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ADULTERATION OF HERBAL DRUGS
&
IT’S EVALUATION
CONTENTS:
Introduction
Methods of Adulteration
Reasons for Adulteration
Types Of Adulteration
Measurement of adulteration
INTRODUCTION
• The adulteration and substitution of herbal
drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry
• Adulteration, it is a practice of substituting the
original crude drug partially or fully with other
substances.
• An adulteration means a process of addition
of impure, cheap and filthy substances to
genuine drug
Reasons for Adulteration
Confusion in vernacular names.
Lack of knowledge about authentic sources.
Similarity in Morphology.
Lack of authentic plants.
Unscientific collection.
High price of the drug in the market.
With the intention of enhancing profits.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADULTRATION:
Direct or intentional
adulteration
Indirect or unintentional
adulteration
1.
2.
1.Direct or intentional adulteration:
• It is done intentionally which usually includes practices in which an herbal
drug is substituted partially or fully with other inferior products.
• Due to morphological resemblance to the authentic herb, many different
inferior commercial varieties are used as adulterants.
• This practice is most common in the case of volatile oil-containing materials,
where the dried exhausted material resembles the original drug but is free of
the essential oils.
• Foreign matter such as other parts of the same plant with no active
ingredients, sand and stones, manufactured artifacts, and synthetic inferior
principles are used as substitutes.
A. Substitution with inferior quality:
• Ideal properties of substituent
*It shows similar morphology with crude drug.
*It should cheaply available.
*Non toxic in nature.
*Compatible with crude drug.
Drug ADULTERANT
Indian senna Italian senna, Arabian senna , dog senna
Gentian Picrorrhea kurroa
Tragacanth Hog Tragacanth
Indian Senna Italian Senna
Gentian Picrorhiza
B. Substitution with exhausted crude drugs
• Many drugs are extracted in large scale for the isolation of
active constituent. Extraction process may doesn’t change
morphology of drug. And the extracted drug is called
exhausted drug. There is a chance to adultrate crude genuine
drug with it.
DRUG ADULTERANT
Peppermint oil Cornmint oil
Coriander oil Oil from fruits
Cinnamon oil Oil from leaves
Peppermint oil Cornmint oil
C. Substitution with similar morphology:
• In this type drugs are adulterated with similar
morphology containing drugs;
DRUG ADULTERANT
Saffron Dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorius
Myrrh Sented bedilum
Clove Clove stocks
Saffron Carthamus tinctorius
Myrrh Sented bedilum
D. Substitution with artificially
manufactured substances
• Some artificial agents are manufactured to get
adulteration with crude drugs.
DRUG ADULTRANT
Bees wax Yellow paraffin
Honey Invert sugar
Balsum of Peru Addition of benzyl benzoate
Beeswax Yellow paraffin
2.Indirect or unintentional adulteration:
• Unintentional or undeliberately adulteration
which sometimes occurs without bad intention
of the manufacturer or supplier. Sometimes in
the absence of proper means of evaluation, an
authentic drug partially or fully devoid of the
active ingredients may enter the market.
• Factors such as geographical sources, growing
conditions, processing, and storage are all
factors that influence the quality of the drug.
A. Faulty collection of crude drugs:
• Certain drugs are collected in specific season
only, if not then the concentration of chemical
constituents may be vary;
DRUG COLLECTION SEASON
Wild cherry bark Autumn
Cinnamon bark Rainy season
Solanaceous leaves Summer
B. Imperfect preparation:
• While preparation of crude drugs it should be considered the
step of collection which reflects the economical state.
• Adulteration may takes place by collection of undesirable and
inert part instead of desired part;
DRUG OFFICIAL PART UNDESIRED PART
Ipecac Roots & rhizomes Arial stem
Fennel fruit Undeveloped fruit
Saffron Style & stigma tops Parts of corolla
C. Improper drying, storage and
maintenance
• Storage & drying conditions also affect the quality of
drug. Improper storage may leads to spoilage:
DRUG DRYING OR STORAGE CONDITION
Volatile oil In closed container stored in dark room
Cod liver oil Stored in ambered colored bottles
Coffee Avoid over heating
Corn of colchicum Above 65°C, hydrolysIs the drug
DISADVANTAGES OF ADULTRATION:
• Degradation or deterioration of product
• leads to damage of dosage form
• leads to altering of drug nature
• Cause damage, unwanted side effects and
even the death of patient
Evaluation of adulteration
*Morphological or Organoleptic tests
* Microscopic Evaluation
* Chemical Evaluation
* Physical Evaluation
*Biological Evaluation
*Analytical methods.
