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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1
Chapter 17: Static
Routing
Routing and Switching Essentials
Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6
6.1 Static Routing Implementation
6.2 Configure Static and Default Routes
6.3 Review of CIDR and VLSM
6.4 Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes
6.5 Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues
6.6 Summary
Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6: Objectives
 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of static
routing.
 Explain the purpose of different types of static routes.
 Configure IPv4 and IPv6 static routes by specifying a
next-hop address.
 Configure an IPv4 and IPv6 default routes.
 Explain the use of legacy classful addressing in network
implementation.
 Explain the purpose of CIDR in replacing classful
addressing.
Presentation_ID 4© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6: Objectives (cont.)
 Design and implement a hierarchical addressing scheme.
 Configure an IPv4 and IPv6 summary network address to
reduce the number of routing table updates.
 Configure a floating static route to provide a backup
connection.
 Explain how a router processes packets when a static
route is configured.
 Troubleshoot common static and default route
configuration issues.
Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Static Routing
Reach Remote Networks
A router can learn about remote networks in one of two
ways:
• Manually - Remote networks are manually entered
into the route table using static routes.
• Dynamically - Remote routes are automatically
learned using a dynamic routing protocol.
Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Static Routing
Why Use Static Routing?
Static routing provides some advantages over dynamic
routing, including:
 Static routes are not advertised over the network,
resulting in better security.
 Static routes use less bandwidth than dynamic routing
protocols, no CPU cycles are used to calculate and
communicate routes.
 The path a static route uses to send data is known.
Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Static Routing
Why Use Static Routing? (cont.)
Static routing has the following disadvantages:
 Initial configuration and maintenance is time-
consuming.
 Configuration is error-prone, especially in large
networks.
 Administrator intervention is required to maintain
changing route information.
 Does not scale well with growing networks;
maintenance becomes cumbersome.
 Requires complete knowledge of the whole network for
proper implementation.
Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Static Routing
When to Use Static Routes
Static routing has three primary uses:
 Providing ease of routing table maintenance in smaller
networks that are not expected to grow significantly.
 Routing to and from stub networks. A stub network is a
network accessed by a single route, and the router has
no other neighbors.
 Using a single default route to represent a path to any
network that does not have a more specific match with
another route in the routing table. Default routes are
used to send traffic to any destination beyond the next
upstream router.
Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Types of Static Routes
Static Route Applications
Static Routes are often used to:
 Connect to a specific network.
 Provide a Gateway of Last Resort for a stub network.
 Reduce the number of routes advertised by
summarizing several contiguous networks as one static
route.
 Create a backup route in case a primary route link fails.
Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Types of Static Routes
Standard Static Route
Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Types of Static Routes
Default Static Route
 A default static route is a route that matches all
packets.
 A default route identifies the gateway IP address to
which the router sends all IP packets that it does not
have a learned or static route.
 A default static route is simply a static route with
0.0.0.0/0 as the destination IPv4 address.
Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Types of Static Routes
Summary Static Route
Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Types of Static Routes
Floating Static Route
 Floating static routes are static routes that are used to provide a
backup path to a primary static or dynamic route, in the event of a
link failure.
 The floating static route is only used when the primary route is not
available.
 To accomplish
this, the floating static
route is configured with
a higher administrative
distance than the primary
route.
Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
ip route Command
Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Next-Hop Options
The next hop can be identified by an IP address, exit
interface, or both. How the destination is specified
creates one of the three following route types:
 Next-hop route - Only the next-hop IP address is
specified.
 Directly connected static route - Only the router exit
interface is specified.
 Fully specified static route - The next-hop IP address
and exit interface are specified.
Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Configure a Next-Hop Static Route
When a packet is destined for the 192.168.2.0/24 network, R1:
1. Looks for a match in the routing table and finds that it has to
forward the packets to the next-hop IPv4 address 172.16.2.2.
2. R1 must now determine how
to reach 172.16.2.2; therefore,
it searches a second time for a
172.16.2.2 match.
Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Configure Directly Connected Static Route
Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Configure a Fully Specified Static Route
In a fully specified static route:
 Both the output interface and the next-hop IP address
are specified.
 This is another type of static route that is used in older
IOSs, prior to CEF.
 This form of static route is used when the output
interface is a multi-access interface and it is necessary
to explicitly identify the next hop.
 The next hop must be directly connected to the
specified exit interface.
Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Static Routes
Verify a Static Route
Along with ping and traceroute, useful commands to
verify static routes include:
 show ip route
 show ip route static
 show ip route network
Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Default Routes
Default Static Route
Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Default Routes
Configure a Default Static Route
Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Default Routes
Verify a Default Static Route
Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
The ipv6 route Command
Most of parameters are identical to the IPv4 version of
the command. IPv6 static routes can also be
implemented as:
 Standard IPv6 static route
 Default IPv6 static route
 Summary IPv6 static route
 Floating IPv6 static route
Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
Next-Hop Options
The next hop can be identified by an IPv6 address, exit
interface, or both. How the destination is specified
creates one of three route types:
 Next-hop IPv6 route - Only the next-hop IPv6 address
is specified.
 Directly connected static IPv6 route - Only the router
exit interface is specified.
 Fully specified static IPv6 route - The next-hop IPv6
address and exit interface are specified.
Presentation_ID 25© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route
Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
Configure Directly Connected Static IPv6
Route
Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
Configure Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route
Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Static Routes
Verify IPv6 Static Routes
Along with ping and traceroute, useful commands to
verify static routes include:
 show ipv6 route
 show ipv6 route static
 show ipv6 route network
Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Default Routes
Default Static IPv6 Route
Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Default Routes
Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route
Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Default Routes
Verify a Default Static Route
Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Classful Addressing
Classful Network Addressing
Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Classful Addressing
Classful Subnet Masks
Class A
Class B
Class C
Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Classful Addressing
Classful Routing Protocol Example
Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Classful Addressing
Classful Addressing Waste
Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
CIDR
Classless Inter-Domain Routing
Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
CIDR
CIDR and Route Summarization
Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
CIDR
Static Routing CIDR Example
Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
CIDR
Classless Routing Protocol Example
Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
VLSM
Fixed Length Subnet Masking
Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
VLSM
Variable Length Subnet Masking
Presentation_ID 42© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
VLSM
VLSM in Action
VLSM allows the use of different masks for each subnet:
 After a network address is subnetted, those subnets
can be further subnetted.
 VLSM is simply subnetting a subnet. VLSM can be
thought of as sub-subnetting.
 Individual host addresses are assigned from the
addresses of "sub-subnets".
Presentation_ID 43© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
VLSM
Subnetting Subnets
Presentation_ID 44© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
VLSM
VLSM Example
Presentation_ID 45© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Summary Routes
Route Summarization
Route summarization, also known as route aggregation,
is the process of advertising a contiguous set of
addresses as a single address with a less-specific,
shorter subnet mask:
 CIDR is a form of route summarization and is
synonymous with the term supernetting.
 CIDR ignores the limitation of classful boundaries, and
allows summarization with masks that are smaller than
that of the default classful mask.
 This type of summarization helps reduce the number of
entries in routing updates and lowers the number of
entries in local routing tables.
Presentation_ID 46© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Summary Routes
Calculate a Summary Route
Presentation_ID 47© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv4 Summary Routes
Summary Static Route Example
Presentation_ID 48© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Summary Routes
Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses
 Aside from the fact that IPv6 addresses are 128 bits
long and written in hexadecimal, summarizing IPv6
addresses is actually similar to the summarization of
IPv4 addresses. It just requires a few extra steps due to
the abbreviated IPv6 addresses and hex conversion.
 Multiple static IPv6 routes can be summarized into a
single static IPv6 route if:
• The destination networks are contiguous and can be
summarized into a single network address.
• The multiple static routes all use the same exit interface or
next-hop IPv6 address.
Presentation_ID 49© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Summary Routes
Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses
There are seven steps to summarize IPv6 networks into a single
IPv6 prefix:
Step 1. List the network addresses (prefixes) and identify the part
where the addresses differ.
Step 2. Expand the IPv6 if it is abbreviated.
Step 3. Convert the differing section from hex to binary.
Step 4. Count the number of far left matching bits to determine the
prefix-length for the summary route.
Step 5. Copy the matching bits and then add zero bits to determine
the summarized network address (prefix).
Step 6. Convert the binary section back to hex.
Step 7. Append the prefix of the summary route (result of Step 4).
