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SECONDARY METABOLITIES
Introduction
• Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are
not directly involved in the normal growth, development
or reproduction of a plant/an organism.
• A common role of secondary metabolites in plants is
defence mechanism i.e. used to fight from herbivores,
pests and pathogens.
• The potential is so great that the about 1500 new
molecules are reported from plants each year of which up
to 30% may exhibit some degree of biological activity.
• In humans or plants, secondary metabolites are of great
importance as they are used in many fields such as
medicine, flavouring agent, cosmetics, food additives,
antimicrobial, dyes, etc.
• It is believed that production of secondary
metabolites is linked to the induction of
morphological differentiation.
• Cultures are initiated by simply placing freshly
cut sections from surface sterilized plant organs
on a nutrient medium containing suitable
hormones.
• Generally auxins and cytokinins are used for
this purpose.
• On such a medium explants exhibit callusing
which usually starts at the cut ends and
gradually extends over the entire surface of
tissue.
SECONDARY METABOLITIES PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
SECONDARY METABOLITIES PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
SECONDARY METABOLITIES PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx
SECONDARY METABOLITIES ARE
MAINLY CLASSIFIED INTO THREE MAIN
GROUPS
1.
Significance of Secondary metabolites
Secondary metabolites serve:
• As competitive weapons/Medicines used against other
bacteria, fungi, amoebae, plants, insects, and large
animals;
• They play roles to protect plants from predators and
pathogens (toxicity and repellence to herbivores and
microbes).
• As metal transporting agents;
• As agents of symbiosis between microbes and plants,
nematodes, insects, and higher animals;
• As sexual hormones; and
• As differentiation effectors like pollinator attractants by
volatile and coloring matter in roses.
• They are represent chemical adaptation to environmental
stress conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses)
SECONDARY METABOLITIES PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx

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SECONDARY METABOLITIES PHARMACOGNOSY.pptx

  • 2. Introduction • Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development or reproduction of a plant/an organism. • A common role of secondary metabolites in plants is defence mechanism i.e. used to fight from herbivores, pests and pathogens. • The potential is so great that the about 1500 new molecules are reported from plants each year of which up to 30% may exhibit some degree of biological activity. • In humans or plants, secondary metabolites are of great importance as they are used in many fields such as medicine, flavouring agent, cosmetics, food additives, antimicrobial, dyes, etc.
  • 3. • It is believed that production of secondary metabolites is linked to the induction of morphological differentiation. • Cultures are initiated by simply placing freshly cut sections from surface sterilized plant organs on a nutrient medium containing suitable hormones. • Generally auxins and cytokinins are used for this purpose. • On such a medium explants exhibit callusing which usually starts at the cut ends and gradually extends over the entire surface of tissue.
  • 7. SECONDARY METABOLITIES ARE MAINLY CLASSIFIED INTO THREE MAIN GROUPS 1.
  • 8. Significance of Secondary metabolites Secondary metabolites serve: • As competitive weapons/Medicines used against other bacteria, fungi, amoebae, plants, insects, and large animals; • They play roles to protect plants from predators and pathogens (toxicity and repellence to herbivores and microbes). • As metal transporting agents; • As agents of symbiosis between microbes and plants, nematodes, insects, and higher animals; • As sexual hormones; and • As differentiation effectors like pollinator attractants by volatile and coloring matter in roses. • They are represent chemical adaptation to environmental stress conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses)