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THEORIES OF
DEVELOPMENT
-UNNATI SHAH
1. SOCIAL COGNITIVE
THEORY
2.ECOLOGICAL
CONTEXTUAL THEORY
3.ETHOLOGICAL
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
Social cognitive theory is used in psychology,
education, and communication.
• An individual's knowledge can be directly
related to observing others within the
context of social interactions, experiences,
and outside media influences.
• In other words, people do not learn new
behaviors solely by trying them and either
succeeding or failing, but rather, the
survival of humanity is dependent upon the
replication of the actions of others.
• Depending on whether people are
rewarded or punished for their behavior
and the outcome of the behavior, that
behavior may be modeled.
HISTORY
• Social cognitive theory stemmed out of work
proposed by Neal E. Miller and John
Dollard in 1941. Identifying four key factors in
learning new behavior, 1) drives, 2) cues, 3)
responses, and 4) rewards, they believed that if
one were motivated to learn a particular
behavior, then that particular behavior would be
learned through clear observations.
• This was later expanded upon and theorized by
Albert Bandura from 1962 until the present.
• Social cognitive theory states that
behavior, environment and persons
cognitive factors are important in
understanding development.
• This theory provides a framework for
understanding, predicting and changing
human behaviour.
ALBERT BANDURA’S SCT
ALBERT BANDURA’S SCT THEORY
Bandura’s theory :
• People learn by observing others.
• The same set of stimuli may provoke different
responses from different people, or from the
same people at different times.
• The world and a person’s behavior are
interlinked.
• Personality is an interaction between three
factors: the environment, behavior, and a
person’s psychological processes.
• People learn by observing others, with the
environment, behavior, and cognition all as
the chief factors in influencing development.
• These three factors are not static or
independent elements; rather, they influence
each other in a process of triadic reciprocal
determinism.
• For example, each behavior witnessed can
change a person's way of thinking (cognition).
Similarly, the environment one is raised in may
influence later behaviors, just as a father's
mindset (also cognition) will determine the
environment in which his children are raised.
Bandura - Steps involved in the
Modelling Process:
1. Attention
You need to pay attention to learn
something new. The more striking or different
something is (due to colour or drama, for
example) the more likely it is to gain our
attention. Likewise, if we regard something as
prestigious, attractive or like ourselves, we will
take more notice.
2. Retention
You must be able to retain (remember)
what you have paid attention to. Imagery and
language pay a role in retention: you store what
you have seen ,the model doing, in the form of
verbal descriptions or mental images, and these
triggers up later to help you reproduce the
model with your own behavior.
3. Reproduction
At this point you have to translate the
images or descriptions into actual behavior. You
must have the ability to reproduce the behavior
in the first place.
For instance, if you are watching Olympic ice
skating you may not be able to reproduce their
jumps if you can’t ice skate at all.
4. Motivation
Unless you are motivated, or have a reason,
you will not try to imitate the model. Bandura
states a number of motives, including:
• Past reinforcement
• Promised reinforcement
• Vicarious reinforcement.
There are negative motivations too, giving you
reasons not to imitate someone, including:
• Past punishment.
• Promised punishment.
• Vicarious punishment.
ADVANTAGES
1. Focus on environmental determinants of
behaviour.
2. Importance of observational learning.
3. An emphasis on person and cognitive factors.
DISADVANTAGES
1. Too much emphasis on environmental
determinants.
2. Inadequate attention to developmental changes.
3. Too little emphasis on human spontaneity and
creativity.
APPLICATIONS
1. Social cognitive theory is applied today in
many different areas excessively- Mass
media, public health, education, and
marketing.
2. An example of this is the use of celebrities to
endorse and introduce any number of
products.
REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_th
eory
2. http://www.education.com/reference/article/so
cial-cognitive-theory/
3. http://www.careers.govt.nz/educators-
practitioners/career-practice/career-theory-
models/banduras-theory/
4. SANTROCK ,2011. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT,
13TH EDITION, NEW DELHI, TATA Mc GRAW HILL.
