SlideShare a Scribd company logo
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR
STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
1
Classification:
Class: Chlorophyceae
Order:
Zygnematales/Conjugales
Family: Zygnemaceae
Genus: Spirogyra
(Fritsch, 1935)
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books
and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose
ONLY
2
Spirogyra is a common free-floating green alga. It is
an unbranched, filamentous, fresh water alga. The
filament is very fine, long and slimy to touch, hence
the name 'pond silk' or water silk. It forms a green
floating mass, hence the name 'pond scum'. Each
filament, when examined under the compound
microscope, is seen to be made up of fairly long
cylindrical cells attached end to end. In each cell,
just within the cell wall, there is a lining layer of
cytoplasm enclosing a large central vacuole. The
nucleus is found in the centre of the vacuole,
suspended by fine cytoplasmic strands that arise
from the outer cytoplasmic layer.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures,
books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
3
The chloroplast is quite characteristic of the plant.
It is long, flat and spirally coiled inside the cell. In
each cell there may be 1-14 chloroplasts. Many
pyrenoids are embedded along the length of the
chloroplast. They contain chlorophyll and make
their food by photosynthesis. Spirogyra is a
filamentous alga. Its cells form long, thin strands
that, in vast numbers, contribute to the familiar
green, slimy ‘blanket weed’ in ponds. Seen under
the microscope, each filament consists of an
extensive chain of identical cells.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures,
books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
4
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures,
books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading
purpose ONLY
5
cytoplasm
nucleus
vacuole
Each cell contains a helical chloroplast, a nucleus,
cytoplasm and a vacuole enclosed in a cellulose
cell wall.
chloroplast
nucleus
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
6
Reproduction:
Spirogyra multiplies vegetatively, asexually
and sexually. Sexual reproduction is by
conjugation.
1. Fragmentation in Spirogyra
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
7
Fragmentation is a form of vegetative
reproduction where the organism is split into
new a fragment which develops into new.
Fragmentation is the normal mode of
reproduction in Spirogyra which is also known
as vegetative reproduction. Fragmentation can
occur due to mechanical injury caused by water
currents, biting aquatic animals, and or by
gelatinization of middle lamellum.
7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
8
During this process the filaments splits or break
into single cells or small lengths. Then by the
process of mitosis and through cell enlargement
each newly formed piece grows into a new
filament.
Each fragment will develop in to new filament
and splitting of filaments may or may not be
deliberate. Meiosis cell division is not present in
fragmentation. Fragmentation of algal mass of
spirogyra results in a clone which is genetically
identical to the parent algae.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
9
Spirogyra Sexual Reproduction
7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
10
Sexual reproduction
only takes place under
adverse conditions, for
example, when the
pond dries up. This can
be simulated in a dish in
the laboratory by
allowing a collection dry
up gradually over a few
days.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
11
Reproduction: Spirogyra reproduces both
asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction
is by means of spore productions. There is
also vegetative reproduction in some species.
(1) Vegetative Reproduction:
it takes place due to fragmentation. The
filament may break due to mechanical injury
or due to dissoloution of middle lamella or
gelatinization of cells.
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and
other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
12
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 13
(2) Asexual Reproduction:
It takes place by means of akinetes, aplanospores and
azygospores. These are formed due to the contraction of
protoplasm and formation of new cellulose walls around it.
These spores are formed under unfavourable conditions.
During favourable conditions, they germinate to form the
new filament.
(3) Sexual Reproduction:
Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra takes place by
conjugation. It is isogamous type. Fusion of these non-
flagllate gametes is resulted in zygospore. Two methods of
conjugation have been found in Spirogyra i.e. (1) Lateral
conjugation and (2) Scalariform conjugation. These are
discussed below.
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and
other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
14
(i) Lateral conjugation:
It takes place between two cells of the same filament. Such
species are, therefore, called homothallic. Lateral conjugation
again is of three types:
(a) Indirect Lateral conjugation (b) Terminal conjugation (c)
Direct Lateral conjugation.
(a) Indirect Lateral conjugation:
In this process there is a tube-like outgrowth in-between two
adjacent cells close to the common cross walls. These
outgrowths extend laterally ultimately forming conjugation
tube. The contracted protoplasm of one cell moves to the
adjacent cell and fuses to form the zygospore. The zygospore
is diploid in nature.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
15
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references:
FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
16
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
17
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
18
(b) Terminal conjugation:
In this method, the so-called male gamete enters the female
gamete by perforating the septum of conjugation tube. The
conjugation tubes are produced on either side of the septum
of the two conjugating cells.
(c) Direct Lateral conjugation:
In this case, the filament is attached to the substratum by its
basal cell. Lateral conjugation takes place between two cells
placed immediately next to the basal cell. One cell swells
known as the female cell and the other cell becomes conical
known as male cell. The male gamete passes through the
septum piercing it. The nuclei are fused forming the diploid
zygospore.
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and
other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
19
(ii) Scalariform conjugation:
The scalariform conjugation takes place between the cells of
two different filaments, therefore, the species are
heterothallic. In this case, two physiologically different
filaments lie parallel to each other. Then two outgrowths arise
which are called conjugation tube. Further growth of the
conjugation tube pushes the filaments apart.
Later the conjugation tube dissolves forming a passage.
Simultaneously the protoplasm of the conjugated cells
contracts and forms gametes. The male gamete moves
through the conjugation tube into the female cell of another
filament.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
20
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
21
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
22
Zygospore - The mature zygospore has three layered walls.
These zygospores are liberated by the death and decay of
the female cell wall. Zygospore germinates during favourable
condition. Each zygospore nucleus divides meiotically to
produce four haploid of which three degenerate and only one
remains functional. On germination, the zygospore gives rise
to a single haploid filament. In this way, the life cycle is
completed.
Fusion of two nuclei results in formation of diploid
zygospore. After the formation of zygospore the cell of male
filament becomes empty while the cells of the female
filament are filled with zygospore.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books
and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose
ONLY
23
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures,
books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading
purpose ONLY
24
Two or more filaments
come to lie side by
side and projections
grow out from cells
which are in close
proximity. There is
probably some sort of
chemical message
released by
contiguous filaments
The wall between the projections starts to break
down where they meet and cell contents start to
shrink by plasmolysis (water loss).
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and
other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
25
7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and
other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
26
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books
and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose
ONLY
27
7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR
STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
28
7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR
STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY
29
The protoplast of one cell moves through the conjugation tube
and fuses with the protoplast of the other. This is a form of
anisogamous reproduction and is referred to as scalariform
conjugation; functionally, the protoplast that moves is a male
gamete. Both gametes are non-flagellated.
The resulting zygote develops a thick wall which is resistant
to adverse conditions and may lie dormant for some time. On
germination, the nucleus of the zygote undergoes meiosis;
four nuclei are formed (as is usual in meiosis), three
degenerate and the resulting uninucleate cell divides to form a
haploid filament.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
30
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books
and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose
ONLY
31
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading
purpose ONLY
32
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
33
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
34
Observe the figures carefully and label them
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
35
1. Give a brief account of lateral and scalariform
conjugation in Spirogyra.
2. Give an illustrated account of the life history of
Spirogyra.
3. The filaments of Spirogyra loose their colour after
conjugation. Why ?
4. Enlist the identifying characters of Spirogyra.
7/23/2018
This lecture slide/hand-out is not an
alternative to lectures, books and other
references: FOR STUDENTS' additional
reading purpose ONLY
36
References
Fritsch, F.G. 1935, 1945. The Structure and Reproduction of Algae. Vol. I
& II. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. (589.3/6167, 6168)
Mauseth, J. D. (1998). Botany: An introduction to plant biology. Boston:
Jones and Bartlett.
Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F., & Eichhorn, S. E. (1999). Biology of plants. New
York: W.H. Freeman.
Sharma, O. P. (2011). Algae. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.
Vashishta, B. R., & Sinha, A. K. (2014). Botany for degree students : Fungi.
New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd.
Vashishta, B. R. (1960). Botany for degree students. Delhi: S. Chand.

