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IP Addressing and IPv6
IETF 119: Policymakers Program
Brisbane, Australia
March 2024
2
2
Coming up…
• What’s an IP address?
• IPv4 and IPv6
• The RIR system
• Internet governance
• APNIC
3
What’s an IP address?
4
4
What’s an IP Address?
• The fundamental Internet infrastructure address
– Every device must have a unique* IP address
– Every network must have a range (block) of addresses*
• A “Common Resource”
– Address pools are finite
– Managed in the common interest, under common policies
– For conservation and for routability
• There’s a difference…
– IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6)
– Domain names (eg www.isoc.org)
– Email addresses (eg pwilson@apnic.net)
– IP as in Intellectual Property
5
5
IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
• IPv4 (since 1983)
– Example: 202.12.29.142
– 32-bit* number: 232 = 4 billion addresses
– Mostly exhausted
• IPv6 (since 1999)
– Example: FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D
– 128-bit* number: 2128 = 340 billion billion billion billion
– Should (must) last for many decades at least, or forever?
• IPv6 transition (since 2011…)
– More later.
* bit = binary digit
6
Allocation
Where do IP Addresses come from?
Standards
Allocation
Assignment
RIR
More on all of this later.
7
7
Hierarchical Address Delegation
RIR /8
/8 = 16M addresses
Allocation /12
/12 = 2M addresses
Sub-allocation /22 /22= 1K addresses
Assignment /32 /24
/24 = 256 addresses
/32 = 1 address
8
IP Addresses in use….
The Internet
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
202.12.29.0/24
…
“Announce”
202.12.29.0/24
R
202.12.29.0/24
Traffic
202.12.29.0/24
Network
Network
9
9
Internet Address Routing
The Internet
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Net
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
4.128/9
60.100/16
60.100.0/20
135.22/16
…
Global Routing Table
10
10
IPv4 Routing Table – Prefixes
http://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-active.html
11
193.0.6.148
196.216.2.1
2001:42d0::200:2:1
192.149.252.75
2001:500:4:13::80
2001:13c7:7002:4000::10
202.12.29.211
2001:610:240:22::c100:68b
212.110.167.157
2001:41c8:20::19
192.0.32.7
2620:0:2d0:200::7
NB: Numbers vs Names…
nixi.in
rigf.asia
www.google.com
twitter.com
www.apnic.net
Intgovforum.org
www.isoc.org
www.icann.org
12
Domain Name System
The Internet
www.apnic.net?
202.12.29.194
2001:dc0:2001:11::211
DNS
www.apnic.net
2001:0C00:8888::
2001:dc0:2001:11::211
13
The IPv6 transition
14
14
http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4
IPv4 exhaustion…
15
15
IPv4 exhaustion…
• IANA pool fully distributed in 2011
• RIR regional supplies followed
– APNIC: 2011 (last /8 policy invoked)
– RIPE NCC: 2012
– LACNIC: 2014
– ARIN: 2015
– AFRINIC: 2017
• Stop-gap measures continue
– Address sharing, Network Address Translation (NAT)
16
16
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network
202.12.29.0/24
The Internet
202.12.29.1 … .2 … .3 … .4
*AKA home router, hotspot, etc
NAT*
202.12.29.32
10.0.0.1 ..2 ..3 ..4
17
Private addresses and NAT
Internet
10.0.0.202
202.12.29.32
NAT
? Extn 202
Phone
Network
02 6262 9898
PABX
18
10.0.0.202
Carrier Grade NAT (CGN)
IPv4
CGN
10.255.255.255
10.0.0.1
?
19
19
CGN Challenges
1GB per subscriber per month!
Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. 2012
20
21
2
22
2
23
23
The need for IPv6…
• One reason: more IP addresses
– Other benefits are minor
• The Internet will keep growing
– Broadband, wifi, 4G, 5G…
– “Internet of Things”
• IPv6 is the only viable option
– Enable sustainable growth of the Internet
– Without IPv6 the future isn’t great
• But will it work?