Presentation_ID 50© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure IPv6 Summary Routes
Configure an IPv6 Summary Address
Presentation_ID 51© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure Floating Static Routes
Floating Static Routes
Floating static routes are static routes that have an
administrative distance greater than the administrative
distance of another static route or dynamic routes:
 The administrative distance of a static route can be increased to
make the route less desirable than that of another static route or a
route learned through a dynamic routing protocol.
 In this way, the static route “floats” and is not used when the route
with the better administrative distance is active.
 However, if the preferred route is lost, the floating static route can
take over, and traffic can be sent through this alternate route.
Presentation_ID 52© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure Floating Static Routes
Configure a Floating Static Route
Presentation_ID 53© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure Floating Static Routes
Test the Floating Static Route
To test a floating static route:
 Use a show ip route command to verify that the routing table is
using the default static route.
 Use a traceroute command to follow the traffic flow out the
primary route.
 Disconnect the primary link or shutdown the primary exit interface.
 Use a show ip route command to verify that the routing table
is using the floating static route.
 Use a traceroute command to follow the traffic flow out the
backup route.
Presentation_ID 54© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues
Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
Presentation_ID 55© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration
Troubleshoot a Missing Route
Common IOS troubleshooting commands include:
 ping
 traceroute
 show ip route
 show ip interface brief
 show cdp neighbors detail
Presentation_ID 56© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration
Solve a Connectivity Problem
 Finding a missing (or misconfigured) route is a relatively
straightforward process, if the right tools are used in a methodical
manner.
 Use the ping command to confirm the destination can’t be
reached.
 A traceroute would also reveal what is the closest router (or
hop) that fails to respond as expected. In this case, the router
would then send an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
destination unreachable message back to the source.
 The next step is to investigate the routing table. Look for missing or
misconfigured routes.
 Incorrect static routes are a common cause of routing problems.
Presentation_ID 57© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration
Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)
Presentation_ID 58© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration
Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)
 Refer to the topology shown in the previous slide.
 The user at PC1 reports that he cannot access resources on the
R3 LAN.
 This can be confirmed by pinging the LAN interface of R3 using the
LAN interface of R1 as the source (see Figure 1). The results show
that there is no connectivity between these LANs.
 A traceroute would reveal that R2 is not responding as expected.
 For some reason, R2 forwards the traceroute back to R1. R1
returns it to R2.
 This loop would continue until the time to live (TTL) value
decrements to zero, in which case, the router would then send an
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) destination unreachable
message to R1.
Presentation_ID 59© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration
Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)
 The next step is to investigate the routing table of R2, because it is
the router displaying a strange forwarding pattern.
 The routing table would reveal that the 192.168.2.0/24 network is
configured incorrectly.
 A static route to the 192.168.2.0/24 network has been configured
using the next-hop address 172.16.2.1.
 Using the configured next-hop address, packets destined for the
192.168.2.0/24 network are sent back to R1.
 Based on the topology, the 192.168.2.0/24 network is connected to
R3, not R1. Therefore, the static route to the 192.168.2.0/24
network on R2 must use next-hop 192.168.1.1, not 172.16.2.1.
Presentation_ID 60© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6: Summary
 Static routes can be configured with a next-hop IP
address, which is commonly the IP address of the next-
hop router.
 When a next-hop IP address is used, the routing table
process must resolve this address to an exit interface.
 On point-to-point serial links, it is usually more efficient to
configure the static route with an exit interface.
 On multi-access networks, such as Ethernet, both a next-
hop IP address and an exit interface can be configured
on the static route.
 Static routes have a default administrative distance of "1".
Presentation_ID 61© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6: Summary (cont.)
 A static route is only entered in the routing table if the
next-hop IP address can be resolved through an exit
interface.
 Whether the static route is configured with a next-hop IP
address or exit interface, if the exit interface that is used
to forward that packet is not in the routing table, the static
route is not included in the routing table.
 In many cases, several static routes can be configured as
a single summary route.
Presentation_ID 62© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 6: Summary (cont.)
 The ultimate summary route is a default route, configured
with a 0.0.0.0 network address and a 0.0.0.0 subnet
mask.
 If there is not a more specific match in the routing table,
the routing table uses the default route to forward the
packet to another router.
 A floating static route can be configured to back up a
main link by manipulating its administrative value.
