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BGP in 2023
Geoff Huston AM
APNIC Labs
The Highlights
• IPv4 Summary
• IPv6 Summary
• FIB Projections
• Churn
• Conclusions
1994: Introduction of CIDR
2001: The Great Internet
Boom and Bust
2005: Consumer Market
2011: Onset of Address Exhaustion
30 Years of Routing the IPv4 Internet
This is a view pulled together from
each of the routing peers of Route-
Views and RIPE RIS
2023 in detail
2023 in detail
Large Withdrawal 60K entry
variation
22 Feb
TTNET – Turkey
AS9121 -5,279 prefixes
AS47331 -2,427 prefixes
Aside: What happened to TTNET?
These are all withdrawals of
more specific prefixes
AS Prefix Count over 2023
Dropped Prefixes Added Prefixes
AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC
AS1291 -5,826 6,183 357 TTNET, TR
AS47331 -2,703 2,811 108 TTNET, TR
AS6849 -1,183 2,251 1,068 UKRTELNET, UA
AS1239 -784 1,204 420 SPRINTLINK, US
AS209 -631 2,343 1,712 CENTURYLINK, US
AS1289 -629 692 63 HOTNET, IL
AS9394 -568 1,052 484 CTT, CN
AS135887 -568 1028 460 Telstra Belong, AU
AS35908 -482 770 288 VPLSNET, US
AS40676 -418 806 388 Psychz, US
AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC
AS18403 3,034 1,499 4,533 FPT Telecom,VN
AS16509 1,709 7,761 9,470 Amazon-O2,US
AS367 1,403 1,558 2,961 DNIC,US
AS44477 1,376 77 1,453 STARK,GB
AS8151 1,221 1,939 3,160 UNINET,MX
AS3737 1,122 26 1,148 PTD,US
AS140292 1,079 1,258 2,337 China Telecom,Jiangsu,CN
AS207990 1,012 116 1,128 HR,IN
AS9009 857 2,650 3,507 M247,RO
AS4155 846 - 846 USDA-1,US
2001: The Great Internet
Boom and Bust
30 Years of IPv4 Advertised Addresses
This is a view pulled together from
each of the routing peers of Route-
Views and RIPE RIS
2011: Onset of Address Exhaustion
2021: Advertised DoD blocks
2005: Consumer Market
2023 in Detail
Amazon O2 – 22 Aug
2023: Assigned vs Recovered
Change in UnAdvertised Addresses
Change in the Advertised Address Pool
RIR Allocations
3.0B advertised
-18M delta
640M unadvertised
+18M delta
2023: Assigned vs Recovered
Change in UnAdvertised Addresses
Change in the Advertised Address Pool
RIR Allocations
3.0 advertised
-18M delta
640M unadvertised
+18M delta
No net “address recovery” occurred across 2023 in IPv4
A total of 18M addresses were withdrawn from the advertised network,
and shifted to the unadvertised pool
The net change in the unadvertised pool was an increase of 18M
addresses
2018-2023: 6 Year Assigned vs
Recovered
DoD block Advertisments
Advertised IPv4 span
starts to decline
Residual RIR Address pools are exhausted
Advertised Span per AS over 2023
Reduced Advertised Address Span
AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC
1239 -5,958,912 18,021,376 12,062,464 SPRINTLINK, US
9394 -2,751,232 19,795,968 17,044,736 CTTNET, CN
10455 -2,163,456 4,590,336 2,426,880 LUCENT, US
7018 -2,095,360 98,855,168 96,759,808 ATT-INTERNET4, US
4249 -1,900,544 8,585,216 6,684,672 LILLY-AS, US
47331 -1,550,336 1,687,808 137,472 TTNET, TR
16625 -1,514,496 7,378,432 5,863,936 AKAMAI-AS, US
9105 -1,490,944 2,868,480 1,377,536 TISCALI, GB
15169 -1,236,992 10,250,752 9,013,760 GOOGLE, US
7922 -1,152,512 71,294,720 70,142,208 COMCAST, US
AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name, CC
749 17,830,400 207,162,880 224,993,280 DNIC,US
367 9,184,256 6,606,592 15790848 DNIC,US
11003 4,165,888 458,752 4,624,640 PANDG,US
16509 2,304,512 43,574,272 45,878,784 AMAZON-02, US
19901 2,237,696 - 2,237,696 BRSPD, US
3257 2,133,504 4,558,080 6,691,584 GTT,US
6167 1,391,104 11,270,144 12,661,248 CELLCO,US
6306 1,317,888 623,616 1,941,504 TELEFONICA, VE
984 1,180,160 4,352 1,184,512 OWS, US
29447 1,048,576 458,752 1,507,328 Iliad,FR
Increased Advertised Address Span
What happened in 2023 in V4?