ADULTERATION AND DETEROATATION AS PER THE PCI

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ADULTERATION AND DETEROATATION AS PER THE PCI

  • 1. ADULTERATION OF HERBAL DRUGS & IT’S EVALUATION
  • 2. CONTENTS: Introduction Methods of Adulteration Reasons for Adulteration Types Of Adulteration Measurement of adulteration
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • The adulteration and substitution of herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry • Adulteration, it is a practice of substituting the original crude drug partially or fully with other substances. • An adulteration means a process of addition of impure, cheap and filthy substances to genuine drug
  • 4. Reasons for Adulteration Confusion in vernacular names. Lack of knowledge about authentic sources. Similarity in Morphology. Lack of authentic plants. Unscientific collection. High price of the drug in the market. With the intention of enhancing profits.
  • 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADULTRATION: Direct or intentional adulteration Indirect or unintentional adulteration 1. 2.
  • 6. 1.Direct or intentional adulteration: • It is done intentionally which usually includes practices in which an herbal drug is substituted partially or fully with other inferior products. • Due to morphological resemblance to the authentic herb, many different inferior commercial varieties are used as adulterants. • This practice is most common in the case of volatile oil-containing materials, where the dried exhausted material resembles the original drug but is free of the essential oils. • Foreign matter such as other parts of the same plant with no active ingredients, sand and stones, manufactured artifacts, and synthetic inferior principles are used as substitutes.
  • 7. A. Substitution with inferior quality: • Ideal properties of substituent *It shows similar morphology with crude drug. *It should cheaply available. *Non toxic in nature. *Compatible with crude drug. Drug ADULTERANT Indian senna Italian senna, Arabian senna , dog senna Gentian Picrorrhea kurroa Tragacanth Hog Tragacanth
  • 8. Indian Senna Italian Senna Gentian Picrorhiza
  • 9. B. Substitution with exhausted crude drugs • Many drugs are extracted in large scale for the isolation of active constituent. Extraction process may doesn’t change morphology of drug. And the extracted drug is called exhausted drug. There is a chance to adultrate crude genuine drug with it. DRUG ADULTERANT Peppermint oil Cornmint oil Coriander oil Oil from fruits Cinnamon oil Oil from leaves
  • 11. C. Substitution with similar morphology: • In this type drugs are adulterated with similar morphology containing drugs; DRUG ADULTERANT Saffron Dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorius Myrrh Sented bedilum Clove Clove stocks
  • 13. D. Substitution with artificially manufactured substances • Some artificial agents are manufactured to get adulteration with crude drugs. DRUG ADULTRANT Bees wax Yellow paraffin Honey Invert sugar Balsum of Peru Addition of benzyl benzoate
  • 15. 2.Indirect or unintentional adulteration: • Unintentional or undeliberately adulteration which sometimes occurs without bad intention of the manufacturer or supplier. Sometimes in the absence of proper means of evaluation, an authentic drug partially or fully devoid of the active ingredients may enter the market. • Factors such as geographical sources, growing conditions, processing, and storage are all factors that influence the quality of the drug.
  • 16. A. Faulty collection of crude drugs: • Certain drugs are collected in specific season only, if not then the concentration of chemical constituents may be vary; DRUG COLLECTION SEASON Wild cherry bark Autumn Cinnamon bark Rainy season Solanaceous leaves Summer
  • 17. B. Imperfect preparation: • While preparation of crude drugs it should be considered the step of collection which reflects the economical state. • Adulteration may takes place by collection of undesirable and inert part instead of desired part; DRUG OFFICIAL PART UNDESIRED PART Ipecac Roots & rhizomes Arial stem Fennel fruit Undeveloped fruit Saffron Style & stigma tops Parts of corolla
  • 18. C. Improper drying, storage and maintenance • Storage & drying conditions also affect the quality of drug. Improper storage may leads to spoilage: DRUG DRYING OR STORAGE CONDITION Volatile oil In closed container stored in dark room Cod liver oil Stored in ambered colored bottles Coffee Avoid over heating Corn of colchicum Above 65°C, hydrolysIs the drug
  • 19. DISADVANTAGES OF ADULTRATION: • Degradation or deterioration of product • leads to damage of dosage form • leads to altering of drug nature • Cause damage, unwanted side effects and even the death of patient
  • 20. Evaluation of adulteration *Morphological or Organoleptic tests * Microscopic Evaluation * Chemical Evaluation * Physical Evaluation *Biological Evaluation *Analytical methods.