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ULTRASOUND IN FOOD PRESERVATION
Presented By Keshavalu
M.Tech in Food process Engineering
Agricultural and Food Engineering Department
IIT Kharagpur
Content
• Introduction
• Ultrasound generation
• Uses of ultrasound in food processing
• Ultrasound in food preservation
• Effect of ultrasound on food quality
• Conclusion
• References
Introduction
• Ultrasound waves are similar to sound waves but, having a frequency
above 16 kHz, cannot be detected by the human ear.
• Ultrasound refers to sound waves, mechanical vibrations, which
propagate through solids, liquids and gases with a frequency greater
than the upper limit of human hearing.
• Use of ultrasound in food processing includes extraction, drying,
crystallization, filtration, defoaming, homogenization and also use of
ultrasound as preservation technique.
• The principle aim of this technology is to reduce the processing time,
save energy and improve the shelf life and quality of food products.
Figure 1. Frequency ranges of sound
• Sound waves can propagate parallel or perpendicular to the direction
of travel through a material. Since the propagation of sound waves is
normally associated with a liquid medium.
• Parallel waves are known as longitudinal waves.
• Perpendicular waves are also known as shear waves.
• Longitudinal waves are capable of traveling
in solids, liquids, or gases. And have short
wavelengths with respect to the transducer
dimensions, producing sharply defined beams
and high velocities.
Figure 2. longitudinal wave
• Shear waves The particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of
wave propagation and liquids and gases do not support stress shear
under normal conditions, shear waves can only propagate through
solids.
• The velocity of shear wave is relatively low compared to longitudinal
waves.
Figure 3. shear wave
Ultrasound generation
• Ultrasonic wave producing system contains the generator, transducer
and the application system.
• Generator: It produces mechanical energy.
• Transducer: It converts mechanical energy into the sound energy at
ultrasonic frequencies.
There are 3 types of Transducer
1) Fluid-driven
2) Magnetostrictive
3) Piezoelectric
1) luid-driven Transducer: The fluid-driven transducer produces vibration at ultrasonic
frequencies by forcing liquid to thin metal blade which can be used for mixing and
homogenisation systems.
2) Magnetostrictive Transducer: The magnetostrictive
transducer is made from a kind of ferromagnetic materials
such as iron or nickel. The frequency of the oscillator can
be adjusted by changing the capacitance of the condenser C.
• A magnetostriction generator produces ultrasonic
waves of comparatively low frequency. up to 200 kHz.
Figure 4. fluid-driven
Figure 5.Magnetostrictive Transducer
• Piezoelectric Transducer:
• Some naturally piezoelectric occurring
materials include Berlinite,
cane sugar, quartz, Rochelle salt,
topaz, tourmaline, and bone.
• man-made piezoelectric materials includes
barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate.
• Piezoelectric Transducer produces ultrasonic
waves more than 300kHz.
• In application system a coupler device is used to transfer ultrasonic vibrations to
the sample.
• probe system
• ultrasonic bath
Figure 6. Piezoelectric Transducer:
• Probe system:
• Ultrasonic bath: Figure 7. probe system
Figure 8. ultrasonic bath
•Uses of Ultrasound in Food Processing
 Filtration and drying
 Freezing
 Mixing and homogenization
 Defoaming
 Crystallization of fats, sugars etc
 Cutting
 Degassing
Ultrasound in food preservation
• Microbial inactivation mechanism: By cavitation phenomena.
During the cavitation process it changes the pressure and temperature cause
break- down of cell walls, disruption and thinning of cell membranes and DNA
will be damage.
Cavitation can be divided into two types
1) Transient Cavitation:
The bubbles oscillate in a irregular
fashion and finally implode.
This produces high local temperatures
and pressures that would disintegrate
biological cells and denature enzymes. Figure 9. transient Cavitation
2) Stable Cavitation:
• The bubbles that oscillate in a regular fashion
for many acoustic cycles.
• The inactivation effect of ultrasound has also been attributed to the generation of
intracellular cavitation and these mechanical shocks can disrupt cellular structural
and functional components up to the point of cell lysis.