• From the look of the routing growth plots, the growth of the size of the IPv4
network is slowing down
• The number of entries in the IPv4 default-free zone reached 920K – 960K by the end
of 2023
• The pace of growth of the routing table was slightly lower than the rolling 5-year
average, with 20,000 new entries in 2023 (was 36,000 in 2022)
• The AS position was slightly lower with 1,100 new AS’s advertised in 2023 (was 1,400 in
2021)
• Transit relationships have not changed materially over 2022 for most networks
• The address range spanned by the advertised route set declined in 2023 by the
equivalent of 1 /8
• The overall IPv4 routing growth trends slowed down or even reversed through
2023
What happened in 2023 in V4?
• From the look of the routing growth plots, the growth of the size of the IPv4
network is slowing down
• The number of entries in the IPv4 default-free zone reached 920K – 960K by the end
of 2023
• The pace of growth of the routing table was slightly lower than the rolling 5-year
average, with 20,000 new entries in 2023 (was 36,000 in 2021)
• The AS position was slightly lower with 1,100 new AS’s advertised in 2023 (was 1,400 in
2021)
• Transit relationships have not changed materially over 2022 for most networks
• The address range spanned by the advertised route set declined in 2023 by the
equivalent of 1 /8
• The overall IPv4 routing growth trends slowed down or even reversed through
2023
Have we reached Peak IPv4?
The Highlights
• IPv4 Summary
• IPv6 Summary
• FIB Projections
• Churn
• Conclusions
The 20-Year View of IPv6
IANA IPv4 Exhaustion
2023 in Detail
150000
160000
170000
180000
190000
200000
210000
Jan-23 Mar-23 May-23 Jul-23 Sep-23 Nov-23 Jan-24
BGP
RIB
Entries
Date
BGP IPv6 RIB Size - RIS and Route Views Peers
2023 in Detail
150000
160000
170000
180000
190000
200000
210000
Jan-23 Mar-23 May-23 Jul-23 Sep-23 Nov-23 Jan-24
BGP
RIB
Entries
Date
BGP IPv6 RIB Size - RIS and Route Views Peers
AS18403 + 3,292 prefixes – FPT, VN
AS60539 + 2,049 prefixes –
HUICAST_TELECOM, HK
More Specifics in IPv6
45% of all IPv6
prefixes are
/48’s
IPv6
IPv4
20-Year IPv6 Advertised Address Span
IPv6 Advertised Address Span in 2023
V6 in 2023
• Overall IPv6 Internet growth in terms of BGP is still increasing, and is
currently at some 30,000 route entries p.a. (17%)
• Predominate use of /48 more specifics
• 2,000 more AS’s advertising IPv6 prefixes
• Growth of 2,500 /32 equivalents in the advertised address span ( 1.6%)
• Growth rates across 2023 are lower than 2018 – 2020 annual rates
The Highlights
• IPv4 Summary
• IPv6 Summary
• FIB Projections
• Churn
• Conclusions
V4 BGP Table Size Predictions
Date RIB Size Prediction
Jan 2019 760,000
2020 814,000
2021 856,000
2022 906,000
2023 942,000
2024 944,0000 949,000
2025 958,000
2026 958,000
2027 947,000
2028 928,000
2029 898,000
V4 BGP Table Size Predictions
Date RIB Size Prediction
Jan 2019 760,000
2020 814,000
2021 856,000
2022 906,000
2023 942,000
2024 944,0000 949,000
2025 958,000
2026 958,000
2027 947,000
2028 928,000
2029 898,000
The best fit projection model to the past 4 years of FIB data is a
polynomial function that peaks in 2024 at just under 1M entries
V6 BGP Table Size Predictions
Jan 2019 62,000
2020 79,000
2021 106,000
2022 147,000
2023 172,000
2024 201,000 198,000 227,000
2025 226,000 293,000
2026 254,000 380,000
2027 282,000 491,000
2028 310,000 635,000
2029 337,000 822,000
Linear Exponential
Note that the IPv6 tables are 128bits wide – i.e. 4x the size of the IPv4 tables!