ECOLOGICAL CONTEXTUAL
THEORY
URIE BRONFENBRENNER
5 Environmental systems
1) Microsystem
2) Mesosystem
3) Exosystem
4) Macrosystem
5) Chronosystem
• Child development takes place through the
processes of complex interactions between an
active child and the persons, objects, and
symbols in its immediate environment. To be
effective, the interaction must occur on a
fairly regular basis over extended periods of
time. (Adapted from Bronfenbrenner, 1998, p.
996)
1) Microsystem- Relationships with direct
contact with the child.
2) Mesosystem- Relationships between two or
more microsystems.
3) Exosystem- Social settings in which the
individual does not have an active role.
4) Macrosystem- Culture context.
MICROSYSTEMS
• The setting in which the adolescent lives.
• Contexts include- Family, Peers, School and
Neighborhood.
• Most direct interactions with these social
agents.
Example- The adolescent is not viewed as a
passive recipient of experience in these settings
but someone who constructs them.
MESOSYSTEM
• Relations between two or more microsystems.
• Examples - Connections between- family
experiences and school experiences, family
experiences and peer experiences etc.
EXAMPLE- Children who’s parents have rejected
them may have problems developing positive
relationships with teachers.
EXOSYSTEM
• Social settings in which the adolescent does
not have an active role but which influences
his experiences.
EXAMPLE- A women’s work experience can
affect her relationship with her husband or
children. She might get a promotion and might
have to travel more which might inturn increase
the marital conflict.
MACROSYSTEM
• The culture in which the adolescent lives.
• Culture refers to- Behavior patterns, beliefs
and all other products of a group of people
that are passed on from generation to
generation.
CHRONOSYSTEM
• The pattern of environmental events and
transitions over the life course, as well as socio-
historical circumstances.
EXAMPLE- In studying the effects of divorce on
children, researchers have found that the negative
effects often peak in the 1st year after the divorce.
The effects is also more negative for sons than for
daughters. By two years after the divorce the family
interaction becomes less chaotic and stable.
ADVANTAGES
1. Systematic examination of macro and micro
dimensions of environmental systems.
2. Attention to connections between
environmental settings.
3. Consideration of sociohistorical influences on
development.
CRITICISM
1. Too little attention given to biological
foundations of development.
2. Inadequate attention to cognitive processes.
REFERENCES
1. http://www.slideshare.net/aislado/bronfenbr
enner-ecological-theory
2. http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35bronfeb
renner94.pdf
3. SANTROCK ,2011. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT,
13TH EDITION, NEW DELHI, TATA Mc GRAW
HILL.
ETHOLOGICAL THEORY
• Ethological theories note that responsiveness to
the environment varies across the life-span and
that the environment has an effect on
development. Environmental influences will
have different effects at different times.
• Ethology is a theory that emphasizes the ability of
biology to impact behavior. Ethology states that
behavior can be directly related and linked to not
only biology, but to evolution and the impact of
this is heightened even more so during
particularly critical and sensitive periods in an
individual's development.
• "Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly
influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and
is characterized by critical or sensitive
periods." In other words, there are times
when we are most sensitive to particular types
of stimuli.
• A zoologist by the name of Konrad Lorenz
conducted a groundbreaking study on
ethology by using the behavior of greylag
geese.
• Greylag geese are known for following their
mothers (or the first moving object they see)
immediately upon hatching.
EXPERIMENT
• Lorenz separated two groups of eggs, allowing one
group to hatch with their mother near, and the other
group to hatch with him near. The first group followed
their mother, as expected, while the second group
followed Lorenz. Lorenz then put both groups together,
along with the mother goose, and the goslings each
followed whoever had been present at their hatching;
the mother or Lorenz.
• This notion of a critical period demonstrates the
importance of biology in development.
• A critical period is "…a fixed time period very
early in development during which certain
behaviors optimally emerge.."
• Ethologists are like behaviorists in their
emphasis on behavior, but they feel that
behavior must be observed in the natural
setting.
• Another researcher, by the name of Bowlby, believed
that the attachment an individual develops with a
caregiver during the very early years of life has
dramatic affect on the continued growth and
development throughout that individual's life.
• Bowlby believed that if this attachment was positive
and provided the individual with a sense of security,
that the likelihood of positive growth and develop to
continue throughout is great. However, if the
attachment to the caregiver is negative and does not
provide the individual with security, the person may
suffer the after affects of this poor connection for the
remainder of their life.