Figure 10. stable Cavitation
Figure 11. Mechanism of ultrasound-induced cell damage
• Methods of ultrasound:
a) Ultrasonication (US):
• it is the application of ultrasound at low temperature.
• it requires long treatment time to inactivate stable enzymes and microorganisms which may
cause high energy requirement.
b) Thermosonication (TS):
• It is a combined method of ultrasound and heat. The product is subjected to ultrasound and
moderate heat simultaneously. This method produces a greater effect on inactivation of
microorganisms than heat alone.
c) Manosonication (MS) :
• It is a combined method in which ultrasound and pressure are applied together.
• Manosonication provides to inactivate enzymes and microorganisms.
d) Manothermosonication (MTS) :
• It is a combined method of heat, ultrasound and pressure.
• MTS treatments inactivate several enzymes at lower temperatures and/or in a shorter time than
thermal treatments at the same temperatures
Table 1.Effects of ultrasound in combination with heat and pressure
Inactivation by Vegetative cells Spores Enzymes
Ultrasound alone (US) + - -
US and heat (MT) + + -
US and heat and pressure
(MTS)
+ + +
• Microorganism Inactivation
• Different kinds of microorganisms have different membrane structure.
• Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker cell wall and also Gram- negative bacteria
have a thinner cell wall.
• Factors affecting the effectiveness of microbial inactivation are.
 Amplitude of ultrasound waves.
 Exposure or contact time.
 Volume of food processed.
Treatment temperature.
• The inactivation of Listeria monocytegenes by high-power ultrasonic waves (20
kHz) at ambient temperature and pressure has been found to be low with decimal
reduction values in 4.3 min.
• By combining sub lethal temperatures and higher pressures of 200kPa the decimal
reduction value will be over 1.5 min to 1.0 min.
• Spore Inactivation
• Microbial spores are resistant to extreme conditions such as high temperatures and
pressures, high and low pH and mechanical shocks.
• The endospores of Bacillus and Clostridium species are very resistant to extreme
conditions.
• Manosonication treatment at 500kPa for 12min inactivated over 99% of the spores.
Increasing the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration of the transducer. The increasing the
level of inactivation.
• For example 20 kHz probe at 300 kPa, 12 min sonication at 90µm amplitude
inactivated 75% of the spores.
• By raising the amplitude to 150µm resulted in 99.5% spore inactivation.
• Finally increasing the thermal temperature of the treatment resulted in greater rates of
inactivation certainly at 300kPa compared to thermal treatment alone.
Table 2. Experiences using ultrasound in food preservation
• Enzyme inactivation
• The study of enzyme inactivation by ultrasound has received less attention than
microbial inactivation.
• Ultrasound creates continuous vibration and produce stable cavitation bubbles
which collapse due to the extreme local increase in pressure (1000 P) and
temperature (5000 K).
• Due to high pressure and temperature the secondary and tertiary structure will
breakdown. And also loss of many enzymes.
• Application of MTS treatments to model enzymes relevant to the food industry in
model buffer systems proved to be much more efficient than heat treatment for
inactivating these enzymes, especially those which are more thermally labile
(lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase).
Table 3. Inactivation of enzymes by using heat, pressure and ultrasound treatments.
Enzyme Medium Treatment Effect on activity
Pectinmethylesterae
(PME) and
Polygalacturanase
(PG)
Phosphate buffer 20 kHz, 52°C -
86°C, 12 - 45
kg/cm2, 0 - 104 μm
PME; D62.5°C = 45 min decreased to 0.85 min by
MTS
PGI; D86°C = 20.6 min decreased to 0.24 min
by MTS
PGII; D52.5°C = 38.4 decreased to 1.46 min by MTS
Glucose-6 phosphate
dehydrogenase
Distilled water
(pH = 5.6)
27 kHz, 60 W/cm2,
36°C - 47°C 880
kHz and 1 W/cm2,
36°C - 47°C
Caused higher inactivation as compared to thermal
treatment, dependent on enzyme concentration, higher
activation energy at lower frequency.
Orange juice
pectinmethylesterase
Citrate buffer and
orange juice
20 kHz, 33°C and
72°C, 200kPa,
117μm
MTS increased the inactivation by 25 times in citrate
buffer and >400 times in orange juice.
PME and (PG) of
tomato paste
Tomato pure
(5.5% solid)
20 kHz, 200kPa,
70°C, 117 μm
100% inactivation of PME, 62% inactivation of PG.
• Effect of ultrasound on food quality
• Effects of Ultrasound on Dairy Products
i. Serum proteins are lactalbumin and lactoglobulin are denatured more
extensively when ultrasound is combined with heat than with these two
treatments performed separately.
ii. Similar results were obtained in fat globule homogenization when
applying continuous manothermosonication.
iii. This also results in a slight change in milk colour.
•Effect of ultrasound on juices
i. vitamin C retention of orange juice after ultrasonic treatment is
higher when it is compared to thermal processing.
ii. The effects of ultrasound and temperature on vitamin C content of
tomato extract. It was found that there is no significant effect of
ultrasound whereas heat treatment significantly reduces vitamin C
content of tomato extract.
iii. MTS treatments of pure pectin solutions yielded molecules with
lower apparent viscosities due to a size reduction.
• Conclusion
• Ultrasound is considered to be an emerging technology in the food
industry. It has advantages of minimizing flavor loss, increasing
homogeneity, saving energy, high productivity, enhanced quality,
reduced chemical and physical hazards, and is environmentally
friendly.
• When it is applied with pressure and temperature its efficiency
increases and control nutritional loss.
• Ultrasound is a good alternative method for the food preservation and
also no adverse effect on human health.
• References
• Songul Sahin Ercan and Cigdem soysal. (2013) Use of ultrasound in
food preservation. Natural Science, (5), 5-13.
• Farid Chemat, Zill-e-Huma, Muhammed Kamran Khan. (2011)
Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing,
preservation and extraction. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, (18), 813–
835.
• Emerging Technologies for Food Processing. Edted by Da-Wen Sun.
323-351.
Ultrasound in food preservation

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Ultrasound in food preservation

  • 1. ULTRASOUND IN FOOD PRESERVATION Presented By Keshavalu M.Tech in Food process Engineering Agricultural and Food Engineering Department IIT Kharagpur
  • 2. Content • Introduction • Ultrasound generation • Uses of ultrasound in food processing • Ultrasound in food preservation • Effect of ultrasound on food quality • Conclusion • References
  • 3. Introduction • Ultrasound waves are similar to sound waves but, having a frequency above 16 kHz, cannot be detected by the human ear. • Ultrasound refers to sound waves, mechanical vibrations, which propagate through solids, liquids and gases with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. • Use of ultrasound in food processing includes extraction, drying, crystallization, filtration, defoaming, homogenization and also use of ultrasound as preservation technique. • The principle aim of this technology is to reduce the processing time, save energy and improve the shelf life and quality of food products.
  • 4. Figure 1. Frequency ranges of sound
  • 5. • Sound waves can propagate parallel or perpendicular to the direction of travel through a material. Since the propagation of sound waves is normally associated with a liquid medium. • Parallel waves are known as longitudinal waves. • Perpendicular waves are also known as shear waves. • Longitudinal waves are capable of traveling in solids, liquids, or gases. And have short wavelengths with respect to the transducer dimensions, producing sharply defined beams and high velocities. Figure 2. longitudinal wave
  • 6. • Shear waves The particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation and liquids and gases do not support stress shear under normal conditions, shear waves can only propagate through solids. • The velocity of shear wave is relatively low compared to longitudinal waves. Figure 3. shear wave
  • 7. Ultrasound generation • Ultrasonic wave producing system contains the generator, transducer and the application system. • Generator: It produces mechanical energy. • Transducer: It converts mechanical energy into the sound energy at ultrasonic frequencies. There are 3 types of Transducer 1) Fluid-driven 2) Magnetostrictive 3) Piezoelectric
  • 8. 1) luid-driven Transducer: The fluid-driven transducer produces vibration at ultrasonic frequencies by forcing liquid to thin metal blade which can be used for mixing and homogenisation systems. 2) Magnetostrictive Transducer: The magnetostrictive transducer is made from a kind of ferromagnetic materials such as iron or nickel. The frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted by changing the capacitance of the condenser C. • A magnetostriction generator produces ultrasonic waves of comparatively low frequency. up to 200 kHz. Figure 4. fluid-driven Figure 5.Magnetostrictive Transducer
  • 9. • Piezoelectric Transducer: • Some naturally piezoelectric occurring materials include Berlinite, cane sugar, quartz, Rochelle salt, topaz, tourmaline, and bone. • man-made piezoelectric materials includes barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate. • Piezoelectric Transducer produces ultrasonic waves more than 300kHz. • In application system a coupler device is used to transfer ultrasonic vibrations to the sample. • probe system • ultrasonic bath Figure 6. Piezoelectric Transducer:
  • 10. • Probe system: • Ultrasonic bath: Figure 7. probe system Figure 8. ultrasonic bath
  • 11. •Uses of Ultrasound in Food Processing  Filtration and drying  Freezing  Mixing and homogenization  Defoaming  Crystallization of fats, sugars etc  Cutting  Degassing
  • 12. Ultrasound in food preservation • Microbial inactivation mechanism: By cavitation phenomena. During the cavitation process it changes the pressure and temperature cause break- down of cell walls, disruption and thinning of cell membranes and DNA will be damage. Cavitation can be divided into two types 1) Transient Cavitation: The bubbles oscillate in a irregular fashion and finally implode. This produces high local temperatures and pressures that would disintegrate biological cells and denature enzymes. Figure 9. transient Cavitation
  • 13. 2) Stable Cavitation: • The bubbles that oscillate in a regular fashion for many acoustic cycles. • The inactivation effect of ultrasound has also been attributed to the generation of intracellular cavitation and these mechanical shocks can disrupt cellular structural and functional components up to the point of cell lysis. Figure 10. stable Cavitation Figure 11. Mechanism of ultrasound-induced cell damage
  • 14. • Methods of ultrasound: a) Ultrasonication (US): • it is the application of ultrasound at low temperature. • it requires long treatment time to inactivate stable enzymes and microorganisms which may cause high energy requirement. b) Thermosonication (TS): • It is a combined method of ultrasound and heat. The product is subjected to ultrasound and moderate heat simultaneously. This method produces a greater effect on inactivation of microorganisms than heat alone. c) Manosonication (MS) : • It is a combined method in which ultrasound and pressure are applied together. • Manosonication provides to inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. d) Manothermosonication (MTS) : • It is a combined method of heat, ultrasound and pressure. • MTS treatments inactivate several enzymes at lower temperatures and/or in a shorter time than thermal treatments at the same temperatures
  • 15. Table 1.Effects of ultrasound in combination with heat and pressure Inactivation by Vegetative cells Spores Enzymes Ultrasound alone (US) + - - US and heat (MT) + + - US and heat and pressure (MTS) + + +
  • 16. • Microorganism Inactivation • Different kinds of microorganisms have different membrane structure. • Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker cell wall and also Gram- negative bacteria have a thinner cell wall. • Factors affecting the effectiveness of microbial inactivation are.  Amplitude of ultrasound waves.  Exposure or contact time.  Volume of food processed. Treatment temperature. • The inactivation of Listeria monocytegenes by high-power ultrasonic waves (20 kHz) at ambient temperature and pressure has been found to be low with decimal reduction values in 4.3 min. • By combining sub lethal temperatures and higher pressures of 200kPa the decimal reduction value will be over 1.5 min to 1.0 min.
  • 17. • Spore Inactivation • Microbial spores are resistant to extreme conditions such as high temperatures and pressures, high and low pH and mechanical shocks. • The endospores of Bacillus and Clostridium species are very resistant to extreme conditions. • Manosonication treatment at 500kPa for 12min inactivated over 99% of the spores. Increasing the amplitude of ultrasonic vibration of the transducer. The increasing the level of inactivation. • For example 20 kHz probe at 300 kPa, 12 min sonication at 90µm amplitude inactivated 75% of the spores. • By raising the amplitude to 150µm resulted in 99.5% spore inactivation. • Finally increasing the thermal temperature of the treatment resulted in greater rates of inactivation certainly at 300kPa compared to thermal treatment alone.
  • 18. Table 2. Experiences using ultrasound in food preservation
  • 19. • Enzyme inactivation • The study of enzyme inactivation by ultrasound has received less attention than microbial inactivation. • Ultrasound creates continuous vibration and produce stable cavitation bubbles which collapse due to the extreme local increase in pressure (1000 P) and temperature (5000 K). • Due to high pressure and temperature the secondary and tertiary structure will breakdown. And also loss of many enzymes. • Application of MTS treatments to model enzymes relevant to the food industry in model buffer systems proved to be much more efficient than heat treatment for inactivating these enzymes, especially those which are more thermally labile (lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase).
  • 20. Table 3. Inactivation of enzymes by using heat, pressure and ultrasound treatments. Enzyme Medium Treatment Effect on activity Pectinmethylesterae (PME) and Polygalacturanase (PG) Phosphate buffer 20 kHz, 52°C - 86°C, 12 - 45 kg/cm2, 0 - 104 μm PME; D62.5°C = 45 min decreased to 0.85 min by MTS PGI; D86°C = 20.6 min decreased to 0.24 min by MTS PGII; D52.5°C = 38.4 decreased to 1.46 min by MTS Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase Distilled water (pH = 5.6) 27 kHz, 60 W/cm2, 36°C - 47°C 880 kHz and 1 W/cm2, 36°C - 47°C Caused higher inactivation as compared to thermal treatment, dependent on enzyme concentration, higher activation energy at lower frequency. Orange juice pectinmethylesterase Citrate buffer and orange juice 20 kHz, 33°C and 72°C, 200kPa, 117μm MTS increased the inactivation by 25 times in citrate buffer and >400 times in orange juice. PME and (PG) of tomato paste Tomato pure (5.5% solid) 20 kHz, 200kPa, 70°C, 117 μm 100% inactivation of PME, 62% inactivation of PG.
  • 21. • Effect of ultrasound on food quality • Effects of Ultrasound on Dairy Products i. Serum proteins are lactalbumin and lactoglobulin are denatured more extensively when ultrasound is combined with heat than with these two treatments performed separately. ii. Similar results were obtained in fat globule homogenization when applying continuous manothermosonication. iii. This also results in a slight change in milk colour.
  • 22. •Effect of ultrasound on juices i. vitamin C retention of orange juice after ultrasonic treatment is higher when it is compared to thermal processing. ii. The effects of ultrasound and temperature on vitamin C content of tomato extract. It was found that there is no significant effect of ultrasound whereas heat treatment significantly reduces vitamin C content of tomato extract. iii. MTS treatments of pure pectin solutions yielded molecules with lower apparent viscosities due to a size reduction.
  • 23. • Conclusion • Ultrasound is considered to be an emerging technology in the food industry. It has advantages of minimizing flavor loss, increasing homogeneity, saving energy, high productivity, enhanced quality, reduced chemical and physical hazards, and is environmentally friendly. • When it is applied with pressure and temperature its efficiency increases and control nutritional loss. • Ultrasound is a good alternative method for the food preservation and also no adverse effect on human health.
  • 24. • References • Songul Sahin Ercan and Cigdem soysal. (2013) Use of ultrasound in food preservation. Natural Science, (5), 5-13. • Farid Chemat, Zill-e-Huma, Muhammed Kamran Khan. (2011) Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, (18), 813– 835. • Emerging Technologies for Food Processing. Edted by Da-Wen Sun. 323-351.