– Slow deployment so far…
24
The good news…
25
25
Good news…
44% capability in Asia
26
26
Top 20… Rank Economy IPv6 Capable
1 India 76.39%
2 Belgium 68.83%
3 France 66.39%
4 Saudi Arabia 65.15%
5 Germany 62.95%
6 Greece 60.32%
7 Uruguay 59.93%
8 Malaysia 59.44%
9 Israel 56.64%
10 United States of America 53.32%
11 Puerto Rico 50.97%
12 Vietnam 50.72%
13 Taiwan 50.16%
14 Mexico 49.49%
15 Finland 49.17%
16 Netherlands 49.06%
17 Luxembourg 47.61%
18 Japan 47.21%
19 Sri Lanka 47.11%
20 Hungary 47.09%
26 Thailand 42.41%
31 Australia 37.26%
40 China 29.06%
48 New Zealand 24.27%
27
27
2015…
Rank Economy IPv6 Capable
1 Belgium 45.24%
2 Switzerland 27.85%
3 United States of America 26.39%
4 Germany 25.24%
5 Portugal 18.30%
6 Luxembourg 17.28%
7 Greece 16.61%
8 Estonia 16.59%
9 Japan 15.64%
10 Peru 15.38%
11 Czech Republic 10.50%
12 Norway 10.48%
13 Malaysia 10.04%
14 Romania 10.04%
15 Singapore 9.61%
16 France 6.43%
17 Ecuador 6.43%
18 Brazil 5.81%
19 Finland 5.71%
20 Austria 5.52%
28
28
More good news…
https://www.google.com/intl/en/ipv6/statistics.html
45% of Google traffic
29
29
IPv6 Deployment Factors
• Motivations
– IPv4 shortage and cost of IPv4 (USD $50/address)
– Efficiency of technology and routing
– Other “features” are negligible
• Constraints
– Product range, cost, reliability
– Business risks
– Human capacity
• Incentives
– Procurement requirements (genuine!)
– Competition and the network effect?
30
The RIR System
31
Allocation
Where do IP Addresses come from?
Standards
32
32
Early days: 1981 – 1992
“The assignment of numbers is also handled by Jon. If you are
developing a protocol or application that will require the use of a
link, socket, port, protocol, or network number please contact
Jon to receive a number assignment.” (RFC 790)
1981:
33
33
Boom times: 1992 – 2001
“It has become clear that … these problems are likely to become critical
within the next one to three years.” (RFC1366, Gerich)
“…it is [now] desirable to consider delegating the registration function to an
organization in each of those geographic areas.” (RFC 1338)
1992:
34
34
Boom times: 1992 – 2001
RIR requirements defined (RFC 1466, Gerich)
1993:
35
35
Maturity: 2000s…
1999:
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
2004:
Number Resource Organisation (NRO)
36
36
What do RIRs do?
