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On Peering and IXPs
Women in Networking Series
17 November 2021
2 v1.0
2
About Me
Network Operations Engineer (AS4608)
Training Delivery Manager, SEA/EA
Core Committee
Network Engineer (AS23862) until 2010
DILNET / UP Computer Center
Alumni, EEEI
3 v1.0
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Agenda
• Connecting to the Internet
• Peering and Transit
• What are IXPs and why you need it
• IXP Development Work @ APNIC
4 v1.0
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How does the Internet operate?
The Internet is a network of networks.
It is composed of networks of transit or
service providers, content providers and
users/consumers.
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Network of networks
Data packets hop
through networks to
reach its destination
Networks follow a set of
routing protocols
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Brisbane
Sydney
Perth
Singapore
Manila
The decentralized nature of the
Internet means there are potentially
multiple routes to the destination.
8 v1.0
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Autonomous Systems
A network on Internet
is called Autonomous
System (AS) which is
represented by AS
Number (ASN).
ASNs are number
resources distributed
by the RIR
Equinix -> ConvergeICT-> UPD
Vocus-> Converge ICT -> UPD
HKIX > Converge ICT -> UPD
9 v1.0
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What network engineers do
CONFIGURE ROUTERS
AND SWITCHES
CONFIGURE ROUTING
PROTOCOLS
MANAGE AND
MONITOR THE
NETWORK
CAPACITY PLANNING DESIGN NETWORK
TOPOLOGY
DO TRAFFIC
ENGINEERING
Network Engineers must have a good
knowledge of BGP routing and peering.
10 v1.0
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Internet Transit
Networks need to pay transit providers to get to the
whole Internet
Can connect to multiple transit providers for resilience and
portability
A few very large ISPs act as transit providers for the
whole world (the so-called tier-1 networks) which do
not need to pay others to get full Internet
connectivity
Other ISPs must be transit customers of those tier-1 networks
directly or indirectly in order to gain full connectivity
Networks on Internet are trying to bypass transit
providers as much as possible
By doing direct peering with various networks for lower cost
and higher performance
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Transit Provider /
Internet Gateway
(Upstream)
Global Internet
Downstream
Customer
Customer
routes only
Routes of
the whole world
All customer routes
Ordinary Transit Model – Internet Gateway
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Transit Provider A
(Upstream)
Transit Provider B
(Upstream)
Downstream
Customer
Downstream
Customer
Downstream
Customer
Downstream
Customer
Routes of A and
its customers
Routes of B and
its customers
Ordinary Peering Model
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Peering in General
• ASes are interconnected/peered at Internet exchanges points (IXPs) or privately
• Interconnection/peering is among ISPs / data centres / content providers / content distribution
network (CDN) providers / cloud services providers which have different ASNs using BGP protocol
• For higher performance, lower latency and lower cost
• Usually no settlement between peers and cost is shared
For mutual benefits
• Local-to-local traffic do NOT need to route through overseas
• Important to local Internet development
Local Peering
• BLPA (Bi-Lateral Peering Agreement)
Between 2 ASes
• MLPA (Multi-Lateral Peering Agreement)
Among > 2 ASes
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Private Peering
A form of BLPA having dedicated point-to-point connection between 2 ASes
Using cross-connect or local loop or IPL to interconnect
• Cost is usually shared between 2 peers
May have multiple connections between 2 ASes for resiliency
Not quite cost-effective
• Spare bandwidth cannot be used for other traffic
• Unless the traffic volume is really high
Not very scalable
• nC2 physical connections for n ASes to peer fully with one another
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Full Mesh for Peering
10C2 = 45 circuits
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What is an Internet eXchange Point (IXP)?