V6 BGP Table Size Predictions
Jan 2019 62,000
2020 79,000
2021 106,000
2022 147,000
2023 172,000
2024 201,000 198,000 227,000
2025 226,000 293,000
2026 254,000 380,000
2027 282,000 491,000
2028 310,000 635,000
2029 337,000 822,000
Linear Exponential
Note that the IPv6 tables are 128bits wide – i.e. 4x the size of the IPv4 tables!
The growth model for IPv6 is highly uncertain today – It looks like a linear
growth model matches the most recent 24 months of data
The underlying network growth is lower, and over half of the growth in
this model is due to the continued intensive use of /48 more specifics
BGP Table Growth
The absolute size of the IPv6 routing table is growing much faster than the
IPv4 table
These two tables will require the same storage/lookup size in around 1
year from now, given that each IPv6 entry is 4 times the bit size of an
IPv4 entry
The good news …
As long as we are prepared to live within the technical constraints of
the current routing paradigm, the Internet’s use of BGP will continue
to be viable for some time yet
The Highlights
• IPv4 FIB Summary
• IPv6 FIB Summary
• FIB Projections
• Churn
• Conclusions
IPv4 BGP Updates – Daily Updates
IPv4 BGP Updates – Daily Updates
The IPv4 network is surprisingly stable
The number of withdrawals per day has been relatively steady for some
15 years (aside from some increases in 2022/3)
The number of updates per day has been declining through 2023
IPv4 Unstable Prefixes per Day
IPv4 Unstable Prefixes per Day
The number of prefixes that are the subject of updates has been
slowly increasing over this 15-year period
The rate of increase of unstable prefixes is far lower than the number
of advertised prefixes
IPv4 BGP Convergence Performance
IPv4 BGP Convergence Performance
Convergence performance has been steady for 15 years, despite the
massive growth in the network
The network topology continues to increase in density, keeping critical
AS Paths short as the network itself increases in size
Updates in IPv4 BGP
The IPv4 inter-domain routing system is still highly stable …
• The number of updates per instability event and the time to converge to a
stable forwarding state has been relatively constant for many years - it rose in
2019 - 2020 and has declined again in 2021, and stabilized in 2022
• 20% of prefixes generate 80% of all updates. Less than 5% of all origin
networks are linked to 80% of all updates. Routing instability is concentrated
in a small number of highly unstable cases.
V6 BGP Updates
V6 BGP Updates
The growth trajectory of IPv6 has slackened off, and the
daily total of updates and withdrawals has been steady
across 2023
V6 Unstable Prefixes
V6 Unstable Prefixes
The number of unstable address prefixes stabilised across
2023
Proportionally, IPv6 prefixes are ~2x more likely to be
updated as compared to the IPv4 BGP network
V6 Convergence Performance
V6 Convergence Performance
Time to converge has been very unstable for years in IPv6
This is now stabilising to a level that is on a par with the IPv4 network
Updates in IPv6 BGP
It’s improving …
• Compared to IPv4, the IPv6 network has exhibited
a high level of skew of routing instability, where a
small number of networks contribute
disproportionately to the overall level of BGP
updates in IPv6.
• Just 2 AS’s generated 50% of the BGP update load
in the last 2 weeks of 2023. IPv6 routing instability
is still concentrated in a small number of
pathologically unstable cases.
The Highlights
• IPv4 FIB Summary
• IPv6 FIB Summary
• FIB Projections
• Churn
• Conclusions
Routing Futures
• There is still little in the way of scaling pressure from BGP as
a routing protocol – the relatively compressed inter-AS
topology and stability of the infrastructure links tend to
ensure that BGP remains effective in routing the internet.
