SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model  Gerald Grow, Ph.D. Theories of Teaching & Learning, Assessment One 19.03.2008, Barbara Stokes
Introduction Self-Directed Learning Gerald Grow’s Model of Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL) Implications for teaching: benefits and limitations of applying the SSDL model The SSDL model in practice Conclusion
Self-Directed Learning Much discussion in literature about the concept of self-directed learning (Candy, Brookfield, Guglielmino,Garrison) Eight underlying factors that determine the level of readiness for SDL: Openness to learning opportunities Self-concept as an effective learner   Initiative and independence in learning
Self Directed-Learning Informed acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning   Love of learning   Creativity   Positive orientation to the future   Ability to use basic study skills and problem solving skills
Importance of Self-Directed Learning Self-directed learning has gained importance in recent times as a critical attribute for lifelong learning in order to survive in an environment profoundly influenced by economic, technology and social changes. (Drucker, 1995, as cited in Warner, 2000) Knowles predicts that by year 2020, all learning will be based on principles of self-directed learning. (Knowles, 1980, as cited in Warner, 2000)
Introducing the SSDL model Grow (1991) suggests a staged model of transition from a dependent to self-directed learner. With his model Grow (1991) “proposes a way teachers can be vigorously influential while empowering students towards greater autonomy” (p. 128).
Key aspects of SSDL model Based on the Situational Leadership Model of Hersey and Blanchard (1988) Teaching methods are proposed to match to learner's stage of self-direction  The ability to be self-directed is situational and progression can loop between stages Model built on strong belief in the value of self-direction
The SSDL model The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G. Grow Internship, dissertation, individual work or self-directed study-group. Consultant, Delegator Self-Directed Stage 4 Discussion facilitated by teacher who participates as equal. Seminar. Group projects Facilitator Involved Stage 3 Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion. Goal-setting and learning strategies. Motivator, Guide Interested Stage 2 Coaching with immediate feedback. Drill. Informational lecture. Overcoming deficiencies and resistance Authority Coach Dependent Stage 1 Examples Teacher Student Stage
Implications for Teaching
Stage 1 Teacher: Authority / Coach
Stage 2 Teacher: Motivator / Guide
Stage 3 Teacher: Facilitator
Stage 4 Teacher: Consultant / Delegator Ultimate task is to become unnecessary!
Benefits of applying SSDL model The SSDL model provides a framework to aid good teaching practice by matching the teaching style to the learner's stage of self-direction. The appropriate teaching style can help the learner advance towards greater self-direction. Supports the use and strength of a wide-range of teaching styles/methods, as many different teaching styles will work well when appropriately applied.
Limitations of applying SSDL model No clear method for reliably judging learner’s stage of self-direction Mismatches between teacher style and learner stage can lead to difficulties Model is situational, flexibility is required Presumes the ability of the teacher to adapt teaching style to suit the situation and learner Model is teacher-orientated, does not include learner’s view.
Experience of model in Practice Transfer of Situational Leadership model from management experience to the classroom prior to awareness of Grow’s model Raised awareness of differences between students – ability, motivation, willingness, need for direction, dependence Adapt teaching / change roles according to student needs / development e.g. offer additional resources for students at higher stages to maintain interest and motivation
Time for reflection At what stage/stages are your students?  What teaching style/styles do you practice? Is there a match  or mismatch?
Conclusion According to Grow (1991) “self-directed learning remains the North Star of adult education” (p. 128) Grow (1991) believes that “the goal of the educational process is to produce self-directed, lifelong learners”.  (p. 127).     The SSDL model is a framework/planning tool for teachers to think about their learner’s stage of self-direction and match their teaching style to support development to greater self-direction.
Good teaching The best teachers think about what they are doing all the time. Their styles may differ wildly, but they have in common that they are thinking teachers who are always looking for new approaches and ideas and who listen to their students. (Corder, 2002, p. xiv)
Gerald O. Grow Final words from G. Grow (1991) “I present this model, not as a definitive thing, but as another statement in the ongoing conversation of those who encourage self-directed, lifelong learning”. (p. 147)
References Corder, N. (2002).  Learning to Teach Adults . London:  RoutledgeFalmer. Grow, G. O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed.  Adult Education Quarterly, 41  (3), 125-149. Retrieved from  http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow Grow, G. O. (1994). In Defense of the Staged Self-Directed  Learning Model.  Adult Education Quarterly, 44  (2), 109-114.  doi:10.1177/074171369404400206 Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998).  The Adult  Learner  (Fifth Edition). Woburn, USA: Butterworth- Heinemann. Malouf, D. (1994/1997).  How to Teach Adults in a Fun and  Exciting Way . Warriewood, Australia: Business &  Professional Publishing.
References Richards, L. J. (2005). Developing a decision model to describe levels of self-directedness based upon the key assumptions  of andragogy.  [ Master's thesis ] . Retrieved Texas A&M  University website : http://handle.tamu.edu/1969.1/2685  .  Tennant, M. (1992). The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model.  Adult Education Quarterly, 42  (3), 164-166.  Warner, D., & Christie, G. (2000). How effective is schooling in  developing skills for self-directed learning, including the use  of technology?  [Conference paper] . Retrieved from Eltham  College website:  http://ec- web.elthamcollege.vic.edu.au/featured/discussions/content/ conference_new_millenium.htm