• Internet number resource management
– IP addresses: IPv4 and IPv6
– Autonomous System Numbers
– Allocation, Transfer
– Resource registration (“whois”)
• Policy development process
– Coordination and support of PDP
– Open Policy Meetings
– Global policy process (via ASO and ICANN)
37
RIR Policy Process
OPEN
TRANSPARENT
‘BOTTOM UP’
Anyone can
participate
All processes documented
and freely available
Internet community proposes
and approves policy
38
38
OPEN
TRANSPARENT
‘BOTTOM UP’
RIR Policy Process
Need
Proposal
Consensus
Implement
Evaluate
39
39
Regional Internet Registries today
40
RIRs in Internet
Governance
41
41
“Content Layer”
“Code Layer”
“Physical Layer”
DiploFoundation www.diplomacy.edu Lawrence Lessig www.lessig.org
Internet Governance
42
42
Internet technical coordination
• A.K.A. the “code layer” (Lessig)
• One subset of “Internet Governance”
– Internet standards development
– DNS administration
– DNS infrastructure coordination
– IP address and related resource management
• Activities of several types
– Administrative
– Operational
– Standards and technical policy
– Internet address management (RIRs)
43
43
IANA stewardship transition
• Original purpose of ICANN
– To take stewardship of IANA function from USG
– “In no event later than 2000” (USG Green Paper)
• NTIA announcement March 2014
– Specific requirements defined, including accountability
– For completion by 30 Sep 2016
• Transition planning
– ICG: IANA transition Coordination Group
– Provided proposal to NTIA in 2016
44
44
IANA stewardship transition
• Internet Number Community
– 1 of 3 communities identified by transition process
– RIR members and other stakeholders
• RIR CRISP team
– Community-selected planning committee
– CRISP principles and proposal 15 Jan 2015
• Implementation
– “SLA” for IANA services (replacing NTIA)
– IANA Review Committee
– Accountability improvements
– Completed 2016
45
More about APNIC
46
46
APNIC
• The RIR for the Asia Pacific region
• Delegates and manages Internet
number resources
– IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
– AS numbers
• Membership-based, not-for-profit
– Community self-regulatory body
– Open, Neutral, Transparent
– Consensus-based Policy Process
47
47
NIRs in the APNIC region
• National registries existed prior to APNIC…
– JPNIC, CNNIC, KRNIC, TWNIC, AUNIC, NZNIC
• Some NIRs formed later
– VNNIC, IRINN, IDNIC
• Some dissolved after APNIC formed
– AUNIC, NZNIC
– No new NIRs are being accepted now (due to IPv4 exhaustion)
• NIR functions
– Providing IP address registration services
– Hosting local PDP and related activities
– Interfacing with APNIC: operations and PDP
– Other activities according to role and need
48
48
What else does APNIC do?
• Information products and services
– APNIC Labs, Blog, Ping
– Tools: Rex, DASH, Netox
• Capacity building
– Training and technical assistance
– Conferences, fellowships
– Community support: NOGs, CERTs
– Cooperation and advocacy: IETF, ICANN, ITU, APT, PITA, OECD, APEC TEL…
• Infrastructure support
– IXPs and DNS rootservers
• Internet development
– APNIC Foundation (2016)
– Asia Pacific Internet Development Trust (2021)
49
49
apnic.foundation
50
50
isif.asia
51
51
apidt.org
52
52
arena-pac.net
53
53
arena-pac.net
54
That’s all folks!
Questions?
pwilson@apnic.net
http://www.apnic.net

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IP addressing and IPv6, presented by Paul Wilson at IETF 119

  • 1. 1 IP Addressing and IPv6 IETF 119: Policymakers Program Brisbane, Australia March 2024
  • 2. 2 2 Coming up… • What’s an IP address? • IPv4 and IPv6 • The RIR system • Internet governance • APNIC
  • 3. 3 What’s an IP address?
  • 4. 4 4 What’s an IP Address? • The fundamental Internet infrastructure address – Every device must have a unique* IP address – Every network must have a range (block) of addresses* • A “Common Resource” – Address pools are finite – Managed in the common interest, under common policies – For conservation and for routability • There’s a difference… – IP addresses (IPv4 or IPv6) – Domain names (eg www.isoc.org) – Email addresses (eg pwilson@apnic.net) – IP as in Intellectual Property
  • 5. 5 5 IPv4 and IPv6 addresses • IPv4 (since 1983) – Example: 202.12.29.142 – 32-bit* number: 232 = 4 billion addresses – Mostly exhausted • IPv6 (since 1999) – Example: FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D – 128-bit* number: 2128 = 340 billion billion billion billion – Should (must) last for many decades at least, or forever? • IPv6 transition (since 2011…) – More later. * bit = binary digit
  • 6. 6 Allocation Where do IP Addresses come from? Standards Allocation Assignment RIR More on all of this later.
  • 7. 7 7 Hierarchical Address Delegation RIR /8 /8 = 16M addresses Allocation /12 /12 = 2M addresses Sub-allocation /22 /22= 1K addresses Assignment /32 /24 /24 = 256 addresses /32 = 1 address
  • 8. 8 IP Addresses in use…. The Internet Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 202.12.29.0/24 … “Announce” 202.12.29.0/24 R 202.12.29.0/24 Traffic 202.12.29.0/24 Network Network
  • 9. 9 9 Internet Address Routing The Internet Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table
  • 10. 10 10 IPv4 Routing Table – Prefixes http://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-active.html
  • 12. 12 Domain Name System The Internet www.apnic.net? 202.12.29.194 2001:dc0:2001:11::211 DNS www.apnic.net 2001:0C00:8888:: 2001:dc0:2001:11::211
  • 15. 15 15 IPv4 exhaustion… • IANA pool fully distributed in 2011 • RIR regional supplies followed – APNIC: 2011 (last /8 policy invoked) – RIPE NCC: 2012 – LACNIC: 2014 – ARIN: 2015 – AFRINIC: 2017 • Stop-gap measures continue – Address sharing, Network Address Translation (NAT)
  • 16. 16 16 Network Address Translation (NAT) Network 202.12.29.0/24 The Internet 202.12.29.1 … .2 … .3 … .4 *AKA home router, hotspot, etc NAT* 202.12.29.32 10.0.0.1 ..2 ..3 ..4
  • 17. 17 Private addresses and NAT Internet 10.0.0.202 202.12.29.32 NAT ? Extn 202 Phone Network 02 6262 9898 PABX
  • 18. 18 10.0.0.202 Carrier Grade NAT (CGN) IPv4 CGN 10.255.255.255 10.0.0.1 ?
  • 19. 19 19 CGN Challenges 1GB per subscriber per month! Cable Television Laboratories, Inc. 2012
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21 2
  • 22. 22 2
  • 23. 23 23 The need for IPv6… • One reason: more IP addresses – Other benefits are minor • The Internet will keep growing – Broadband, wifi, 4G, 5G… – “Internet of Things” • IPv6 is the only viable option – Enable sustainable growth of the Internet – Without IPv6 the future isn’t great • But will it work? – Slow deployment so far…
  • 26. 26 26 Top 20… Rank Economy IPv6 Capable 1 India 76.39% 2 Belgium 68.83% 3 France 66.39% 4 Saudi Arabia 65.15% 5 Germany 62.95% 6 Greece 60.32% 7 Uruguay 59.93% 8 Malaysia 59.44% 9 Israel 56.64% 10 United States of America 53.32% 11 Puerto Rico 50.97% 12 Vietnam 50.72% 13 Taiwan 50.16% 14 Mexico 49.49% 15 Finland 49.17% 16 Netherlands 49.06% 17 Luxembourg 47.61% 18 Japan 47.21% 19 Sri Lanka 47.11% 20 Hungary 47.09% 26 Thailand 42.41% 31 Australia 37.26% 40 China 29.06% 48 New Zealand 24.27%
  • 27. 27 27 2015… Rank Economy IPv6 Capable 1 Belgium 45.24% 2 Switzerland 27.85% 3 United States of America 26.39% 4 Germany 25.24% 5 Portugal 18.30% 6 Luxembourg 17.28% 7 Greece 16.61% 8 Estonia 16.59% 9 Japan 15.64% 10 Peru 15.38% 11 Czech Republic 10.50% 12 Norway 10.48% 13 Malaysia 10.04% 14 Romania 10.04% 15 Singapore 9.61% 16 France 6.43% 17 Ecuador 6.43% 18 Brazil 5.81% 19 Finland 5.71% 20 Austria 5.52%
  • 29. 29 29 IPv6 Deployment Factors • Motivations – IPv4 shortage and cost of IPv4 (USD $50/address) – Efficiency of technology and routing – Other “features” are negligible • Constraints – Product range, cost, reliability – Business risks – Human capacity • Incentives – Procurement requirements (genuine!) – Competition and the network effect?