Presentation_ID 63© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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Chapter 17 : static routing

  • 1. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 17: Static Routing Routing and Switching Essentials
  • 2. Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6 6.1 Static Routing Implementation 6.2 Configure Static and Default Routes 6.3 Review of CIDR and VLSM 6.4 Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes 6.5 Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues 6.6 Summary
  • 3. Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6: Objectives  Explain the advantages and disadvantages of static routing.  Explain the purpose of different types of static routes.  Configure IPv4 and IPv6 static routes by specifying a next-hop address.  Configure an IPv4 and IPv6 default routes.  Explain the use of legacy classful addressing in network implementation.  Explain the purpose of CIDR in replacing classful addressing.
  • 4. Presentation_ID 4© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6: Objectives (cont.)  Design and implement a hierarchical addressing scheme.  Configure an IPv4 and IPv6 summary network address to reduce the number of routing table updates.  Configure a floating static route to provide a backup connection.  Explain how a router processes packets when a static route is configured.  Troubleshoot common static and default route configuration issues.
  • 5. Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Static Routing Reach Remote Networks A router can learn about remote networks in one of two ways: • Manually - Remote networks are manually entered into the route table using static routes. • Dynamically - Remote routes are automatically learned using a dynamic routing protocol.
  • 6. Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Static Routing Why Use Static Routing? Static routing provides some advantages over dynamic routing, including:  Static routes are not advertised over the network, resulting in better security.  Static routes use less bandwidth than dynamic routing protocols, no CPU cycles are used to calculate and communicate routes.  The path a static route uses to send data is known.
  • 7. Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Static Routing Why Use Static Routing? (cont.) Static routing has the following disadvantages:  Initial configuration and maintenance is time- consuming.  Configuration is error-prone, especially in large networks.  Administrator intervention is required to maintain changing route information.  Does not scale well with growing networks; maintenance becomes cumbersome.  Requires complete knowledge of the whole network for proper implementation.
  • 8. Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Static Routing When to Use Static Routes Static routing has three primary uses:  Providing ease of routing table maintenance in smaller networks that are not expected to grow significantly.  Routing to and from stub networks. A stub network is a network accessed by a single route, and the router has no other neighbors.  Using a single default route to represent a path to any network that does not have a more specific match with another route in the routing table. Default routes are used to send traffic to any destination beyond the next upstream router.
  • 9. Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Types of Static Routes Static Route Applications Static Routes are often used to:  Connect to a specific network.  Provide a Gateway of Last Resort for a stub network.  Reduce the number of routes advertised by summarizing several contiguous networks as one static route.  Create a backup route in case a primary route link fails.
  • 10. Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Types of Static Routes Standard Static Route
  • 11. Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Types of Static Routes Default Static Route  A default static route is a route that matches all packets.  A default route identifies the gateway IP address to which the router sends all IP packets that it does not have a learned or static route.  A default static route is simply a static route with 0.0.0.0/0 as the destination IPv4 address.
  • 12. Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Types of Static Routes Summary Static Route
  • 13. Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Types of Static Routes Floating Static Route  Floating static routes are static routes that are used to provide a backup path to a primary static or dynamic route, in the event of a link failure.  The floating static route is only used when the primary route is not available.  To accomplish this, the floating static route is configured with a higher administrative distance than the primary route.
  • 14. Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes ip route Command
  • 15. Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes Next-Hop Options The next hop can be identified by an IP address, exit interface, or both. How the destination is specified creates one of the three following route types:  Next-hop route - Only the next-hop IP address is specified.  Directly connected static route - Only the router exit interface is specified.  Fully specified static route - The next-hop IP address and exit interface are specified.
  • 16. Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes Configure a Next-Hop Static Route When a packet is destined for the 192.168.2.0/24 network, R1: 1. Looks for a match in the routing table and finds that it has to forward the packets to the next-hop IPv4 address 172.16.2.2. 2. R1 must now determine how to reach 172.16.2.2; therefore, it searches a second time for a 172.16.2.2 match.
  • 17. Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes Configure Directly Connected Static Route
  • 18. Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes Configure a Fully Specified Static Route In a fully specified static route:  Both the output interface and the next-hop IP address are specified.  This is another type of static route that is used in older IOSs, prior to CEF.  This form of static route is used when the output interface is a multi-access interface and it is necessary to explicitly identify the next hop.  The next hop must be directly connected to the specified exit interface.
  • 19. Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Static Routes Verify a Static Route Along with ping and traceroute, useful commands to verify static routes include:  show ip route  show ip route static  show ip route network
  • 20. Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Default Routes Default Static Route
  • 21. Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Default Routes Configure a Default Static Route
  • 22. Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Default Routes Verify a Default Static Route
  • 23. Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes The ipv6 route Command Most of parameters are identical to the IPv4 version of the command. IPv6 static routes can also be implemented as:  Standard IPv6 static route  Default IPv6 static route  Summary IPv6 static route  Floating IPv6 static route
  • 24. Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes Next-Hop Options The next hop can be identified by an IPv6 address, exit interface, or both. How the destination is specified creates one of three route types:  Next-hop IPv6 route - Only the next-hop IPv6 address is specified.  Directly connected static IPv6 route - Only the router exit interface is specified.  Fully specified static IPv6 route - The next-hop IPv6 address and exit interface are specified.
  • 25. Presentation_ID 25© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes Configure a Next-Hop Static IPv6 Route
  • 26. Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes Configure Directly Connected Static IPv6 Route
  • 27. Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes Configure Fully Specified Static IPv6 Route
  • 28. Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Static Routes Verify IPv6 Static Routes Along with ping and traceroute, useful commands to verify static routes include:  show ipv6 route  show ipv6 route static  show ipv6 route network
  • 29. Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Default Routes Default Static IPv6 Route
  • 30. Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Default Routes Configure a Default Static IPv6 Route
  • 31. Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Default Routes Verify a Default Static Route
  • 32. Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Classful Addressing Classful Network Addressing
  • 33. Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Classful Addressing Classful Subnet Masks Class A Class B Class C
  • 34. Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Classful Addressing Classful Routing Protocol Example
  • 35. Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Classful Addressing Classful Addressing Waste
  • 36. Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing
  • 37. Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential CIDR CIDR and Route Summarization
  • 38. Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential CIDR Static Routing CIDR Example
  • 39. Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential CIDR Classless Routing Protocol Example
  • 40. Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential VLSM Fixed Length Subnet Masking
  • 41. Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential VLSM Variable Length Subnet Masking
  • 42. Presentation_ID 42© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential VLSM VLSM in Action VLSM allows the use of different masks for each subnet:  After a network address is subnetted, those subnets can be further subnetted.  VLSM is simply subnetting a subnet. VLSM can be thought of as sub-subnetting.  Individual host addresses are assigned from the addresses of "sub-subnets".
  • 43. Presentation_ID 43© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential VLSM Subnetting Subnets
  • 44. Presentation_ID 44© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential VLSM VLSM Example
  • 45. Presentation_ID 45© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Summary Routes Route Summarization Route summarization, also known as route aggregation, is the process of advertising a contiguous set of addresses as a single address with a less-specific, shorter subnet mask:  CIDR is a form of route summarization and is synonymous with the term supernetting.  CIDR ignores the limitation of classful boundaries, and allows summarization with masks that are smaller than that of the default classful mask.  This type of summarization helps reduce the number of entries in routing updates and lowers the number of entries in local routing tables.
  • 46. Presentation_ID 46© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Summary Routes Calculate a Summary Route
  • 47. Presentation_ID 47© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv4 Summary Routes Summary Static Route Example
  • 48. Presentation_ID 48© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Summary Routes Summarize IPv6 Network Addresses  Aside from the fact that IPv6 addresses are 128 bits long and written in hexadecimal, summarizing IPv6 addresses is actually similar to the summarization of IPv4 addresses. It just requires a few extra steps due to the abbreviated IPv6 addresses and hex conversion.  Multiple static IPv6 routes can be summarized into a single static IPv6 route if: • The destination networks are contiguous and can be summarized into a single network address. • The multiple static routes all use the same exit interface or next-hop IPv6 address.
  • 49. Presentation_ID 49© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Summary Routes Calculate IPv6 Network Addresses There are seven steps to summarize IPv6 networks into a single IPv6 prefix: Step 1. List the network addresses (prefixes) and identify the part where the addresses differ. Step 2. Expand the IPv6 if it is abbreviated. Step 3. Convert the differing section from hex to binary. Step 4. Count the number of far left matching bits to determine the prefix-length for the summary route. Step 5. Copy the matching bits and then add zero bits to determine the summarized network address (prefix). Step 6. Convert the binary section back to hex. Step 7. Append the prefix of the summary route (result of Step 4).
  • 50. Presentation_ID 50© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure IPv6 Summary Routes Configure an IPv6 Summary Address
  • 51. Presentation_ID 51© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure Floating Static Routes Floating Static Routes Floating static routes are static routes that have an administrative distance greater than the administrative distance of another static route or dynamic routes:  The administrative distance of a static route can be increased to make the route less desirable than that of another static route or a route learned through a dynamic routing protocol.  In this way, the static route “floats” and is not used when the route with the better administrative distance is active.  However, if the preferred route is lost, the floating static route can take over, and traffic can be sent through this alternate route.
  • 52. Presentation_ID 52© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure Floating Static Routes Configure a Floating Static Route
  • 53. Presentation_ID 53© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure Floating Static Routes Test the Floating Static Route To test a floating static route:  Use a show ip route command to verify that the routing table is using the default static route.  Use a traceroute command to follow the traffic flow out the primary route.  Disconnect the primary link or shutdown the primary exit interface.  Use a show ip route command to verify that the routing table is using the floating static route.  Use a traceroute command to follow the traffic flow out the backup route.
  • 54. Presentation_ID 54© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot Static and Default Route Issues Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
  • 55. Presentation_ID 55© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration Troubleshoot a Missing Route Common IOS troubleshooting commands include:  ping  traceroute  show ip route  show ip interface brief  show cdp neighbors detail
  • 56. Presentation_ID 56© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration Solve a Connectivity Problem  Finding a missing (or misconfigured) route is a relatively straightforward process, if the right tools are used in a methodical manner.  Use the ping command to confirm the destination can’t be reached.  A traceroute would also reveal what is the closest router (or hop) that fails to respond as expected. In this case, the router would then send an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) destination unreachable message back to the source.  The next step is to investigate the routing table. Look for missing or misconfigured routes.  Incorrect static routes are a common cause of routing problems.
  • 57. Presentation_ID 57© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)
  • 58. Presentation_ID 58© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)  Refer to the topology shown in the previous slide.  The user at PC1 reports that he cannot access resources on the R3 LAN.  This can be confirmed by pinging the LAN interface of R3 using the LAN interface of R1 as the source (see Figure 1). The results show that there is no connectivity between these LANs.  A traceroute would reveal that R2 is not responding as expected.  For some reason, R2 forwards the traceroute back to R1. R1 returns it to R2.  This loop would continue until the time to live (TTL) value decrements to zero, in which case, the router would then send an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) destination unreachable message to R1.
  • 59. Presentation_ID 59© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration Solve a Connectivity Problem (cont.)  The next step is to investigate the routing table of R2, because it is the router displaying a strange forwarding pattern.  The routing table would reveal that the 192.168.2.0/24 network is configured incorrectly.  A static route to the 192.168.2.0/24 network has been configured using the next-hop address 172.16.2.1.  Using the configured next-hop address, packets destined for the 192.168.2.0/24 network are sent back to R1.  Based on the topology, the 192.168.2.0/24 network is connected to R3, not R1. Therefore, the static route to the 192.168.2.0/24 network on R2 must use next-hop 192.168.1.1, not 172.16.2.1.
  • 60. Presentation_ID 60© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6: Summary  Static routes can be configured with a next-hop IP address, which is commonly the IP address of the next- hop router.  When a next-hop IP address is used, the routing table process must resolve this address to an exit interface.  On point-to-point serial links, it is usually more efficient to configure the static route with an exit interface.  On multi-access networks, such as Ethernet, both a next- hop IP address and an exit interface can be configured on the static route.  Static routes have a default administrative distance of "1".
  • 61. Presentation_ID 61© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6: Summary (cont.)  A static route is only entered in the routing table if the next-hop IP address can be resolved through an exit interface.  Whether the static route is configured with a next-hop IP address or exit interface, if the exit interface that is used to forward that packet is not in the routing table, the static route is not included in the routing table.  In many cases, several static routes can be configured as a single summary route.
  • 62. Presentation_ID 62© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 6: Summary (cont.)  The ultimate summary route is a default route, configured with a 0.0.0.0 network address and a 0.0.0.0 subnet mask.  If there is not a more specific match in the routing table, the routing table uses the default route to forward the packet to another router.  A floating static route can be configured to back up a main link by manipulating its administrative value.
  • 63. Presentation_ID 63© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential