospitals, laboratories, emergency response, nursing homes, outdoor occupations, etc. may expose you to biological hazards. Types of things you may be exposed to include: • Blood and other body fluids • Fungi/mold •Bacteria and viruses •Plants • Insect bites • Animal and bird droppings
  • 143. ERGONOMIC HAZARDS: Occur when the type of work, body positions and working conditions put strain on your body. The are the hardest to spot si ce ou do ’t alwa s immediately notice the strain on your body or the harm that these hazards pose. Short ter e posure a result i sore uscles the next day or in the days following exposure, but long-term exposure can result in serious long-term illnesses.
  • 144. Ergonomic Hazards include: • Improperly adjusted workstations and chairs • Frequent lifting • Poor posture • Awkward movements, especially if they are repetitive • Repeating the same movements over and over • Having to use too much force, especially if you have to do it frequently • Vibration
  • 145. Mechanical Hazards Mechanical hazards are created as a result of either powered or manual (human) use of tools, equipment or machinery and plant. Where Mechanical Hazards Occur •The point of operation: that point where work is performed on the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock. •Power transmission apparatus: all components of the mechanical system that transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears. •Other moving parts: all parts of the machine that move while the machine is working. These may include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.
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  • 147. Social hazard Social hazards, also called complex emergencies, seriously limit a populatio ’s access to health services, water, food, and transportation, all of which are determinants of health. Examples •Living in an old toxic waste •Smoking •Job deals with harmful chemicals •Diet
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  • 149. Environmental hazard It is a substance, state or event which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment / or adversely affect people's health, including pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. EXAMPLES 1. Air pollution 2. Overpopulation 3. Waste management 4. Noise pollution 5. Light pollution 6. Water pollution 7. Radiation
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  • 154. Tips for effective workplace housekeeping •Prevent slips, trips and falls •Eliminate fire hazards •Control dust •Avoid tracking materials •Prevent falling objects •Clear clutter •Store materials properly •Use and inspect personal protective equipment and tools •Determine frequency •Create written rules •Think long-term
  • 156. 2 fire Definition It is a chemical chain reaction which takes place with the evolution of heat and light.
  • 158. 4 Oxygen Heat Fuel OXYGEN SOURCE HEAT SOURCES Approx. 16% Required Normal air contains 21% of oxygen Some Fuels contains its own oxygen supply GASES To Reach Ignition Temp. Open Flame, the Sun,Hot Surface, Sparks & Arcs, Friction, Chemical Action, Elec. Energy & Gas Compression LIQUIDS SOLIDS Natural Gas, Propane, CO, Butane, Hydrogen, Acetylene, Gasoline, Kerosene, Turpentine, Alcohol, Paint, Varnish, Olive oil, Lacquer Coal, Wood, Paper, Cloth, Wax, Grease, Leather, Plastic, Sugar, Grain, Hay,
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  • 160. Classification of Fires • Class A Fires (usually occur in ordinary materials, like wood, paper, rags, & rubbish) • Class B Fires (usually occur with a vapor-air mixture over the surface of flammable liquids such as gasoline, oil, grease, and paints)
  • 161. • Class C Fires (electrical fires) • Class D Fires (usually occur in combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, and potassium) Classification of Fires (Cont.)
  • 162. Classification of Fires (Cont.) • Class F/ K Fires (usually involve cooking greases or cooking oils) Fire prevention is a function of many fire departments. The goal of fire prevention is to educate the public to take precautions to prevent potentially harmful fires, and be educated about surviving them. It is a proactive method of reducing emergencies and the damage caused by them.
  • 163. 9 Fire Prevention The measures need to be adopted are given below: •Prohibit smoking in storage areas of flammable materials. •If electrical equipment is not working properly or if it gives off an unusual odour disconnect the equipment and call an approved electrician. •Properly replace any electrical cord that is cracked or has broken connection. •When using extension cords, protect them from damage. Do not put them across doorways or any place where they will be stepped on or chafed. Check the amperage load specified by the manufacturer. •Do not plug an extension cord into another, and do not plug more than one extension cord into one outlet.
  • 164. 10 Fire Prevention •Keep all heat producing appliances away from the wall and away from anything that might burn. Leave plenty of space for air to circulate around equipment that normally gives off heat. •Make sure all appliances in your area such as hot plates, ovens, toasters, mixers, grinders, geezers, clothing irons are turned off when not in use. •Use ash trays and empty them only when you are sure the ashes, matches and butts are cold. •Make sure that no one including visitors, has left cigarettes smolderings in waste – baskets or on furniture’s, sofas, beds, etc.
  • 165. 11 Fire Prevention •Keep storage areas, stairway landings and other out of way locations free of waste paper, empty cartons, dirty rags and other material that could fuel a fire. •Report all fire hazards to the officer or any person authorized. •Create awareness to use fire retardant furniture’s, carpets, curtains, etc. •Follow good housekeeping practices – because a clean house is a safe house.
  • 166. 12 Fire Protection Methods 1. Confining fire 2. Controlling smoke 3. Exits 4. Evacuation 5. Ventilation 6. Fire doors 7. Connections for sprinklers and standpipes
  • 167. Controlling Fires •Cool a fire •Remove fuel from a fire •Limit oxygen in a fire •Interrupt the chain reaction in a fire •Use extinguishing agents
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  • 171. FIRE RISK IT IS THE LIKEHOOD THAT A FIRE WILL OCCURE AND THE IMPACT OF THAT FIRE FOR THE WORKERS IN THE SITE.
  • 172. Fire load - In simple terms fire loading is a measurement used by fire-fighters and other fire safety professionals to determine the potential severity of a fire in a given space.
  • 173. Contributing factors to industrial fire •Common Causal Factors: - Design flaws in ventilation system - Lack of hazard assessment - Lack of prevention •May cause explosion when: - Dispersed in air or other oxidant - Concentration is at or above minimum explosible concentration - Ignition source is present - Dust is confined Explosions can cause major damage and even trigger secondary explosion.
  • 174. Fire detector :- It sense one or more of the products or phenomena resulting from fire, such as smoke, heat, infrared and/or ultraviolet light radiation, or gas. Types- 1. Heat detector 2. Flame 3. Smoke 4. Fire gas
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  • 180. What is a Fire Safety Plan? A Fire Safety Plan is a detailed document designed to deal with all aspects of fire safety relating to a specific building or property. The document is intended to be a reference manual outlining the fire safety practices to be routinely used
  • 181. Benefits of Implementing a Fire Safety Plan •Reduces the incidence of fire •Promotes fire hazard identification and elimination •Promotes employee safety and awareness •Increases employee morale by allaying safety concerns •Coordinates business and fire department resources during a fire emergency •Reduces the potential impact of a fire on the business and community (injuries, dollar losses, liability, etc.) •Enhances Fire Code compliance
  • 182. STEPS IN SAFETY PLAN Step 1 - Conduct a Fire Safety Audit Step 2 - Appointment and Organization of Supervisory Staff Step 3 - Develop Emergency Procedures Step 4 - Fire Drill Procedures and Training Step 5 - Maintenance of Building Facilities and Fire Protection Equipment Step 6 - Alternate Measures for Temporary Shutdown of Fire Protection Equipment or Systems Step 7 - Control of Fire Hazards Step 8 - Fire Department Access For Fire Fighting and Related Fire Suppression Information Step 9 - Preparing Schematic Diagrams and Site Plans Step 10 - Posting Emergency Procedures and Emergency Phone Number