• An IXP is a shared physical network infrastructure over which various Autonomous
Systems can do easy peering with one another
One physical connection to IXP can be used for interconnections with multiple
networks
More cost-effective and scalable, especially with more participants
ASes to be served by IXP include Internet Gateways, Internet Service Providers
(ISPs), Research & Education (R&E) Networks, Cloud Service Providers, Content
Providers and Content Delivery Network (CDN) Providers
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IXPs are Layer-2 Networks
Switched Ethernet
• One physical connection for interconnections with multiple networks
• Only routers are allowed to connect to the switching fabric directly
IXP participants can do direct Bilateral Peering (BLPA) over the layer 2 infrastructure anytime
With Route Server added to the layer 2 infrastructure, IXP participants can also do Multilateral
Peering (MLPA) for easier interconnections among everybody
• Traffic exchange is direct and not going through the route server
Those called themselves “IX” but serving layer-3 services are considered as transit providers
• Note that IXPs, transit providers and data centres are not the same things
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Simplest IXP Topology
IXP Switch
Border Router
of ISP A
Border Router
of ISP B
Border Router
of ISP D
Border Router
of ISP C
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IXP Topology with Minimal Switch/Site Resilience
IXP Switch x 2
(at same location or different locations)
Border Router
of ISP A
Border Router
of ISP B
Border Router
of ISP D
Border Router
of ISP C
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Adding Route Server for Multilateral Peering
Routes
Redistribute
Routes to All
RS
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Main Benefits of IXP
• One main objective of an IXP is to keep local traffic local
o Important to local Internet development
• Helps bypass 3rd-party network infrastructure for easy interconnection and direct traffic exchange
among participating networks
o Reduced cost – cheaper connectivity
o Enhanced network performance – faster speed
o Reduced latency – lower delay
• Helps encourage development of more local content and local applications
o Helps local data centre business and other businesses
• Everybody is benefited
o The gain for each may be different but all will gain
o At the end, it is the most important that end users or consumers are benefited
• Often considered as Critical Internet Infrastructure locally, regionally or globally
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To Add Value
ROUTE SERVER / ROA AND RPKI DOMAIN NAME INFRASTRUCTURE
(ROOT/TLD SERVERS)
SHARED CDN CACHES
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Benefits of IXP - Example
A Fijian ISP in Suva accessing
content at the University of the
South Pacific in Suva
• Packet travels > 25,000km
• Physical distance < 10km
• Adding long latency
• Possibly high jitter too
• Using expensive submarine
capacity
Return path had similar issue
24 v1.0
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Spine
Switch
Spine
Switch
Leaf
Switch
Leaf
Switch
Leaf
Switch
n x 100GE/10GE
Inter-Switch
Links
n x 100GE/10GE
Inter-Switch
Links
ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP
Spine
Switch
Spine
Switch
Leaf
Switch
Leaf
Switch
100GE/10GE/GE
Links
100GE/10GE/GE
Links
Leaf
Switch
Spine-and-Leaf Architecture for Beyond 2 Switches
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Possible Scenario for Improving Local Peering
IGW IGW
IGW
Global Internet
Access
Network
Access
Network
Access
Network
Access
Network
Other
Network
Other
Network
Other
Network
Other
Network
IXP
Border
IPL
IPL
IPL
Private
Peering
Private
Peering
Private
Peering
26 v1.0
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BGP and Peering at IXPs
Peering partners establish connection using BGP
router bgp 4608
neighbor equinix.sg1.v4 peer-group
neighbor equinix.sg1.v4 update-source GigabitEthernet0/0/0.101
neighbor 27.111.228.226 remote-as 4775
neighbor 27.111.228.226 peer-group equinix.sg1.v4
neighbor 27.111.228.226 description equinix.sg1:globetelecom
27
PeeringDB Entry
Set up a record of your ASN on
www.peeringdb.com and tell
everyone where you are (at
which IXPs and/or data centres)
and that you are willing to do
BLPA.
Also use it to find your potential
BLPA peers
28 v1.0
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Some IXPs in the Philippines
MANILA
ComclarkIX
MIX
GETAFIX
GIX/NIGX
PCTA-IX
PHIX
PhOpenIX
VIX
CEBU
GETAFIX
GIX
PhOpenIX
VIX
DAVAO
GIX
PhOpenIX
*From the latest ”IXP & DC landscape”
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IXP Development Work of APNIC
APNIC strongly believes IXPs help Internet development
•After all, IXPs serve and benefit APNIC members
•In fact, IXPs need IP addresses and ASNs and so are APNIC members themselves
Do more on helping those developing economies
•Especially those which do not have any IXP yet
•Or those which their only IXP is not functioning well
Training and Technical Assistance work primarily
•Not just for IXP operators but also for IXP participants
•Also help talk to major stakeholders to convince them of the benefits of having a local IXP while maintaining neutrality
•May need help of Community Trainers and Consultants from time to time
Having been supporting IXP development in Fiji, PNG, Vanuatu, Mongolia, Bhutan, Myanmar, some cities in India and
others
31 v1.0
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IXP Development Package of APNIC
Training & Technical Assistance as the minimum
• Technical & non-technical
Other possible support items (on case-by-case basis according to individual needs):
• Ethernet switch
• Root Server anycast instance
• Route Server
• ROV & IPv6 deployment support
• IXP Manager
• RIPE Atlas Anchor
• CSIRT Establishment
• Honeypot of Honeynet Project for Analysis
• BGP Route Collection for Analysis
APIX & MANRS Memberships are recommended to all IXPs
32
32 v1.0
QUESTIONS?
Connect with Me!
Email: shane@apnic.net
Socials: @irrashai
33 v1.0
33
Thank You!
END OF SESSION
Thank You!