More Related Content

What's hot

Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teachingTeaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
Prof. Dr. Hironmoy Roy
 
Adult learning theory principles and practice
Adult learning theory principles and practiceAdult learning theory principles and practice
Adult learning theory principles and practice
Dianne Rees
 
Problem based learning
Problem based learningProblem based learning
Problem based learning
Bharati vidyapeeth university
 
Learning and teaching strategies
Learning and teaching strategiesLearning and teaching strategies
Learning and teaching strategies
Shavneet Sharma, CFE
 
Collaborative learning
Collaborative learningCollaborative learning
Collaborative learning
Jamlick Bosire
 
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-notCo teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
Ozum Naz Batur
 
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.pptAdult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
MohammedUddin295491
 
Methods of Teaching
Methods of TeachingMethods of Teaching
Methods of Teaching
kanmani shriraam
 
What Is Self Directed Learning
What Is Self Directed LearningWhat Is Self Directed Learning
What Is Self Directed Learning
tjcarter
 
Blended Learning
Blended LearningBlended Learning
Blended Learning
UM3D
 
Adult learning principles
Adult learning principlesAdult learning principles
Adult learning principles
Vanessa Aller
 
curriculum development for medical education
curriculum development for medical educationcurriculum development for medical education
curriculum development for medical education
erfanzamani2
 
Collaborative learning
Collaborative learningCollaborative learning
Collaborative learning
Shambhu Raj
 
Andragogy ppt
Andragogy  pptAndragogy  ppt
Andragogy ppt
Muhammad Iqbal
 
Adult Learning Styles Presentation
Adult Learning Styles PresentationAdult Learning Styles Presentation
Adult Learning Styles Presentation
Larry Weas
 
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methodsMEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
Devan Pannen
 
Appropriate media for given learning session
Appropriate media for given learning sessionAppropriate media for given learning session
Appropriate media for given learning session
Dr Rahul Saini
 
Blended learning
Blended learningBlended learning
Blended learning
Arusyak Ivanyan
 
Skills - Self directed learning
Skills - Self directed learningSkills - Self directed learning
Skills - Self directed learning
Dr. I. Uma Maheswari Maheswari
 
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
Maryjo Liboon
 

What's hot (20)

Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teachingTeaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
Teaching learning methods & Interactive innovative teaching
 
Adult learning theory principles and practice
Adult learning theory principles and practiceAdult learning theory principles and practice
Adult learning theory principles and practice
 
Problem based learning
Problem based learningProblem based learning
Problem based learning
 
