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IMPACT OF NON THERMAL PROCESSING
TECHNOLOGIES ON QUALITY OF FRUIT
JUICES
BY
PANKAJ PATIDAR
CONTENTS
• Introduction of non-thermal processing
• Need of non-thermal processing
• Non thermal technologies in fruit juice industry
• High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology
• High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology
• Ultraviolet radiation (UV) technology
• High voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF)
• Conclusions
• References
INTRODUCTION OF NON THERMAL
PROCESSING
Non-thermal technologies (NTP) are processing
methods for achieving microbial inactivation
without exposing foods to adverse effects of
heat whilst extending products shelf life and
retaining their fresh-like physical nutritional and
sensory qualities. (Ade- Omowaye et al., 2001;
Butz and Tauscher, 2002)
Need of non-thermal processing
• Consumer want -
more healthy and functional food products.
Long shelf life food with high quality.
• Thermal processing may cause some adverse
effect on nutritional and organoleptic
attributes.
• Non-thermal technologies have potential to
ensure safety while maintaining the fresh like
characteristics.
Some of non-thermal processes
• High pressure homogenization (HPH)
technology
• High hydrostatic pressure (HHP)
• Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment
• Ultraviolet (UV) applications
High pressure homogenization (HPH)
technology
High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology
consists of pumping a fluid through a narrow
gap valve using high pressure intensifiers, which
greatly increases its velocity resulting in
depressurization with con- sequent cavitation
and high shear stress.
High pressure homogenization (HPH)
• The main industrial application of HPH is
linked to the production of stable emulsions.
• Microorganisms are inactivated through
mechanical disruption of cells cause
by-
velocity gradients
pressure
turbulence and cavitation
Level of inactivation depends on-
Nature of the microorganism
Applied pressure
Gram positive bacteria are most resistant to
HPH, while Gram negative bacteria are more
sensitive to HPH
• The homogenization could be considered a
promising approach for fruit juices, in order to
reduce the loss of nutritional quality.
• L. brevis and B. coagulans are bacteria of
considerable concern during the processing of
acidic and acidified foods, as they are amongst
the most resistant microorganism to the
thermal treatments usually used by fruit juices
producers
• Fruit juices are composed of an insoluble
phase (the pulp) dispersed in a viscous
solution
• The effect of HPH on the rheological
properties of fruit juices will thus be a
function of the balance between the
structural changes in the pulp and serum.
Effect of pressure (MPA) on total mesophilic bacteria
and pectate lyase activity in banana juice
Pressure (MPa) (MPa)
Total mesophilic bacteria
(CFU/mL)
Pectate lyase activity
(O.D./min/mgdm)
0 2.8x104 ± 0.9x104 0.010 ± 0.003
150 4.0x103 ± 1.3x103 nd
200 < 1.0 nd
300 < 1.0 nd
400 < 1.0 nd
Nd: not detectable, O.D.: optical density, dm: dry matter;
Each experiment was carried out by duplicate;
Each measurement was performed in triplicate
• In the case of HPH, only low numbers of
microorganisms were detected after
treatment at 300 MPa (typically between 2
and 3 log. mL-1) .
• Numbers did not increase during storage of
the juice for 35 days, irrespective of storage
temperature.
• Number of passes of high pressure
homogenization is one of the most effective
parameter
• High pressures can lead to microbial inactivation,
probably due to:-
protein denaturation
cell injury.
• Proteins integrated in membranes surrounded by
lipids.
• In bacteria, the integrity of the membrane is very
sensitive to pressure.
How HPH work
HIGH HYDROSTATIC
PRESSURE(HHP)
TECHNOLOGIES
• It is relatively new concept compared to
conventional thermal processing, receiving
wide attention.
• In this process, the food is subjected to
elevated pressures (pressures up to 900 MPa
or approximately 9000 atm) with or without
the addition of heat to achieve microbial
inactivation.
HHP Depend on-
• Pressure
• Treatment time
• Types of enzymes and/or microorganisms
Advantages of High Pressure
Technology (HPT)
• HPT is suitable for products with high water
content and can be modified for both batch
processing and semi-continuous processing.
• HPT especially useful because it can be used to
process raw product without significantly altering
their flavor, texture or appearance.
• HPT does not destroy the food because it is
applied evenly from all side.
• HPT is equally effective on molds, bacteria, virus
• It can be applied at room temperature thus
reducing the amount of thermal energy
needed for food products during conventional
processing.
• High pressure is not dependent of size and
shape of the food.
• The process is environment friendly since it
requires only electric energy and there are no
waste products.
Application of High Pressure Processing
• High pressure processing can be used to
process both liquid and solid foods in flexible
containers, and has the potential for treating
low acid foods.
• Orange juice was microbiologically stable for
at least 21 days, its organoleptic properties
remained well accepted, and had a flavor and
vitamin content similar to freshly squeezed
juice.
The main components of a high pressure system
are:
• A pressure vessel and its closure
• A pressure generation system
• A temperature control device
• A materials handling system (Mertens, 1995
FLOW CHART OF HHP
Package food in
sterilized container
Load packed food in
pressure chamber
Fill the pressure
chamber with water
And pressurize
Hold under pressure
Depressurize and
remove processed
food
PRINCIPLE OF FUNCTION
Ultraviolet radiation (UV) technology
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation covers a small part of
the electromagnetic spectrum, which also
includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared
radiation, visible light, X rays and γ radiation
• Microorganisms suspended in air are more
sensitive to UV-C radiation than
microorganisms suspended in water,
• Non-thermal technology including UV-C light
meets a 5 log reduction of the pathogen
microorganism(s) as a scientific criterion for
pasteurization of juices
• A 5.72 log reduction in Escherichia coli ATCC
25922 after UV-C treatment (36.09 kJ/L dose)
was achieved, which indicates an acceptable
reduction of a potential pathogen in juices.
• Based on sensory analysis results, no
significant differences were detected between
fresh and UV-C treated juices,
Ultraviolet light
processing: principle
• Radiation at UV different wavelength ranges
wavelength ranges Energies around 400 J/mm2 in all
product Application in fluid foods
Advantages of UV light
• Easy to use
• Free from chemical residues
• Dry and cold process
• Simple and effective
• Low cost
CONCLUSIONS
• Reduce loss of quality and increase safety on
fruit juice industry.
• It can not used only fruit juice also these
technologies applied successfully on fresh cut
fruit and vegetables, dairy technologies,
fermentation products (wine, beer etc.).
• These technologies have positive effect on
food quality, sensory properties and extending
the shelf life of food products.
REFERENCES
1. Bevilacqua A., Costa C., Corbo R. M. and Sinigaglia M. (2009).
Effects of the high pressure of homogenization on some spoiling
microorganisms, representative of fruit juice microflora,
inoculated in saline solution. Letters in Applied Microbiology, ISSN
0266 - 8254.
2. McKay M. A., Linton M., Stirling J., Mackle A., Patterson F. M.
(2011). A comparative study of changes in the microbiota of apple
juice treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) or high pressure
homogenisation (HPH). Microbiology, 28, pp. 1426 - 1431.
3. Campos F. P., Cristianini M. (2007). Inactivation of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in orange juice using ultra
high-pressure homogenisation. Innovative Food Science and
Emerging Technologies, 8, pp. 226 - 229.
4. Knorr D. (1993). Effects of high-hydrostatic-pressure processes on
food safety and quality. Food Technol., 47, pp. 56 - 161.
Impact of non thermal processing technologies on quality of fruit juices

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Impact of non thermal processing technologies on quality of fruit juices

  • 1. IMPACT OF NON THERMAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES ON QUALITY OF FRUIT JUICES BY PANKAJ PATIDAR
  • 2. CONTENTS • Introduction of non-thermal processing • Need of non-thermal processing • Non thermal technologies in fruit juice industry • High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology • High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology • Ultraviolet radiation (UV) technology • High voltage pulsed electric fields (PEF) • Conclusions • References
  • 3. INTRODUCTION OF NON THERMAL PROCESSING Non-thermal technologies (NTP) are processing methods for achieving microbial inactivation without exposing foods to adverse effects of heat whilst extending products shelf life and retaining their fresh-like physical nutritional and sensory qualities. (Ade- Omowaye et al., 2001; Butz and Tauscher, 2002)
  • 4. Need of non-thermal processing • Consumer want - more healthy and functional food products. Long shelf life food with high quality. • Thermal processing may cause some adverse effect on nutritional and organoleptic attributes. • Non-thermal technologies have potential to ensure safety while maintaining the fresh like characteristics.
  • 5. Some of non-thermal processes • High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology • High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) • Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment • Ultraviolet (UV) applications
  • 6. High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology High pressure homogenization (HPH) technology consists of pumping a fluid through a narrow gap valve using high pressure intensifiers, which greatly increases its velocity resulting in depressurization with con- sequent cavitation and high shear stress.
  • 7. High pressure homogenization (HPH) • The main industrial application of HPH is linked to the production of stable emulsions. • Microorganisms are inactivated through mechanical disruption of cells cause by- velocity gradients pressure turbulence and cavitation
  • 8. Level of inactivation depends on- Nature of the microorganism Applied pressure Gram positive bacteria are most resistant to HPH, while Gram negative bacteria are more sensitive to HPH
  • 9. • The homogenization could be considered a promising approach for fruit juices, in order to reduce the loss of nutritional quality. • L. brevis and B. coagulans are bacteria of considerable concern during the processing of acidic and acidified foods, as they are amongst the most resistant microorganism to the thermal treatments usually used by fruit juices producers
  • 10. • Fruit juices are composed of an insoluble phase (the pulp) dispersed in a viscous solution • The effect of HPH on the rheological properties of fruit juices will thus be a function of the balance between the structural changes in the pulp and serum.
  • 11. Effect of pressure (MPA) on total mesophilic bacteria and pectate lyase activity in banana juice Pressure (MPa) (MPa) Total mesophilic bacteria (CFU/mL) Pectate lyase activity (O.D./min/mgdm) 0 2.8x104 ± 0.9x104 0.010 ± 0.003 150 4.0x103 ± 1.3x103 nd 200 < 1.0 nd 300 < 1.0 nd 400 < 1.0 nd Nd: not detectable, O.D.: optical density, dm: dry matter; Each experiment was carried out by duplicate; Each measurement was performed in triplicate
  • 12. • In the case of HPH, only low numbers of microorganisms were detected after treatment at 300 MPa (typically between 2 and 3 log. mL-1) . • Numbers did not increase during storage of the juice for 35 days, irrespective of storage temperature.
  • 13. • Number of passes of high pressure homogenization is one of the most effective parameter
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. • High pressures can lead to microbial inactivation, probably due to:- protein denaturation cell injury. • Proteins integrated in membranes surrounded by lipids. • In bacteria, the integrity of the membrane is very sensitive to pressure. How HPH work
  • 17. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE(HHP) TECHNOLOGIES • It is relatively new concept compared to conventional thermal processing, receiving wide attention. • In this process, the food is subjected to elevated pressures (pressures up to 900 MPa or approximately 9000 atm) with or without the addition of heat to achieve microbial inactivation.
  • 18. HHP Depend on- • Pressure • Treatment time • Types of enzymes and/or microorganisms
  • 19. Advantages of High Pressure Technology (HPT) • HPT is suitable for products with high water content and can be modified for both batch processing and semi-continuous processing. • HPT especially useful because it can be used to process raw product without significantly altering their flavor, texture or appearance. • HPT does not destroy the food because it is applied evenly from all side. • HPT is equally effective on molds, bacteria, virus
  • 20. • It can be applied at room temperature thus reducing the amount of thermal energy needed for food products during conventional processing. • High pressure is not dependent of size and shape of the food. • The process is environment friendly since it requires only electric energy and there are no waste products.
  • 21. Application of High Pressure Processing • High pressure processing can be used to process both liquid and solid foods in flexible containers, and has the potential for treating low acid foods. • Orange juice was microbiologically stable for at least 21 days, its organoleptic properties remained well accepted, and had a flavor and vitamin content similar to freshly squeezed juice.
  • 22.
  • 23. The main components of a high pressure system are: • A pressure vessel and its closure • A pressure generation system • A temperature control device • A materials handling system (Mertens, 1995
  • 24. FLOW CHART OF HHP Package food in sterilized container Load packed food in pressure chamber Fill the pressure chamber with water And pressurize Hold under pressure Depressurize and remove processed food
  • 26. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) technology Ultraviolet (UV) radiation covers a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which also includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, X rays and γ radiation
  • 27. • Microorganisms suspended in air are more sensitive to UV-C radiation than microorganisms suspended in water, • Non-thermal technology including UV-C light meets a 5 log reduction of the pathogen microorganism(s) as a scientific criterion for pasteurization of juices
  • 28. • A 5.72 log reduction in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 after UV-C treatment (36.09 kJ/L dose) was achieved, which indicates an acceptable reduction of a potential pathogen in juices. • Based on sensory analysis results, no significant differences were detected between fresh and UV-C treated juices,
  • 29. Ultraviolet light processing: principle • Radiation at UV different wavelength ranges wavelength ranges Energies around 400 J/mm2 in all product Application in fluid foods
  • 30. Advantages of UV light • Easy to use • Free from chemical residues • Dry and cold process • Simple and effective • Low cost
  • 31. CONCLUSIONS • Reduce loss of quality and increase safety on fruit juice industry. • It can not used only fruit juice also these technologies applied successfully on fresh cut fruit and vegetables, dairy technologies, fermentation products (wine, beer etc.). • These technologies have positive effect on food quality, sensory properties and extending the shelf life of food products.
  • 32. REFERENCES 1. Bevilacqua A., Costa C., Corbo R. M. and Sinigaglia M. (2009). Effects of the high pressure of homogenization on some spoiling microorganisms, representative of fruit juice microflora, inoculated in saline solution. Letters in Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0266 - 8254. 2. McKay M. A., Linton M., Stirling J., Mackle A., Patterson F. M. (2011). A comparative study of changes in the microbiota of apple juice treated by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) or high pressure homogenisation (HPH). Microbiology, 28, pp. 1426 - 1431. 3. Campos F. P., Cristianini M. (2007). Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum in orange juice using ultra high-pressure homogenisation. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8, pp. 226 - 229. 4. Knorr D. (1993). Effects of high-hydrostatic-pressure processes on food safety and quality. Food Technol., 47, pp. 56 - 161.