END OF SESSION

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WINS: Peering and IXPs

  • 1. 1 On Peering and IXPs Women in Networking Series 17 November 2021
  • 2. 2 v1.0 2 About Me Network Operations Engineer (AS4608) Training Delivery Manager, SEA/EA Core Committee Network Engineer (AS23862) until 2010 DILNET / UP Computer Center Alumni, EEEI
  • 3. 3 v1.0 3 Agenda • Connecting to the Internet • Peering and Transit • What are IXPs and why you need it • IXP Development Work @ APNIC
  • 4. 4 v1.0 4 How does the Internet operate? The Internet is a network of networks. It is composed of networks of transit or service providers, content providers and users/consumers.
  • 5. 5 v1.0 5 Network of networks Data packets hop through networks to reach its destination Networks follow a set of routing protocols
  • 6. 6 v1.0 6 Brisbane Sydney Perth Singapore Manila The decentralized nature of the Internet means there are potentially multiple routes to the destination.
  • 7. 8 v1.0 8 Autonomous Systems A network on Internet is called Autonomous System (AS) which is represented by AS Number (ASN). ASNs are number resources distributed by the RIR Equinix -> ConvergeICT-> UPD Vocus-> Converge ICT -> UPD HKIX > Converge ICT -> UPD
  • 8. 9 v1.0 9 What network engineers do CONFIGURE ROUTERS AND SWITCHES CONFIGURE ROUTING PROTOCOLS MANAGE AND MONITOR THE NETWORK CAPACITY PLANNING DESIGN NETWORK TOPOLOGY DO TRAFFIC ENGINEERING Network Engineers must have a good knowledge of BGP routing and peering.
  • 9. 10 v1.0 10 Internet Transit Networks need to pay transit providers to get to the whole Internet Can connect to multiple transit providers for resilience and portability A few very large ISPs act as transit providers for the whole world (the so-called tier-1 networks) which do not need to pay others to get full Internet connectivity Other ISPs must be transit customers of those tier-1 networks directly or indirectly in order to gain full connectivity Networks on Internet are trying to bypass transit providers as much as possible By doing direct peering with various networks for lower cost and higher performance
  • 10. 11 v1.0 11 Transit Provider / Internet Gateway (Upstream) Global Internet Downstream Customer Customer routes only Routes of the whole world All customer routes Ordinary Transit Model – Internet Gateway
  • 11. 12 v1.0 12 Transit Provider A (Upstream) Transit Provider B (Upstream) Downstream Customer Downstream Customer Downstream Customer Downstream Customer Routes of A and its customers Routes of B and its customers Ordinary Peering Model
  • 12. 13 v1.0 13 Peering in General • ASes are interconnected/peered at Internet exchanges points (IXPs) or privately • Interconnection/peering is among ISPs / data centres / content providers / content distribution network (CDN) providers / cloud services providers which have different ASNs using BGP protocol • For higher performance, lower latency and lower cost • Usually no settlement between peers and cost is shared For mutual benefits • Local-to-local traffic do NOT need to route through overseas • Important to local Internet development Local Peering • BLPA (Bi-Lateral Peering Agreement) Between 2 ASes • MLPA (Multi-Lateral Peering Agreement) Among > 2 ASes
  • 13. 14 v1.0 14 Private Peering A form of BLPA having dedicated point-to-point connection between 2 ASes Using cross-connect or local loop or IPL to interconnect • Cost is usually shared between 2 peers May have multiple connections between 2 ASes for resiliency Not quite cost-effective • Spare bandwidth cannot be used for other traffic • Unless the traffic volume is really high Not very scalable • nC2 physical connections for n ASes to peer fully with one another
  • 14. 15 v1.0 15 Full Mesh for Peering 10C2 = 45 circuits
  • 15. 16 v1.0 16 What is an Internet eXchange Point (IXP)? • An IXP is a shared physical network infrastructure over which various Autonomous Systems can do easy peering with one another One physical connection to IXP can be used for interconnections with multiple networks More cost-effective and scalable, especially with more participants ASes to be served by IXP include Internet Gateways, Internet Service Providers (ISPs), Research & Education (R&E) Networks, Cloud Service Providers, Content Providers and Content Delivery Network (CDN) Providers
  • 16. 17 v1.0 17 IXPs are Layer-2 Networks Switched Ethernet • One physical connection for interconnections with multiple networks • Only routers are allowed to connect to the switching fabric directly IXP participants can do direct Bilateral Peering (BLPA) over the layer 2 infrastructure anytime With Route Server added to the layer 2 infrastructure, IXP participants can also do Multilateral Peering (MLPA) for easier interconnections among everybody • Traffic exchange is direct and not going through the route server Those called themselves “IX” but serving layer-3 services are considered as transit providers • Note that IXPs, transit providers and data centres are not the same things