Learning and teaching strategies
Learning and teaching strategiesLearning and teaching strategies
Learning and teaching strategies
 
Collaborative learning
Collaborative learningCollaborative learning
Collaborative learning
 
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-notCo teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
Co teaching-what-is-it-and-what-is-it-not
 
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.pptAdult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
Adult Learning Theory and Principles.ppt
 
Methods of Teaching
Methods of TeachingMethods of Teaching
Methods of Teaching
 
What Is Self Directed Learning
What Is Self Directed LearningWhat Is Self Directed Learning
What Is Self Directed Learning
 
Blended Learning
Blended LearningBlended Learning
Blended Learning
 
Adult learning principles
Adult learning principlesAdult learning principles
Adult learning principles
 
curriculum development for medical education
curriculum development for medical educationcurriculum development for medical education
curriculum development for medical education
 
Collaborative learning
Collaborative learningCollaborative learning
Collaborative learning
 
Andragogy ppt
Andragogy  pptAndragogy  ppt
Andragogy ppt
 
Adult Learning Styles Presentation
Adult Learning Styles PresentationAdult Learning Styles Presentation
Adult Learning Styles Presentation
 
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methodsMEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
MEU WORKSHOP Teaching learning methods
 
Appropriate media for given learning session
Appropriate media for given learning sessionAppropriate media for given learning session
Appropriate media for given learning session
 
Blended learning
Blended learningBlended learning
Blended learning
 
Skills - Self directed learning
Skills - Self directed learningSkills - Self directed learning
Skills - Self directed learning
 
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGYCOOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY
 

Similar to Theories of Teaching and Learning: The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G.Grow.

Adult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
Adult Educator Interview - Crystal BrooksAdult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
Adult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
crysvone
 
MD2AssignCCornwell
MD2AssignCCornwellMD2AssignCCornwell
MD2AssignCCornwell
Chad Cornwell
 
Inclusive education ppt.pptx
Inclusive education ppt.pptxInclusive education ppt.pptx
Inclusive education ppt.pptx
RajArya34
 
teaching learning strategies
teaching learning strategies teaching learning strategies
teaching learning strategies
alizia54
 
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
AzerbaijanJournalofE1
 
Be the Change - See the Change
Be the Change - See the ChangeBe the Change - See the Change
Be the Change - See the Change
kmbaer
 
Edgh952 assign3 davis
Edgh952 assign3 davisEdgh952 assign3 davis
Edgh952 assign3 davis
Cible Davis
 
Article
ArticleArticle
Article
Shahid Nadeem
 
Problem Based Learning Nursing Education
Problem Based Learning Nursing EducationProblem Based Learning Nursing Education
Problem Based Learning Nursing Education
virengeeta
 
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docxWeek 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
melbruce90096
 
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptxAdult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
anjali613449
 
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docxA critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
patrickwaweru11
 
#09 designing program activities
#09 designing program activities#09 designing program activities
#09 designing program activities
Charlene VanLeeuwen
 
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docxAccording to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
nettletondevon
 
Transformative Learning
Transformative LearningTransformative Learning
Transformative Learning
villagegal
 
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINALWhy Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
William Murithi
 
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management TeachersBest Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
gpsudhakaar
 
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docxReflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
laurieellan
 
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
Ek ra
 
Peer teaching
Peer teachingPeer teaching
Peer teaching
Sadia Sadiq
 

Similar to Theories of Teaching and Learning: The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G.Grow. (20)

Adult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
Adult Educator Interview - Crystal BrooksAdult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
Adult Educator Interview - Crystal Brooks
 
MD2AssignCCornwell
MD2AssignCCornwellMD2AssignCCornwell
MD2AssignCCornwell
 
Inclusive education ppt.pptx
Inclusive education ppt.pptxInclusive education ppt.pptx
Inclusive education ppt.pptx
 
teaching learning strategies
teaching learning strategies teaching learning strategies
teaching learning strategies
 
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
HƏMKARLARININ MÜŞAHİDƏ-RƏY MODELİ ƏSASINDA MÜƏLLİMLƏRİN ÖZÜNÜTƏHLİL PROSESİ /...
 
Be the Change - See the Change
Be the Change - See the ChangeBe the Change - See the Change
Be the Change - See the Change
 
Edgh952 assign3 davis
Edgh952 assign3 davisEdgh952 assign3 davis
Edgh952 assign3 davis
 
Article
ArticleArticle
Article
 
Problem Based Learning Nursing Education
Problem Based Learning Nursing EducationProblem Based Learning Nursing Education
Problem Based Learning Nursing Education
 
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docxWeek 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
Week 5 - Weekly LectureWeek Five LectureImplementation .docx
 
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptxAdult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
Adult Learning -Andrgogy -Webinar.pptx
 
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docxA critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
A critical Review language educator as Learning Programme developers.docx
 
#09 designing program activities
#09 designing program activities#09 designing program activities
#09 designing program activities
 
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docxAccording to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
According to Knowles (1984) there are four principles that are app.docx
 
Transformative Learning
Transformative LearningTransformative Learning
Transformative Learning
 
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINALWhy Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
Why Peer Mentoring Works FINAL
 
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management TeachersBest Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
Best Practices in Higher Education - Role of Commerce & Management Teachers
 
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docxReflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
Reflect on a facilitated training session you experienced that affec.docx
 
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
Teacher Education and Challenges of 21st Century-Unit 09- 8626
 
Peer teaching
Peer teachingPeer teaching
Peer teaching
 

Recently uploaded

"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
thanhluan21
 
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
hammadmughal76316
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
ibtesaam huma
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India QuizIndependence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Kashyap J
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Liyana Rozaini
 
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for freeRead the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
Jerry Chew
 

Recently uploaded (20)

"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ..."DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
"DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY ...
 
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDFCTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
CTD Punjab Police Past Papers MCQs PPSC PDF
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
How to Create a New Article in Knowledge App in Odoo 17
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptxPrinciples of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
Principles of Roods Approach!!!!!!!.pptx
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India QuizIndependence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
Independence Day Quiz 2K17 - School India Quiz
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KỸ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 - GLOBAL SUCCESS - FORM MỚI 2025 - ...
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
 
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for freeRead the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
Read the 38 letters Rockefeller left to his son online for free
 

Theories of Teaching and Learning: The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G.Grow.