• Instability levels are rising, generally driven by a small set of
highly unstable “super generators”
Routing Futures
• The frenetic pace of expansion in the routing infrastructure of the
Internet has slowed down across 2023. The IPv4 BGP network
shrank slightly in 2023, and the pace of growth the IPv6 network
also slackened off across the year.
• The drivers for growth were the product of the population of
networks with discrete routing policies and the need to balance
incoming traffic across multiple paths (traffic engineering) – the
rapid increase in the use of CDN platforms has reduced the
dependence on transit routes to provide content and services to
end users.
• Much of the overall volume of content traffic has shifted across
into privately operated platforms, and the demands on the public
routed common infrastructure have started to decline
Some Practical Suggestions
For those network operators whose service needs are dependent on the
BGP network to some extent (which is mostly everyone)
Know your network’s limits:
• Understand your routing FIB capacity in the default-free parts of your
network
• There may be some default max prefix setting of ~1M FIB entries which
will cause a BGP session shutdown when tripped
• AS 4804 (Optus) in Australia appeared to encounter this situation in October 2023
• Use a max prefix exceeded switch which avoids sessions shutdown
where possible
Some Practical Suggestions
Know your network’s limits
Review your routers’ settings
• Review your IPv4 / IPv6 portioning in the FIB tables - a dual-stack eBGP
router will conservatively need a 1.2 M 32-bit IPv4 slots and 320K 128-
bit IPv6 slots for a full eBGP routing table in line cards by 2026 if they
are using a full eBGP FIB load (plus internal routes of course). That’s
roughly the same memory footprint for IPv4 and IPv6!
Some Practical Suggestions
Know your network’s limits
Review your routers’ settings
Default routes can be helpful
• Judicious use of default routes in your internal network may allow you
drop this high speed line card memory requirement significantly
Some Practical Suggestions
Know your network’s limits
Review your routers’ settings
Default routes can be helpful
Time for hot caching in line card FIBs?
• Using a hot cache for line card FIB cache would reduce the high-speed
TCAM memory requirement significantly without visible performance
cost
Some Practical Suggestions
Know your network’s limits
Review your routers’ settings
Default routes can be helpful
Time for hot caching in line card FIBs?
That’s it!
Questions?

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NANOG 90: 'BGP in 2023' presented by Geoff Huston

  • 1. BGP in 2023 Geoff Huston AM APNIC Labs
  • 2. The Highlights • IPv4 Summary • IPv6 Summary • FIB Projections • Churn • Conclusions
  • 3. 1994: Introduction of CIDR 2001: The Great Internet Boom and Bust 2005: Consumer Market 2011: Onset of Address Exhaustion 30 Years of Routing the IPv4 Internet This is a view pulled together from each of the routing peers of Route- Views and RIPE RIS
  • 5. 2023 in detail Large Withdrawal 60K entry variation 22 Feb TTNET – Turkey AS9121 -5,279 prefixes AS47331 -2,427 prefixes
  • 6. Aside: What happened to TTNET? These are all withdrawals of more specific prefixes
  • 7. AS Prefix Count over 2023 Dropped Prefixes Added Prefixes AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC AS1291 -5,826 6,183 357 TTNET, TR AS47331 -2,703 2,811 108 TTNET, TR AS6849 -1,183 2,251 1,068 UKRTELNET, UA AS1239 -784 1,204 420 SPRINTLINK, US AS209 -631 2,343 1,712 CENTURYLINK, US AS1289 -629 692 63 HOTNET, IL AS9394 -568 1,052 484 CTT, CN AS135887 -568 1028 460 Telstra Belong, AU AS35908 -482 770 288 VPLSNET, US AS40676 -418 806 388 Psychz, US AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC AS18403 3,034 1,499 4,533 FPT Telecom,VN AS16509 1,709 7,761 9,470 Amazon-O2,US AS367 1,403 1,558 2,961 DNIC,US AS44477 1,376 77 1,453 STARK,GB AS8151 1,221 1,939 3,160 UNINET,MX AS3737 1,122 26 1,148 PTD,US AS140292 1,079 1,258 2,337 China Telecom,Jiangsu,CN AS207990 1,012 116 1,128 HR,IN AS9009 857 2,650 3,507 M247,RO AS4155 846 - 846 USDA-1,US