  • 17. 18 v1.0 18 Simplest IXP Topology IXP Switch Border Router of ISP A Border Router of ISP B Border Router of ISP D Border Router of ISP C
  • 18. 19 v1.0 19 IXP Topology with Minimal Switch/Site Resilience IXP Switch x 2 (at same location or different locations) Border Router of ISP A Border Router of ISP B Border Router of ISP D Border Router of ISP C
  • 19. 20 v1.0 20 Adding Route Server for Multilateral Peering Routes Redistribute Routes to All RS
  • 20. 21 v1.0 21 Main Benefits of IXP • One main objective of an IXP is to keep local traffic local o Important to local Internet development • Helps bypass 3rd-party network infrastructure for easy interconnection and direct traffic exchange among participating networks o Reduced cost – cheaper connectivity o Enhanced network performance – faster speed o Reduced latency – lower delay • Helps encourage development of more local content and local applications o Helps local data centre business and other businesses • Everybody is benefited o The gain for each may be different but all will gain o At the end, it is the most important that end users or consumers are benefited • Often considered as Critical Internet Infrastructure locally, regionally or globally
  • 21. 22 v1.0 22 To Add Value ROUTE SERVER / ROA AND RPKI DOMAIN NAME INFRASTRUCTURE (ROOT/TLD SERVERS) SHARED CDN CACHES
  • 22. 23 v1.0 23 Benefits of IXP - Example A Fijian ISP in Suva accessing content at the University of the South Pacific in Suva • Packet travels > 25,000km • Physical distance < 10km • Adding long latency • Possibly high jitter too • Using expensive submarine capacity Return path had similar issue
  • 23. 24 v1.0 24 Spine Switch Spine Switch Leaf Switch Leaf Switch Leaf Switch n x 100GE/10GE Inter-Switch Links n x 100GE/10GE Inter-Switch Links ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP ISP Spine Switch Spine Switch Leaf Switch Leaf Switch 100GE/10GE/GE Links 100GE/10GE/GE Links Leaf Switch Spine-and-Leaf Architecture for Beyond 2 Switches
  • 24. 25 v1.0 25 Possible Scenario for Improving Local Peering IGW IGW IGW Global Internet Access Network Access Network Access Network Access Network Other Network Other Network Other Network Other Network IXP Border IPL IPL IPL Private Peering Private Peering Private Peering
  • 25. 26 v1.0 26 BGP and Peering at IXPs Peering partners establish connection using BGP router bgp 4608 neighbor equinix.sg1.v4 peer-group neighbor equinix.sg1.v4 update-source GigabitEthernet0/0/0.101 neighbor 27.111.228.226 remote-as 4775 neighbor 27.111.228.226 peer-group equinix.sg1.v4 neighbor 27.111.228.226 description equinix.sg1:globetelecom
  • 26. 27 PeeringDB Entry Set up a record of your ASN on www.peeringdb.com and tell everyone where you are (at which IXPs and/or data centres) and that you are willing to do BLPA. Also use it to find your potential BLPA peers
  • 27. 28 v1.0 28 Some IXPs in the Philippines MANILA ComclarkIX MIX GETAFIX GIX/NIGX PCTA-IX PHIX PhOpenIX VIX CEBU GETAFIX GIX PhOpenIX VIX DAVAO GIX PhOpenIX *From the latest ”IXP & DC landscape”
  • 28. 30 v1.0 30 IXP Development Work of APNIC APNIC strongly believes IXPs help Internet development •After all, IXPs serve and benefit APNIC members •In fact, IXPs need IP addresses and ASNs and so are APNIC members themselves Do more on helping those developing economies •Especially those which do not have any IXP yet •Or those which their only IXP is not functioning well Training and Technical Assistance work primarily •Not just for IXP operators but also for IXP participants •Also help talk to major stakeholders to convince them of the benefits of having a local IXP while maintaining neutrality •May need help of Community Trainers and Consultants from time to time Having been supporting IXP development in Fiji, PNG, Vanuatu, Mongolia, Bhutan, Myanmar, some cities in India and others
  • 29. 31 v1.0 31 IXP Development Package of APNIC Training & Technical Assistance as the minimum • Technical & non-technical Other possible support items (on case-by-case basis according to individual needs): • Ethernet switch • Root Server anycast instance • Route Server • ROV & IPv6 deployment support • IXP Manager • RIPE Atlas Anchor • CSIRT Establishment • Honeypot of Honeynet Project for Analysis • BGP Route Collection for Analysis APIX & MANRS Memberships are recommended to all IXPs
  • 30. 32 32 v1.0 QUESTIONS? Connect with Me! Email: shane@apnic.net Socials: @irrashai
  • 31. 33 v1.0 33 Thank You! END OF SESSION Thank You! END OF SESSION