  • 1. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model Gerald Grow, Ph.D. Theories of Teaching & Learning, Assessment One 19.03.2008, Barbara Stokes
  • 2. Introduction Self-Directed Learning Gerald Grow’s Model of Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL) Implications for teaching: benefits and limitations of applying the SSDL model The SSDL model in practice Conclusion
  • 3. Self-Directed Learning Much discussion in literature about the concept of self-directed learning (Candy, Brookfield, Guglielmino,Garrison) Eight underlying factors that determine the level of readiness for SDL: Openness to learning opportunities Self-concept as an effective learner Initiative and independence in learning
  • 4. Self Directed-Learning Informed acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning Love of learning Creativity Positive orientation to the future Ability to use basic study skills and problem solving skills
  • 5. Importance of Self-Directed Learning Self-directed learning has gained importance in recent times as a critical attribute for lifelong learning in order to survive in an environment profoundly influenced by economic, technology and social changes. (Drucker, 1995, as cited in Warner, 2000) Knowles predicts that by year 2020, all learning will be based on principles of self-directed learning. (Knowles, 1980, as cited in Warner, 2000)
  • 6. Introducing the SSDL model Grow (1991) suggests a staged model of transition from a dependent to self-directed learner. With his model Grow (1991) “proposes a way teachers can be vigorously influential while empowering students towards greater autonomy” (p. 128).
  • 7. Key aspects of SSDL model Based on the Situational Leadership Model of Hersey and Blanchard (1988) Teaching methods are proposed to match to learner's stage of self-direction The ability to be self-directed is situational and progression can loop between stages Model built on strong belief in the value of self-direction
  • 8. The SSDL model The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G. Grow Internship, dissertation, individual work or self-directed study-group. Consultant, Delegator Self-Directed Stage 4 Discussion facilitated by teacher who participates as equal. Seminar. Group projects Facilitator Involved Stage 3 Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion. Goal-setting and learning strategies. Motivator, Guide Interested Stage 2 Coaching with immediate feedback. Drill. Informational lecture. Overcoming deficiencies and resistance Authority Coach Dependent Stage 1 Examples Teacher Student Stage
  • 10. Stage 1 Teacher: Authority / Coach
  • 11. Stage 2 Teacher: Motivator / Guide
  • 12. Stage 3 Teacher: Facilitator
  • 13. Stage 4 Teacher: Consultant / Delegator Ultimate task is to become unnecessary!
  • 14. Benefits of applying SSDL model The SSDL model provides a framework to aid good teaching practice by matching the teaching style to the learner's stage of self-direction. The appropriate teaching style can help the learner advance towards greater self-direction. Supports the use and strength of a wide-range of teaching styles/methods, as many different teaching styles will work well when appropriately applied.
  • 15. Limitations of applying SSDL model No clear method for reliably judging learner’s stage of self-direction Mismatches between teacher style and learner stage can lead to difficulties Model is situational, flexibility is required Presumes the ability of the teacher to adapt teaching style to suit the situation and learner Model is teacher-orientated, does not include learner’s view.
  • 16. Experience of model in Practice Transfer of Situational Leadership model from management experience to the classroom prior to awareness of Grow’s model Raised awareness of differences between students – ability, motivation, willingness, need for direction, dependence Adapt teaching / change roles according to student needs / development e.g. offer additional resources for students at higher stages to maintain interest and motivation
  • 17. Time for reflection At what stage/stages are your students? What teaching style/styles do you practice? Is there a match or mismatch?
  • 18. Conclusion According to Grow (1991) “self-directed learning remains the North Star of adult education” (p. 128) Grow (1991) believes that “the goal of the educational process is to produce self-directed, lifelong learners”. (p. 127).    The SSDL model is a framework/planning tool for teachers to think about their learner’s stage of self-direction and match their teaching style to support development to greater self-direction.
  • 19. Good teaching The best teachers think about what they are doing all the time. Their styles may differ wildly, but they have in common that they are thinking teachers who are always looking for new approaches and ideas and who listen to their students. (Corder, 2002, p. xiv)
  • 20. Gerald O. Grow Final words from G. Grow (1991) “I present this model, not as a definitive thing, but as another statement in the ongoing conversation of those who encourage self-directed, lifelong learning”. (p. 147)
  • 21. References Corder, N. (2002). Learning to Teach Adults . London: RoutledgeFalmer. Grow, G. O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed. Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), 125-149. Retrieved from http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow Grow, G. O. (1994). In Defense of the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 44 (2), 109-114. doi:10.1177/074171369404400206 Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult Learner (Fifth Edition). Woburn, USA: Butterworth- Heinemann. Malouf, D. (1994/1997). How to Teach Adults in a Fun and Exciting Way . Warriewood, Australia: Business & Professional Publishing.
  • 22. References Richards, L. J. (2005). Developing a decision model to describe levels of self-directedness based upon the key assumptions of andragogy. [ Master's thesis ] . Retrieved Texas A&M University website : http://handle.tamu.edu/1969.1/2685 . Tennant, M. (1992). The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 42 (3), 164-166. Warner, D., & Christie, G. (2000). How effective is schooling in developing skills for self-directed learning, including the use of technology? [Conference paper] . Retrieved from Eltham College website: http://ec- web.elthamcollege.vic.edu.au/featured/discussions/content/ conference_new_millenium.htm