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CULTIVATION, COLLECTION,
PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF
CRUDE DRUGS
INTRODUCTION
• Condition and duration of the cultivation varies
from depending on the quality medicinal plants
materials required.
• Crude drugs: Cultivated or uncultured plants
• Some cases: pharmacopoeias specify cultivated
species such as Fennel, ginger, cinnamon &
opium
• Opium: only official growers may legally
produce herbs.
• Other herbs: Senna, Tragacanthetc, may be
collected from wild or cultivated species.
Cultivation Techniques
1. Seed Propagation (Sexual Method)
2. Vegetative Method (Asexual
Method)
a) Natural methods
b) Artificial Methods
1. Seed Propagation (Sexual method)
 Plants are raised by means of propagating seeds.
 Seeds of Standard quality, free from disease and insects of high germination
rate
 Some methods are:
i) Broadcasting method: Seed are small in size, Manually or with the help of
seed drills, seeds are spread over the surface of the ploughed soil.
ii) Dibbling method: seeds are average size and weight, seeds are sown by
placing them in holes made in the soil, in each hole 2-6 seeds can be placed.
iii) Other methods: plants are grown by sowing seeds in the nursery beds, after
2-3 months, seedling are transplanted to farms for further development,
plants like cinchona, digitalis, cardamom, clove, etc are cultivated by this
method.
 Stimulus for seed germination: water, sulphuric acid-Henbane seeds, plant
regulator-sodium hypochloride, ethylene, cytokinins, potassium nitrate,
thiourea, auxin, gibberellins.
Advantages
• Maintained the quality and purity of the medicinal
plants
• Only desired sample are collected: Uniform quality.
• Collection, transport & access to processing facilities is
improved.
• Better control of soil quality, pests & plant disease.
• Supply: Constant & Regular (Controlled)
• Herb collectors ‐Skilled/trained
• Support the rapid growth of phytopharmaceuticals,
perfumery and allied industries
• Cultivation allows the usage of modern techniques like
Hybridization, polyploidy, mutation.
Disadvantages
• Not uniform is not possible
• Harvesting and pest control are highly
expensive
• Implementation of modern techniques is not
possible
• Less resistant
• Plant take more time to bear fruits.
2. Vegetative Propagation (Asexual
method)
• Regeneration or formation of a new individual
form any vegetative part of the plant body.
• The method of vegetative propagation involves
separation of a part of plant body, which
develops into a new plant.
• Various methods: stems (underground, sub
aerial) cuttings, budding.
• Two types:
• Natural vegetative propagation
• Artificial vegetative propagation
Natural vegetative propagation
• Occurs when an auxiliary bud grows into a
lateral shoot and develops its own roots (also
known as adventitious roots).
• Plant structures allowing natural vegetative
propagation include bulbs, rhizomes, stolons
and tubers.
Artificial methods
• Artificial methods for propagation of vegetative parts.
i) Cutting: A stem or leaf, is cut off and planted.
ii) Layering: Bending plant branches or stems so that they
touch the ground.
iii) Grafting: A desired cutting or scion is attached to the
stem of another plant
iv) Budding: Having or developing buds.
v) Tissue Culture: PTC technology.
Advantages:
• Processing like harvesting and marketing are easy due
to uniformity in fruit quality
• Disease-resistance plants can be obtained by budding
and grafting.
Factors affecting cultivation
• Altitude
• Temperature
• Rainfall
• Soil and Soil fertility
• Fertilizer
• Pests ad Pest control
• Biological methods.
Altitude
Temperature
Soil
Fertilizer
The fertilizers are two types:
1. Biological origin fertilizer: Green manures, Farmyard manure, Composited manure.
2. Synthetic fertilizers Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Phosphate, Superphosphate, and Potassium
Sulfate.
3. Chemical fertilizers:
• (i) Macronutrients:
• (a) Nitrogen
• (b) Phosphorous
• (c) Potassium
• (d) Calcium
• (e) Magnesium
• (f) Sulpher.
• (ii) Micronutrients:
• (a) Iron (b) Magnese (c) Zinc (d) Boron
• (e) Copper
• (f) Molybdenum
• Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and chorine are provided from water and air.
• Examples:
• Urea, Potash
COLLECTION
• Crude drugs may be collected from cultivated
or wild plants
• Factors : Season ,Time , Age of plants.
• Collection of: Leaves –At the beginning of
Flowering
• Bark –In spring or early Summer
• Underground roots –In autumn
• Unorganised drug-as soon as they exudes of
the plant.
DRYING
Removing the moisture content of crude drugs.