  • 8. 2001: The Great Internet Boom and Bust 30 Years of IPv4 Advertised Addresses This is a view pulled together from each of the routing peers of Route- Views and RIPE RIS 2011: Onset of Address Exhaustion 2021: Advertised DoD blocks 2005: Consumer Market
  • 9. 2023 in Detail Amazon O2 – 22 Aug
  • 10. 2023: Assigned vs Recovered Change in UnAdvertised Addresses Change in the Advertised Address Pool RIR Allocations 3.0B advertised -18M delta 640M unadvertised +18M delta
  • 11. 2023: Assigned vs Recovered Change in UnAdvertised Addresses Change in the Advertised Address Pool RIR Allocations 3.0 advertised -18M delta 640M unadvertised +18M delta No net “address recovery” occurred across 2023 in IPv4 A total of 18M addresses were withdrawn from the advertised network, and shifted to the unadvertised pool The net change in the unadvertised pool was an increase of 18M addresses
  • 12. 2018-2023: 6 Year Assigned vs Recovered DoD block Advertisments Advertised IPv4 span starts to decline Residual RIR Address pools are exhausted
  • 13. Advertised Span per AS over 2023 Reduced Advertised Address Span AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name. CC 1239 -5,958,912 18,021,376 12,062,464 SPRINTLINK, US 9394 -2,751,232 19,795,968 17,044,736 CTTNET, CN 10455 -2,163,456 4,590,336 2,426,880 LUCENT, US 7018 -2,095,360 98,855,168 96,759,808 ATT-INTERNET4, US 4249 -1,900,544 8,585,216 6,684,672 LILLY-AS, US 47331 -1,550,336 1,687,808 137,472 TTNET, TR 16625 -1,514,496 7,378,432 5,863,936 AKAMAI-AS, US 9105 -1,490,944 2,868,480 1,377,536 TISCALI, GB 15169 -1,236,992 10,250,752 9,013,760 GOOGLE, US 7922 -1,152,512 71,294,720 70,142,208 COMCAST, US AS Num Change Jan-23 Dec-23 Name, CC 749 17,830,400 207,162,880 224,993,280 DNIC,US 367 9,184,256 6,606,592 15790848 DNIC,US 11003 4,165,888 458,752 4,624,640 PANDG,US 16509 2,304,512 43,574,272 45,878,784 AMAZON-02, US 19901 2,237,696 - 2,237,696 BRSPD, US 3257 2,133,504 4,558,080 6,691,584 GTT,US 6167 1,391,104 11,270,144 12,661,248 CELLCO,US 6306 1,317,888 623,616 1,941,504 TELEFONICA, VE 984 1,180,160 4,352 1,184,512 OWS, US 29447 1,048,576 458,752 1,507,328 Iliad,FR Increased Advertised Address Span
  • 14. What happened in 2023 in V4? • From the look of the routing growth plots, the growth of the size of the IPv4 network is slowing down • The number of entries in the IPv4 default-free zone reached 920K – 960K by the end of 2023 • The pace of growth of the routing table was slightly lower than the rolling 5-year average, with 20,000 new entries in 2023 (was 36,000 in 2022) • The AS position was slightly lower with 1,100 new AS’s advertised in 2023 (was 1,400 in 2021) • Transit relationships have not changed materially over 2022 for most networks • The address range spanned by the advertised route set declined in 2023 by the equivalent of 1 /8 • The overall IPv4 routing growth trends slowed down or even reversed through 2023
  • 15. What happened in 2023 in V4? • From the look of the routing growth plots, the growth of the size of the IPv4 network is slowing down • The number of entries in the IPv4 default-free zone reached 920K – 960K by the end of 2023 • The pace of growth of the routing table was slightly lower than the rolling 5-year average, with 20,000 new entries in 2023 (was 36,000 in 2021) • The AS position was slightly lower with 1,100 new AS’s advertised in 2023 (was 1,400 in 2021) • Transit relationships have not changed materially over 2022 for most networks • The address range spanned by the advertised route set declined in 2023 by the equivalent of 1 /8 • The overall IPv4 routing growth trends slowed down or even reversed through 2023 Have we reached Peak IPv4?