• Both Bowlby and Lorenz believed that these actions to
create an attachment in an individual must take place
at an early, sensitive age or they will never occur.
• Had the geese not been "imprinted" immediately
following birth, it is unlikely their behavior would have
changed later down the road.
• According to Bowlby, children, much like the greylag
geese, must be imprinted with these attachments and
behaviors at an early age or they may never be
imprinted upon.
• By developing these attachments to caregivers at such
an early age, the stage is set for continued positive
growth and development.
REFERENCES
• http://voices.yahoo.com/the-ethological-
theory-7629868.html
• http://faculty.riohondo.edu/mpilati/psych112
/Section_1/Psych112_Lecture02O.htm
THANK YOU

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Theories of development- Life Span Development

  • 4. Social cognitive theory is used in psychology, education, and communication. • An individual's knowledge can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. • In other words, people do not learn new behaviors solely by trying them and either succeeding or failing, but rather, the survival of humanity is dependent upon the replication of the actions of others. • Depending on whether people are rewarded or punished for their behavior and the outcome of the behavior, that behavior may be modeled.
  • 5. HISTORY • Social cognitive theory stemmed out of work proposed by Neal E. Miller and John Dollard in 1941. Identifying four key factors in learning new behavior, 1) drives, 2) cues, 3) responses, and 4) rewards, they believed that if one were motivated to learn a particular behavior, then that particular behavior would be learned through clear observations. • This was later expanded upon and theorized by Albert Bandura from 1962 until the present.
  • 6. • Social cognitive theory states that behavior, environment and persons cognitive factors are important in understanding development. • This theory provides a framework for understanding, predicting and changing human behaviour.
  • 9. Bandura’s theory : • People learn by observing others. • The same set of stimuli may provoke different responses from different people, or from the same people at different times. • The world and a person’s behavior are interlinked. • Personality is an interaction between three factors: the environment, behavior, and a person’s psychological processes.
  • 10. • People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. • These three factors are not static or independent elements; rather, they influence each other in a process of triadic reciprocal determinism.
  • 11. • For example, each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking (cognition). Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors, just as a father's mindset (also cognition) will determine the environment in which his children are raised.
  • 12. Bandura - Steps involved in the Modelling Process: 1. Attention You need to pay attention to learn something new. The more striking or different something is (due to colour or drama, for example) the more likely it is to gain our attention. Likewise, if we regard something as prestigious, attractive or like ourselves, we will take more notice.
  • 13. 2. Retention You must be able to retain (remember) what you have paid attention to. Imagery and language pay a role in retention: you store what you have seen ,the model doing, in the form of verbal descriptions or mental images, and these triggers up later to help you reproduce the model with your own behavior.
  • 14. 3. Reproduction At this point you have to translate the images or descriptions into actual behavior. You must have the ability to reproduce the behavior in the first place. For instance, if you are watching Olympic ice skating you may not be able to reproduce their jumps if you can’t ice skate at all.
  • 15. 4. Motivation Unless you are motivated, or have a reason, you will not try to imitate the model. Bandura states a number of motives, including: • Past reinforcement • Promised reinforcement • Vicarious reinforcement. There are negative motivations too, giving you reasons not to imitate someone, including: • Past punishment. • Promised punishment. • Vicarious punishment.
  • 16. ADVANTAGES 1. Focus on environmental determinants of behaviour. 2. Importance of observational learning. 3. An emphasis on person and cognitive factors. DISADVANTAGES 1. Too much emphasis on environmental determinants. 2. Inadequate attention to developmental changes. 3. Too little emphasis on human spontaneity and creativity.
  • 17. APPLICATIONS 1. Social cognitive theory is applied today in many different areas excessively- Mass media, public health, education, and marketing. 2. An example of this is the use of celebrities to endorse and introduce any number of products.
  • 18. REFERENCES 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_th eory 2. http://www.education.com/reference/article/so cial-cognitive-theory/ 3. http://www.careers.govt.nz/educators- practitioners/career-practice/career-theory- models/banduras-theory/ 4. SANTROCK ,2011. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT, 13TH EDITION, NEW DELHI, TATA Mc GRAW HILL.
  • 21. 5 Environmental systems 1) Microsystem 2) Mesosystem 3) Exosystem 4) Macrosystem 5) Chronosystem
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  • 23. • Child development takes place through the processes of complex interactions between an active child and the persons, objects, and symbols in its immediate environment. To be effective, the interaction must occur on a fairly regular basis over extended periods of time. (Adapted from Bronfenbrenner, 1998, p. 996)
  • 24. 1) Microsystem- Relationships with direct contact with the child. 2) Mesosystem- Relationships between two or more microsystems. 3) Exosystem- Social settings in which the individual does not have an active role. 4) Macrosystem- Culture context.
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  • 26. MICROSYSTEMS • The setting in which the adolescent lives. • Contexts include- Family, Peers, School and Neighborhood. • Most direct interactions with these social agents. Example- The adolescent is not viewed as a passive recipient of experience in these settings but someone who constructs them.
  • 27. MESOSYSTEM • Relations between two or more microsystems. • Examples - Connections between- family experiences and school experiences, family experiences and peer experiences etc. EXAMPLE- Children who’s parents have rejected them may have problems developing positive relationships with teachers.
  • 28. EXOSYSTEM • Social settings in which the adolescent does not have an active role but which influences his experiences. EXAMPLE- A women’s work experience can affect her relationship with her husband or children. She might get a promotion and might have to travel more which might inturn increase the marital conflict.
  • 29. MACROSYSTEM • The culture in which the adolescent lives. • Culture refers to- Behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation.
  • 30. CHRONOSYSTEM • The pattern of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as socio- historical circumstances. EXAMPLE- In studying the effects of divorce on children, researchers have found that the negative effects often peak in the 1st year after the divorce. The effects is also more negative for sons than for daughters. By two years after the divorce the family interaction becomes less chaotic and stable.
  • 31. ADVANTAGES 1. Systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of environmental systems. 2. Attention to connections between environmental settings. 3. Consideration of sociohistorical influences on development. CRITICISM 1. Too little attention given to biological foundations of development. 2. Inadequate attention to cognitive processes.
  • 34. • Ethological theories note that responsiveness to the environment varies across the life-span and that the environment has an effect on development. Environmental influences will have different effects at different times. • Ethology is a theory that emphasizes the ability of biology to impact behavior. Ethology states that behavior can be directly related and linked to not only biology, but to evolution and the impact of this is heightened even more so during particularly critical and sensitive periods in an individual's development.
  • 35. • "Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods." In other words, there are times when we are most sensitive to particular types of stimuli.
  • 36. • A zoologist by the name of Konrad Lorenz conducted a groundbreaking study on ethology by using the behavior of greylag geese. • Greylag geese are known for following their mothers (or the first moving object they see) immediately upon hatching.
  • 37. EXPERIMENT • Lorenz separated two groups of eggs, allowing one group to hatch with their mother near, and the other group to hatch with him near. The first group followed their mother, as expected, while the second group followed Lorenz. Lorenz then put both groups together, along with the mother goose, and the goslings each followed whoever had been present at their hatching; the mother or Lorenz. • This notion of a critical period demonstrates the importance of biology in development.
  • 38. • A critical period is "…a fixed time period very early in development during which certain behaviors optimally emerge.." • Ethologists are like behaviorists in their emphasis on behavior, but they feel that behavior must be observed in the natural setting.
  • 39. • Another researcher, by the name of Bowlby, believed that the attachment an individual develops with a caregiver during the very early years of life has dramatic affect on the continued growth and development throughout that individual's life. • Bowlby believed that if this attachment was positive and provided the individual with a sense of security, that the likelihood of positive growth and develop to continue throughout is great. However, if the attachment to the caregiver is negative and does not provide the individual with security, the person may suffer the after affects of this poor connection for the remainder of their life.
  • 40. • Both Bowlby and Lorenz believed that these actions to create an attachment in an individual must take place at an early, sensitive age or they will never occur. • Had the geese not been "imprinted" immediately following birth, it is unlikely their behavior would have changed later down the road. • According to Bowlby, children, much like the greylag geese, must be imprinted with these attachments and behaviors at an early age or they may never be imprinted upon. • By developing these attachments to caregivers at such an early age, the stage is set for continued positive growth and development.