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Teratogens
Definition
• A teratogen is any agent that causes an abnormality
following fetal exposure during pregnancy.
• Any agent that can disturb the development of the embryo
or fetus.
• Can halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital
malformation (A birth defect).
• Teratogens can also be found at home or the workplace.
• Teratogens are usually discovered after an increased
prevalence of a particular birth defect.
• For example, in the early 1950s-1960’s, a drug known as
thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness.
• Exposure of the fetus during this early stage of development
resulted in cases of phocomelia, a congenital malformation
in which the hands and feet are attached to abbreviated
arms and legs.
Thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness
during pregnancy. But it was found to cause
disabilities in the babies born to those taking the
drug.
• Teratogenic agents include
• 1. Infectious agents (rubella,
cytomegalovirus, varicella-
(chickenpox), herpes simplex,
toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.);
• Physical agents (ionizing agents,
hyperthermia); maternal health
factors (diabetes, maternal PKU-
Phenylketonuria);
• 3.Environmental chemicals
(organic mercury compounds,
polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB,
herbicides and industrial
solvents); and
• 4. Drugs (prescription, over-the-
counter, or recreational drug
use).
Two of the leading preventable causes of
birth defects and developmental
disabilities are alcohol and smoking.
• Alcohol use in pregnancy has significant effects
on the fetus and the baby.
• Alcohol can pass from the mother’s blood stream
through the placenta to the fetus.
• Since alcohol is broken down more slowly in a
fetus than in an adult, alcohol levels tend to
remain high and stay in the baby’s body longer.
• Birth defects associated with prenatal exposure
to alcohol can occur in the first three to eight
weeks of pregnancy, before a woman even knows
that she is pregnant.
Smoking
• Smoking nearly doubles a woman’s risk of having a low
birth-weight baby as a result of poor growth before
birth, preterm delivery or a combination of both.
• Premature and low birth-weight babies face an
increased risk of serious health problems during the
newborn period, chronic lifelong disabilities.
• In addition, almost three percent of pregnant women
use illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, Ecstasy-
cause hallucinations and other amphetamines, and
heroin.
• These drugs can cause low birth-weight, withdrawal
symptoms, birth defects, or learning or behavioral
problems.
List that are known/suspected
Teratogens
• Tabocco
• Marijuana/Cannibis
• Papaya fruits
• Cocaine
• Ergotamine
• Fenugreek
• Asparagus
• Malus domestica (Seed)
• Datura
• Vinca
• Areca catechu
• Eggplant
Precautions
• During pregnancy, always consult with the
doctors before taking any medicines.
• In general, if medication is required, the
lowest dose possible should be used and
combination drug therapies and first trimester
exposures should be avoided.
• Avoiding all types of teratogens.
• Doing regular exercise
• Consumption of Healthy food
Hallucinogens
• Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that alter a
person’s awareness of their surroundings as well as their
own thoughts and feelings.
• Alter the sensory processing in the brain.
• Act on CNS, Eg: Atropine, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine and
morphine.
• Psychoactive or psychotropic substances.
• Two categories: Classic hallucinogens (such as LSD)-D-
lysergic acid diethylamide and dissociative drugs- Eg:
Ketamine, dextromethorphan and nitrous oxide (such as
PCP- Phencyclidine).
• Both types of hallucinogens can cause hallucinations, or
sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
• Hallucinogens can cause users to feel out of control or
disconnected from their body and environment.
• Examples include seeing things that are not
there, hearing voices or other sounds,
experiencing body’s sensation like crawling
feeling on the skin or smelling odour that are
not real.
• The actual causes of such hallucinations are
chemicals substances in the plants.
• These substances are true narcotics.
• Some hallucinogens are extracted from plants
or mushrooms, and some are synthetic
(human-made).
Categories based on Neurotransmitters
Common classic hallucinogens include the following:
• LSD (D-lysergic acid diethylamide) is one of the most powerful
mind-altering chemicals. It is a clear or white odorless material made
from lysergic acid, which is found in a fungus that grows on rye and
other grains.
• Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-
dimethyltryptamine) comes from certain types of
mushrooms found in tropical.
• Peyote (mescaline) is a small, spineless cactus with
mescaline as its main ingredient. Peyote can also be
synthetic.
• Harmine: alkaloids, Brazilian native.
• DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a powerful chemical
found naturally in some Amazonian plants.
• MDMA (3-4 methylene dioxymethamphetamine) is a
synthetic, psychoactive drug with a chemical structure
similar to the stimulant methamphetamine
• 251-NBOMe is a synthetic hallucinogen with similarities
both to LSD and MDMA.
Dissociative drugs include the following
• PCP (Phencyclidine) was developed in the
1950s as a general anesthetic for surgery.
• Ketamine is used as a surgery anesthetic for
humans and animals.
• Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a cough
suppressant and mucus-clearing ingredient in
some over-the-counter cold and cough
medicines.
• Salvia (Salvia divinorum) is a plant common
to southern Mexico and Central and South
America.
Biological source of the Plant
name
Major active constituents Plant images
fly agaric mushroom ,
obtained from-Amanita
muscaria, family-
Amanitaceae
Muscimol
Obtained from Gulbulimima
belgraveana, Family-
Himantandraceae
Himgaline
Obtained from Cannabis
sativa, family-Cannabaceae
Cannabinoids
Obtained from Atropa
bellabonna, family-
Solanaceae
Atropine, hyocyamine, and
scopolamine
Obtained from Hyoscyamus
niger, family-Solanaceae.