Ensures good keeping
Prevent mould & bacterial growth
Prevent enzyme activity
Preventing chemical changes
Drying methods : Air ,Artificial and Vacuum
Drying
Processing
STORAGE
• To maintain drug in good condition for a longer time
• Moisture content –Enhances the growth of
microorganisms
• Temperature –increases the enzymatic activity
• Light –Causes the bleaching of flowers
• Oxygen of air –Rancidification of fixed oils
CULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx

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CULTIVATION, COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF CRUDE DRUGS.pptx

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Condition and duration of the cultivation varies from depending on the quality medicinal plants materials required. • Crude drugs: Cultivated or uncultured plants • Some cases: pharmacopoeias specify cultivated species such as Fennel, ginger, cinnamon & opium • Opium: only official growers may legally produce herbs. • Other herbs: Senna, Tragacanthetc, may be collected from wild or cultivated species.
  • 3. Cultivation Techniques 1. Seed Propagation (Sexual Method) 2. Vegetative Method (Asexual Method) a) Natural methods b) Artificial Methods
  • 4. 1. Seed Propagation (Sexual method)  Plants are raised by means of propagating seeds.  Seeds of Standard quality, free from disease and insects of high germination rate  Some methods are: i) Broadcasting method: Seed are small in size, Manually or with the help of seed drills, seeds are spread over the surface of the ploughed soil. ii) Dibbling method: seeds are average size and weight, seeds are sown by placing them in holes made in the soil, in each hole 2-6 seeds can be placed. iii) Other methods: plants are grown by sowing seeds in the nursery beds, after 2-3 months, seedling are transplanted to farms for further development, plants like cinchona, digitalis, cardamom, clove, etc are cultivated by this method.  Stimulus for seed germination: water, sulphuric acid-Henbane seeds, plant regulator-sodium hypochloride, ethylene, cytokinins, potassium nitrate, thiourea, auxin, gibberellins.
  • 5. Advantages • Maintained the quality and purity of the medicinal plants • Only desired sample are collected: Uniform quality. • Collection, transport & access to processing facilities is improved. • Better control of soil quality, pests & plant disease. • Supply: Constant & Regular (Controlled) • Herb collectors ‐Skilled/trained • Support the rapid growth of phytopharmaceuticals, perfumery and allied industries • Cultivation allows the usage of modern techniques like Hybridization, polyploidy, mutation.
  • 6. Disadvantages • Not uniform is not possible • Harvesting and pest control are highly expensive • Implementation of modern techniques is not possible • Less resistant • Plant take more time to bear fruits.
  • 7. 2. Vegetative Propagation (Asexual method) • Regeneration or formation of a new individual form any vegetative part of the plant body. • The method of vegetative propagation involves separation of a part of plant body, which develops into a new plant. • Various methods: stems (underground, sub aerial) cuttings, budding. • Two types: • Natural vegetative propagation • Artificial vegetative propagation
  • 8. Natural vegetative propagation • Occurs when an auxiliary bud grows into a lateral shoot and develops its own roots (also known as adventitious roots). • Plant structures allowing natural vegetative propagation include bulbs, rhizomes, stolons and tubers.
  • 9. Artificial methods • Artificial methods for propagation of vegetative parts. i) Cutting: A stem or leaf, is cut off and planted. ii) Layering: Bending plant branches or stems so that they touch the ground. iii) Grafting: A desired cutting or scion is attached to the stem of another plant iv) Budding: Having or developing buds. v) Tissue Culture: PTC technology. Advantages: • Processing like harvesting and marketing are easy due to uniformity in fruit quality • Disease-resistance plants can be obtained by budding and grafting.
  • 10. Factors affecting cultivation • Altitude • Temperature • Rainfall • Soil and Soil fertility • Fertilizer • Pests ad Pest control • Biological methods.
  • 13. Soil
  • 14. Fertilizer The fertilizers are two types: 1. Biological origin fertilizer: Green manures, Farmyard manure, Composited manure. 2. Synthetic fertilizers Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Phosphate, Superphosphate, and Potassium Sulfate. 3. Chemical fertilizers: • (i) Macronutrients: • (a) Nitrogen • (b) Phosphorous • (c) Potassium • (d) Calcium • (e) Magnesium • (f) Sulpher. • (ii) Micronutrients: • (a) Iron (b) Magnese (c) Zinc (d) Boron • (e) Copper • (f) Molybdenum • Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and chorine are provided from water and air. • Examples: • Urea, Potash
  • 15. COLLECTION • Crude drugs may be collected from cultivated or wild plants • Factors : Season ,Time , Age of plants. • Collection of: Leaves –At the beginning of Flowering • Bark –In spring or early Summer • Underground roots –In autumn • Unorganised drug-as soon as they exudes of the plant.
  • 16. DRYING Removing the moisture content of crude drugs. Ensures good keeping Prevent mould & bacterial growth Prevent enzyme activity Preventing chemical changes Drying methods : Air ,Artificial and Vacuum Drying
  • 18. STORAGE • To maintain drug in good condition for a longer time • Moisture content –Enhances the growth of microorganisms • Temperature –increases the enzymatic activity • Light –Causes the bleaching of flowers • Oxygen of air –Rancidification of fixed oils