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Classification
of
Crude Drugs
Why it is needed???
• Crude drugs are widely distributed in the nature
• To understand the crude drugs easily
• Identification purpose
• To know the exact properties
• Reader friendly
The systems of classification of crude drugs may be
aimed accordingly as follows
1. Alphabetical classification
2. Taxonomical Classification
3. Morphological classification
4. Chemical classification
5. Pharmacological classification
6. Chemotaxonomical classification of Crude Drugs
Drugs
As per Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940:
A drug may be defined as All medicines for
internal or external use of and all substances
intended to be used for or in diagnosis,
mitigation, treatment or prevention of diseases
in human beings or animals.
OR
 Such substances other than food intended to
affect the structure or any function of human
body or intended to be used for the
destruction of vermin or insects, which cause
disease in human beings or animals as may be
specified from time to time by the Central
Government by notification in Official Gazette
Crude Drugs
• They are available in their original form of occurrence.
• Direct or direct parts obtained from the plants, animals,
minerals, marine, microorganisms, etc.
• Organized drugs are the organs of plants, solid, cellular in nature and
identified by their microscopical characters.
Ex. Cinnamon, Senna
• Unorganised drugs are the products of plants or animals, solid,
semisolid or liquid in nature and are identified by organoleptic tests
basing on the type of chemical constituents present in them
Ex. Acacia, Honey, Castor oil
 ALREADY DISCUSSED
Classification Of Crude Drugs
1. Alphabetical Classification:
 In this system, the crude drugs are arranged in alphabetical order either
using their English or Latin names.
 This system is adopted by B.P., B.P.C., U.S.P. and I.P.(Eng)
 Whereas in International Pharmacopoeia drugs are arranged according to
Latin names.
 The Pharmacopoeias and other official publications use this system is the
simplest method of arranging crude drugs and is particularly suitable for
classifying drugs having no connecting features of a scientific nature.
 Ex: Aloe, Benzoin, Cinnamon, Dil, Eucalyptus, Fennel, Ginger,
Hibiscus,…..etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx
Adv:
• Simplicity
• Ease to use
Disadv:
• Classification system does not help in differentiating drugs
of Plant, animal or mineral sources.
• Organized and unorganized drugs cannot be differentiated.
• System does not give any useful information about the drugs.
• Many unrelated drugs(allergic) may be grouped together by
using this system.
2. Taxonomical classification:
• Purely Botanical classification
• Linnaean System, Binomial nomenclature given by Carolus
Linnaeus-father of modern taxonomy
• Crude drugs from plants are classified into Kingdom, Phylum,
Order, Class, Family, Genus and Species.
• Animal drugs classified as fishes, arthropods, mammals etc.,
• Arranged according to the natural groups (e.g. families) of their
sources.
• Thus all the drugs obtained from plants of the family Umbelliferae
are grouped together as umbelliferous drugs, those from
Solanaceae are grouped together as Solanaceous drugs and so on.
Illustration of Taxonomical Classification
Adv:
• It is more convenient for practical purpose
• Even if the chemical content or action of drugs
is not known the drug can be studied.
• It gives ideas about source of drugs.
Disadv:
• Does not give idea about organised and
unorganised crude drugs
• During collection, drying & packing,
morphology of drug can be changes.
3. Morphological classification
• In this system the crude drugs are classified
according to their morphological characters
like leaves, barks, seeds, fruits, roots, flowers
etc.
• Organized drugs are arranged according to the
morphological similarities and dissimilarities.
• Unorganized drugs are grouped in this system
as latices, extracts, gums, resins, oils, fats and
waxes.
Illustration of Morphological Classification
Advantages:
• Most convenient for practical purpose.
• Useful in identification of adulterants.
Disadvantages:
• It is difficult to classify unorganized drugs.
• Chemical composition and pharmacological behavior of drugs
cannot be characterized by this system.
• Processing of drugs like collection, drying and preparation for
market may change their original characters making recognition
quite difficult.
4. Chemical classification
• The crude drugs are divided into groups according to their
principal chemical constituents.
• Thus all alkaloid-containing drugs are put into one group
regardless of other consideration.