Scopolamine, atropine,
hyoscine, and hyoscyamine
Obtained from Datura metal,
family-Solanaceae
Scopolamine
Obtained from Mandagora
autumnalis, family-
Solanaceae
hyoscyamine, hyoscine
Teratogens and Hallucinogens.pptx

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  • 2. Definition • A teratogen is any agent that causes an abnormality following fetal exposure during pregnancy. • Any agent that can disturb the development of the embryo or fetus. • Can halt the pregnancy or produce a congenital malformation (A birth defect). • Teratogens can also be found at home or the workplace. • Teratogens are usually discovered after an increased prevalence of a particular birth defect. • For example, in the early 1950s-1960’s, a drug known as thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness. • Exposure of the fetus during this early stage of development resulted in cases of phocomelia, a congenital malformation in which the hands and feet are attached to abbreviated arms and legs.
  • 3. Thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness during pregnancy. But it was found to cause disabilities in the babies born to those taking the drug.
  • 4. • Teratogenic agents include • 1. Infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella- (chickenpox), herpes simplex, toxoplasma, syphilis, etc.); • Physical agents (ionizing agents, hyperthermia); maternal health factors (diabetes, maternal PKU- Phenylketonuria); • 3.Environmental chemicals (organic mercury compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, herbicides and industrial solvents); and • 4. Drugs (prescription, over-the- counter, or recreational drug use).
  • 5. Two of the leading preventable causes of birth defects and developmental disabilities are alcohol and smoking. • Alcohol use in pregnancy has significant effects on the fetus and the baby. • Alcohol can pass from the mother’s blood stream through the placenta to the fetus. • Since alcohol is broken down more slowly in a fetus than in an adult, alcohol levels tend to remain high and stay in the baby’s body longer. • Birth defects associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol can occur in the first three to eight weeks of pregnancy, before a woman even knows that she is pregnant.
  • 6. Smoking • Smoking nearly doubles a woman’s risk of having a low birth-weight baby as a result of poor growth before birth, preterm delivery or a combination of both. • Premature and low birth-weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems during the newborn period, chronic lifelong disabilities. • In addition, almost three percent of pregnant women use illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, Ecstasy- cause hallucinations and other amphetamines, and heroin. • These drugs can cause low birth-weight, withdrawal symptoms, birth defects, or learning or behavioral problems.
  • 7. List that are known/suspected Teratogens • Tabocco • Marijuana/Cannibis • Papaya fruits • Cocaine • Ergotamine • Fenugreek • Asparagus • Malus domestica (Seed) • Datura • Vinca • Areca catechu • Eggplant
  • 8. Precautions • During pregnancy, always consult with the doctors before taking any medicines. • In general, if medication is required, the lowest dose possible should be used and combination drug therapies and first trimester exposures should be avoided. • Avoiding all types of teratogens. • Doing regular exercise • Consumption of Healthy food
  • 9. Hallucinogens • Hallucinogens are a diverse group of drugs that alter a person’s awareness of their surroundings as well as their own thoughts and feelings. • Alter the sensory processing in the brain. • Act on CNS, Eg: Atropine, caffeine, cocaine, nicotine and morphine. • Psychoactive or psychotropic substances. • Two categories: Classic hallucinogens (such as LSD)-D- lysergic acid diethylamide and dissociative drugs- Eg: Ketamine, dextromethorphan and nitrous oxide (such as PCP- Phencyclidine). • Both types of hallucinogens can cause hallucinations, or sensations and images that seem real though they are not. • Hallucinogens can cause users to feel out of control or disconnected from their body and environment.
  • 10. • Examples include seeing things that are not there, hearing voices or other sounds, experiencing body’s sensation like crawling feeling on the skin or smelling odour that are not real. • The actual causes of such hallucinations are chemicals substances in the plants. • These substances are true narcotics. • Some hallucinogens are extracted from plants or mushrooms, and some are synthetic (human-made).
  • 11. Categories based on Neurotransmitters
  • 12. Common classic hallucinogens include the following: • LSD (D-lysergic acid diethylamide) is one of the most powerful mind-altering chemicals. It is a clear or white odorless material made from lysergic acid, which is found in a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. • Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N- dimethyltryptamine) comes from certain types of mushrooms found in tropical. • Peyote (mescaline) is a small, spineless cactus with mescaline as its main ingredient. Peyote can also be synthetic. • Harmine: alkaloids, Brazilian native. • DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is a powerful chemical found naturally in some Amazonian plants. • MDMA (3-4 methylene dioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug with a chemical structure similar to the stimulant methamphetamine • 251-NBOMe is a synthetic hallucinogen with similarities both to LSD and MDMA.
  • 13. Dissociative drugs include the following • PCP (Phencyclidine) was developed in the 1950s as a general anesthetic for surgery. • Ketamine is used as a surgery anesthetic for humans and animals. • Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a cough suppressant and mucus-clearing ingredient in some over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. • Salvia (Salvia divinorum) is a plant common to southern Mexico and Central and South America.
  • 14. Biological source of the Plant name Major active constituents Plant images fly agaric mushroom , obtained from-Amanita muscaria, family- Amanitaceae Muscimol Obtained from Gulbulimima belgraveana, Family- Himantandraceae Himgaline Obtained from Cannabis sativa, family-Cannabaceae Cannabinoids Obtained from Atropa bellabonna, family- Solanaceae Atropine, hyocyamine, and scopolamine
  • 15. Obtained from Hyoscyamus niger, family-Solanaceae. Scopolamine, atropine, hyoscine, and hyoscyamine Obtained from Datura metal, family-Solanaceae Scopolamine Obtained from Mandagora autumnalis, family- Solanaceae hyoscyamine, hyoscine