  • 16. The Highlights • IPv4 Summary • IPv6 Summary • FIB Projections • Churn • Conclusions
  • 17. The 20-Year View of IPv6 IANA IPv4 Exhaustion
  • 18. 2023 in Detail 150000 160000 170000 180000 190000 200000 210000 Jan-23 Mar-23 May-23 Jul-23 Sep-23 Nov-23 Jan-24 BGP RIB Entries Date BGP IPv6 RIB Size - RIS and Route Views Peers
  • 19. 2023 in Detail 150000 160000 170000 180000 190000 200000 210000 Jan-23 Mar-23 May-23 Jul-23 Sep-23 Nov-23 Jan-24 BGP RIB Entries Date BGP IPv6 RIB Size - RIS and Route Views Peers AS18403 + 3,292 prefixes – FPT, VN AS60539 + 2,049 prefixes – HUICAST_TELECOM, HK
  • 20. More Specifics in IPv6 45% of all IPv6 prefixes are /48’s IPv6 IPv4
  • 21. 20-Year IPv6 Advertised Address Span
  • 22. IPv6 Advertised Address Span in 2023
  • 23. V6 in 2023 • Overall IPv6 Internet growth in terms of BGP is still increasing, and is currently at some 30,000 route entries p.a. (17%) • Predominate use of /48 more specifics • 2,000 more AS’s advertising IPv6 prefixes • Growth of 2,500 /32 equivalents in the advertised address span ( 1.6%) • Growth rates across 2023 are lower than 2018 – 2020 annual rates
  • 24. The Highlights • IPv4 Summary • IPv6 Summary • FIB Projections • Churn • Conclusions
  • 25. V4 BGP Table Size Predictions Date RIB Size Prediction Jan 2019 760,000 2020 814,000 2021 856,000 2022 906,000 2023 942,000 2024 944,0000 949,000 2025 958,000 2026 958,000 2027 947,000 2028 928,000 2029 898,000
  • 26. V4 BGP Table Size Predictions Date RIB Size Prediction Jan 2019 760,000 2020 814,000 2021 856,000 2022 906,000 2023 942,000 2024 944,0000 949,000 2025 958,000 2026 958,000 2027 947,000 2028 928,000 2029 898,000 The best fit projection model to the past 4 years of FIB data is a polynomial function that peaks in 2024 at just under 1M entries
  • 27. V6 BGP Table Size Predictions Jan 2019 62,000 2020 79,000 2021 106,000 2022 147,000 2023 172,000 2024 201,000 198,000 227,000 2025 226,000 293,000 2026 254,000 380,000 2027 282,000 491,000 2028 310,000 635,000 2029 337,000 822,000 Linear Exponential Note that the IPv6 tables are 128bits wide – i.e. 4x the size of the IPv4 tables!
  • 28. V6 BGP Table Size Predictions Jan 2019 62,000 2020 79,000 2021 106,000 2022 147,000 2023 172,000 2024 201,000 198,000 227,000 2025 226,000 293,000 2026 254,000 380,000 2027 282,000 491,000 2028 310,000 635,000 2029 337,000 822,000 Linear Exponential Note that the IPv6 tables are 128bits wide – i.e. 4x the size of the IPv4 tables! The growth model for IPv6 is highly uncertain today – It looks like a linear growth model matches the most recent 24 months of data The underlying network growth is lower, and over half of the growth in this model is due to the continued intensive use of /48 more specifics
  • 29. BGP Table Growth The absolute size of the IPv6 routing table is growing much faster than the IPv4 table These two tables will require the same storage/lookup size in around 1 year from now, given that each IPv6 entry is 4 times the bit size of an IPv4 entry The good news … As long as we are prepared to live within the technical constraints of the current routing paradigm, the Internet’s use of BGP will continue to be viable for some time yet
  • 30. The Highlights • IPv4 FIB Summary • IPv6 FIB Summary • FIB Projections • Churn • Conclusions
  • 31. IPv4 BGP Updates – Daily Updates
  • 32. IPv4 BGP Updates – Daily Updates The IPv4 network is surprisingly stable The number of withdrawals per day has been relatively steady for some 15 years (aside from some increases in 2022/3) The number of updates per day has been declining through 2023
  • 34. IPv4 Unstable Prefixes per Day The number of prefixes that are the subject of updates has been slowly increasing over this 15-year period The rate of increase of unstable prefixes is far lower than the number of advertised prefixes
  • 35. IPv4 BGP Convergence Performance
  • 36. IPv4 BGP Convergence Performance Convergence performance has been steady for 15 years, despite the massive growth in the network The network topology continues to increase in density, keeping critical AS Paths short as the network itself increases in size
  • 37. Updates in IPv4 BGP The IPv4 inter-domain routing system is still highly stable … • The number of updates per instability event and the time to converge to a stable forwarding state has been relatively constant for many years - it rose in 2019 - 2020 and has declined again in 2021, and stabilized in 2022 • 20% of prefixes generate 80% of all updates. Less than 5% of all origin networks are linked to 80% of all updates. Routing instability is concentrated in a small number of highly unstable cases.