• Similarly all crude drugs containing glycosides are grouped
together and so on. Since the pharmacological actions and
therapeutic uses of drugs depend on their chemical
constituents, this system of classification appears to be an
ideal one.
Advantages
• Gives logical reasoning to biological activities of crude
drugs which are due to chemical constituents.
• If you know the chemical constituent, then it will be
easy to study crude drugs.
Disadvantages
• Drugs which contains two or more types of chemical
constituents cannot get appropriate placement by this
system.
• Does not give any idea about source of crude drugs
• No idea whether drug is organized or unorganized
Illustration of Chemical Classification
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx
5. Pharmacological classification
• In this system, drugs are grouped together according to
the therapeutic activity of their main chemical
constituents.
• Having similar Pharmacological effects in the human
body
• Based on the pharmacological actions and therapeutic
properties of the crude drugs.
Illustration of Pharmacological
Classification
Pharmacological Action:
• Anticancer Vinca
• Anti Spasmodic Datura, belladonna
• Anti asthamatics Ephedra
• Anthelmintic Kurchi
• Anti amoebic Ipecac
• Astringents Catechu
• Anti diabetic Gymnema
Cardio tonics Digitalis, squill
Carminatives Cinnamon, clove, fennel
Expectorant Vasaka
Laxatives Senna, Aloes
Mydriatic Datura
Oxytocic Ergot
Advantages
• Even if chemical constituents are not known drugs can be grouped
according to therapeutic utility.
Disadvantages:
• Same drug having different actions, may be included in more
than one category.
• Some crude drugs have two different pharmacological
actions therefore it is difficult to classify them.
• Eg: Nux-vomica is CNS stimulant as well as bitter tonic.
Conchona is bitter tonic as well as anti-malarial and anti-
pyreric.
• No idea whether drugs are organized or unorganized.
6. Chemotaxonomical classification
• The chemical examination of several plants Phytochemical
evaluation have established that there is close link between
their Chemical constituents and taxonomical status.
Ex. Solanaceae family contains Tropane alkaloids
Umbelliferae family contains Volatile oil
Pinaceae family contains Oleo-resin
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx
7. Serotaxonomical classification
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx
THANK YOU

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CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS SLIDESSS.pptx

  • 2. Why it is needed??? • Crude drugs are widely distributed in the nature • To understand the crude drugs easily • Identification purpose • To know the exact properties • Reader friendly
  • 3. The systems of classification of crude drugs may be aimed accordingly as follows 1. Alphabetical classification 2. Taxonomical Classification 3. Morphological classification 4. Chemical classification 5. Pharmacological classification 6. Chemotaxonomical classification of Crude Drugs
  • 4. Drugs As per Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940: A drug may be defined as All medicines for internal or external use of and all substances intended to be used for or in diagnosis, mitigation, treatment or prevention of diseases in human beings or animals. OR  Such substances other than food intended to affect the structure or any function of human body or intended to be used for the destruction of vermin or insects, which cause disease in human beings or animals as may be specified from time to time by the Central Government by notification in Official Gazette
  • 5. Crude Drugs • They are available in their original form of occurrence. • Direct or direct parts obtained from the plants, animals, minerals, marine, microorganisms, etc. • Organized drugs are the organs of plants, solid, cellular in nature and identified by their microscopical characters. Ex. Cinnamon, Senna • Unorganised drugs are the products of plants or animals, solid, semisolid or liquid in nature and are identified by organoleptic tests basing on the type of chemical constituents present in them Ex. Acacia, Honey, Castor oil  ALREADY DISCUSSED
  • 6. Classification Of Crude Drugs 1. Alphabetical Classification:  In this system, the crude drugs are arranged in alphabetical order either using their English or Latin names.  This system is adopted by B.P., B.P.C., U.S.P. and I.P.(Eng)  Whereas in International Pharmacopoeia drugs are arranged according to Latin names.  The Pharmacopoeias and other official publications use this system is the simplest method of arranging crude drugs and is particularly suitable for classifying drugs having no connecting features of a scientific nature.  Ex: Aloe, Benzoin, Cinnamon, Dil, Eucalyptus, Fennel, Ginger, Hibiscus,…..etc.