  • 31. 31 Allocation Where do IP Addresses come from? Standards
  • 32. 32 32 Early days: 1981 – 1992 “The assignment of numbers is also handled by Jon. If you are developing a protocol or application that will require the use of a link, socket, port, protocol, or network number please contact Jon to receive a number assignment.” (RFC 790) 1981:
  • 33. 33 33 Boom times: 1992 – 2001 “It has become clear that … these problems are likely to become critical within the next one to three years.” (RFC1366, Gerich) “…it is [now] desirable to consider delegating the registration function to an organization in each of those geographic areas.” (RFC 1338) 1992:
  • 34. 34 34 Boom times: 1992 – 2001 RIR requirements defined (RFC 1466, Gerich) 1993:
  • 35. 35 35 Maturity: 2000s… 1999: Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 2004: Number Resource Organisation (NRO)
  • 36. 36 36 What do RIRs do? • Internet number resource management – IP addresses: IPv4 and IPv6 – Autonomous System Numbers – Allocation, Transfer – Resource registration (“whois”) • Policy development process – Coordination and support of PDP – Open Policy Meetings – Global policy process (via ASO and ICANN)
  • 37. 37 RIR Policy Process OPEN TRANSPARENT ‘BOTTOM UP’ Anyone can participate All processes documented and freely available Internet community proposes and approves policy
  • 38. 38 38 OPEN TRANSPARENT ‘BOTTOM UP’ RIR Policy Process Need Proposal Consensus Implement Evaluate
  • 41. 41 41 “Content Layer” “Code Layer” “Physical Layer” DiploFoundation www.diplomacy.edu Lawrence Lessig www.lessig.org Internet Governance
  • 42. 42 42 Internet technical coordination • A.K.A. the “code layer” (Lessig) • One subset of “Internet Governance” – Internet standards development – DNS administration – DNS infrastructure coordination – IP address and related resource management • Activities of several types – Administrative – Operational – Standards and technical policy – Internet address management (RIRs)
  • 43. 43 43 IANA stewardship transition • Original purpose of ICANN – To take stewardship of IANA function from USG – “In no event later than 2000” (USG Green Paper) • NTIA announcement March 2014 – Specific requirements defined, including accountability – For completion by 30 Sep 2016 • Transition planning – ICG: IANA transition Coordination Group – Provided proposal to NTIA in 2016
  • 44. 44 44 IANA stewardship transition • Internet Number Community – 1 of 3 communities identified by transition process – RIR members and other stakeholders • RIR CRISP team – Community-selected planning committee – CRISP principles and proposal 15 Jan 2015 • Implementation – “SLA” for IANA services (replacing NTIA) – IANA Review Committee – Accountability improvements – Completed 2016
  • 46. 46 46 APNIC • The RIR for the Asia Pacific region • Delegates and manages Internet number resources – IPv4 and IPv6 addresses – AS numbers • Membership-based, not-for-profit – Community self-regulatory body – Open, Neutral, Transparent – Consensus-based Policy Process
  • 47. 47 47 NIRs in the APNIC region • National registries existed prior to APNIC… – JPNIC, CNNIC, KRNIC, TWNIC, AUNIC, NZNIC • Some NIRs formed later – VNNIC, IRINN, IDNIC • Some dissolved after APNIC formed – AUNIC, NZNIC – No new NIRs are being accepted now (due to IPv4 exhaustion) • NIR functions – Providing IP address registration services – Hosting local PDP and related activities – Interfacing with APNIC: operations and PDP – Other activities according to role and need
  • 48. 48 48 What else does APNIC do? • Information products and services – APNIC Labs, Blog, Ping – Tools: Rex, DASH, Netox • Capacity building – Training and technical assistance – Conferences, fellowships – Community support: NOGs, CERTs – Cooperation and advocacy: IETF, ICANN, ITU, APT, PITA, OECD, APEC TEL… • Infrastructure support – IXPs and DNS rootservers • Internet development – APNIC Foundation (2016) – Asia Pacific Internet Development Trust (2021)