  • 39. V6 BGP Updates The growth trajectory of IPv6 has slackened off, and the daily total of updates and withdrawals has been steady across 2023
  • 41. V6 Unstable Prefixes The number of unstable address prefixes stabilised across 2023 Proportionally, IPv6 prefixes are ~2x more likely to be updated as compared to the IPv4 BGP network
  • 43. V6 Convergence Performance Time to converge has been very unstable for years in IPv6 This is now stabilising to a level that is on a par with the IPv4 network
  • 44. Updates in IPv6 BGP It’s improving … • Compared to IPv4, the IPv6 network has exhibited a high level of skew of routing instability, where a small number of networks contribute disproportionately to the overall level of BGP updates in IPv6. • Just 2 AS’s generated 50% of the BGP update load in the last 2 weeks of 2023. IPv6 routing instability is still concentrated in a small number of pathologically unstable cases.
  • 45. The Highlights • IPv4 FIB Summary • IPv6 FIB Summary • FIB Projections • Churn • Conclusions
  • 46. Routing Futures • There is still little in the way of scaling pressure from BGP as a routing protocol – the relatively compressed inter-AS topology and stability of the infrastructure links tend to ensure that BGP remains effective in routing the internet. • Instability levels are rising, generally driven by a small set of highly unstable “super generators”
  • 47. Routing Futures • The frenetic pace of expansion in the routing infrastructure of the Internet has slowed down across 2023. The IPv4 BGP network shrank slightly in 2023, and the pace of growth the IPv6 network also slackened off across the year. • The drivers for growth were the product of the population of networks with discrete routing policies and the need to balance incoming traffic across multiple paths (traffic engineering) – the rapid increase in the use of CDN platforms has reduced the dependence on transit routes to provide content and services to end users. • Much of the overall volume of content traffic has shifted across into privately operated platforms, and the demands on the public routed common infrastructure have started to decline
  • 48. Some Practical Suggestions For those network operators whose service needs are dependent on the BGP network to some extent (which is mostly everyone) Know your network’s limits: • Understand your routing FIB capacity in the default-free parts of your network • There may be some default max prefix setting of ~1M FIB entries which will cause a BGP session shutdown when tripped • AS 4804 (Optus) in Australia appeared to encounter this situation in October 2023 • Use a max prefix exceeded switch which avoids sessions shutdown where possible
  • 49. Some Practical Suggestions Know your network’s limits Review your routers’ settings • Review your IPv4 / IPv6 portioning in the FIB tables - a dual-stack eBGP router will conservatively need a 1.2 M 32-bit IPv4 slots and 320K 128- bit IPv6 slots for a full eBGP routing table in line cards by 2026 if they are using a full eBGP FIB load (plus internal routes of course). That’s roughly the same memory footprint for IPv4 and IPv6!
  • 50. Some Practical Suggestions Know your network’s limits Review your routers’ settings Default routes can be helpful • Judicious use of default routes in your internal network may allow you drop this high speed line card memory requirement significantly
  • 51. Some Practical Suggestions Know your network’s limits Review your routers’ settings Default routes can be helpful Time for hot caching in line card FIBs? • Using a hot cache for line card FIB cache would reduce the high-speed TCAM memory requirement significantly without visible performance cost
  • 52. Some Practical Suggestions Know your network’s limits Review your routers’ settings Default routes can be helpful Time for hot caching in line card FIBs?