  • 8. Adv: • Simplicity • Ease to use Disadv: • Classification system does not help in differentiating drugs of Plant, animal or mineral sources. • Organized and unorganized drugs cannot be differentiated. • System does not give any useful information about the drugs. • Many unrelated drugs(allergic) may be grouped together by using this system.
  • 9. 2. Taxonomical classification: • Purely Botanical classification • Linnaean System, Binomial nomenclature given by Carolus Linnaeus-father of modern taxonomy • Crude drugs from plants are classified into Kingdom, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus and Species. • Animal drugs classified as fishes, arthropods, mammals etc., • Arranged according to the natural groups (e.g. families) of their sources. • Thus all the drugs obtained from plants of the family Umbelliferae are grouped together as umbelliferous drugs, those from Solanaceae are grouped together as Solanaceous drugs and so on.
  • 10. Illustration of Taxonomical Classification
  • 11. Adv: • It is more convenient for practical purpose • Even if the chemical content or action of drugs is not known the drug can be studied. • It gives ideas about source of drugs. Disadv: • Does not give idea about organised and unorganised crude drugs • During collection, drying & packing, morphology of drug can be changes.
  • 12. 3. Morphological classification • In this system the crude drugs are classified according to their morphological characters like leaves, barks, seeds, fruits, roots, flowers etc. • Organized drugs are arranged according to the morphological similarities and dissimilarities. • Unorganized drugs are grouped in this system as latices, extracts, gums, resins, oils, fats and waxes.
  • 14. Advantages: • Most convenient for practical purpose. • Useful in identification of adulterants. Disadvantages: • It is difficult to classify unorganized drugs. • Chemical composition and pharmacological behavior of drugs cannot be characterized by this system. • Processing of drugs like collection, drying and preparation for market may change their original characters making recognition quite difficult.
  • 15. 4. Chemical classification • The crude drugs are divided into groups according to their principal chemical constituents. • Thus all alkaloid-containing drugs are put into one group regardless of other consideration. • Similarly all crude drugs containing glycosides are grouped together and so on. Since the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of drugs depend on their chemical constituents, this system of classification appears to be an ideal one.
  • 16. Advantages • Gives logical reasoning to biological activities of crude drugs which are due to chemical constituents. • If you know the chemical constituent, then it will be easy to study crude drugs. Disadvantages • Drugs which contains two or more types of chemical constituents cannot get appropriate placement by this system. • Does not give any idea about source of crude drugs • No idea whether drug is organized or unorganized
  • 17. Illustration of Chemical Classification
  • 19. 5. Pharmacological classification • In this system, drugs are grouped together according to the therapeutic activity of their main chemical constituents. • Having similar Pharmacological effects in the human body • Based on the pharmacological actions and therapeutic properties of the crude drugs.
  • 20. Illustration of Pharmacological Classification Pharmacological Action: • Anticancer Vinca • Anti Spasmodic Datura, belladonna • Anti asthamatics Ephedra • Anthelmintic Kurchi • Anti amoebic Ipecac • Astringents Catechu • Anti diabetic Gymnema
  • 21. Cardio tonics Digitalis, squill Carminatives Cinnamon, clove, fennel Expectorant Vasaka Laxatives Senna, Aloes Mydriatic Datura Oxytocic Ergot
  • 22. Advantages • Even if chemical constituents are not known drugs can be grouped according to therapeutic utility. Disadvantages: • Same drug having different actions, may be included in more than one category. • Some crude drugs have two different pharmacological actions therefore it is difficult to classify them. • Eg: Nux-vomica is CNS stimulant as well as bitter tonic. Conchona is bitter tonic as well as anti-malarial and anti- pyreric. • No idea whether drugs are organized or unorganized.
  • 23. 6. Chemotaxonomical classification • The chemical examination of several plants Phytochemical evaluation have established that there is close link between their Chemical constituents and taxonomical status. Ex. Solanaceae family contains Tropane alkaloids Umbelliferae family contains Volatile oil Pinaceae family contains Oleo-resin