More Related Content

What's hot

Ectocarpus
EctocarpusEctocarpus
Ectocarpus
BotanyWorld
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
Tahir Shahzad
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
Jayakara Bhandary
 
Oscillatoria
OscillatoriaOscillatoria
Oscillatoria
FarhanaShiekh
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANYStelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
ANJALIJAYAN6
 
General characters of bryophytes
General characters of bryophytesGeneral characters of bryophytes
General characters of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
Marchantia
Akumpaul
 
Life cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funariaLife cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funaria
Jayakara Bhandary
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Life cycle of pinus
Life cycle of pinusLife cycle of pinus
Hydrodictyon
HydrodictyonHydrodictyon
Hydrodictyon
ssuseref8144
 
Pteridophytes
PteridophytesPteridophytes
Pteridophytes
GAJENDRA C V
 
Puccinia graminis
Puccinia graminisPuccinia graminis
Puccinia graminis
SyedaFari2
 
Coleochaete
ColeochaeteColeochaete
Coleochaete
kaslinsas
 
Pteridophyte ppt
Pteridophyte pptPteridophyte ppt
Pteridophyte ppt
sumitachoudhary
 
Spirogyra
SpirogyraSpirogyra
Spirogyra
Zahid Ali
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
SyedaFari2
 
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproductionNostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
Gayathri Purushothaman
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
SyedaFari2
 
Marsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptxMarsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptx
jntuhcej
 

What's hot (20)

Ectocarpus
EctocarpusEctocarpus
Ectocarpus
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
 
Oscillatoria
OscillatoriaOscillatoria
Oscillatoria
 
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANYStelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes-BOTANY
 
General characters of bryophytes
General characters of bryophytesGeneral characters of bryophytes
General characters of bryophytes
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
Marchantia
 
Life cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funariaLife cycle of_funaria
Life cycle of_funaria
 
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
7. Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 
Life cycle of pinus
Life cycle of pinusLife cycle of pinus
Life cycle of pinus
 
Hydrodictyon
HydrodictyonHydrodictyon
Hydrodictyon
 
Pteridophytes
PteridophytesPteridophytes
Pteridophytes
 
Puccinia graminis
Puccinia graminisPuccinia graminis
Puccinia graminis
 
Coleochaete
ColeochaeteColeochaete
Coleochaete
 
Pteridophyte ppt
Pteridophyte pptPteridophyte ppt
Pteridophyte ppt
 
Spirogyra
SpirogyraSpirogyra
Spirogyra
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
 
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproductionNostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
Nostoc thallus , structure and reproduction
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
 
Marsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptxMarsilea.pptx
Marsilea.pptx
 

Similar to Spirogyra

All about about spirogyra.pptx
All about about spirogyra.pptxAll about about spirogyra.pptx
All about about spirogyra.pptx
neelimasingh63
 
Spirogyra ppt.pptx
Spirogyra ppt.pptxSpirogyra ppt.pptx
Spirogyra ppt.pptx
SeemaGaikwad15
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
Fatima Mansoora
 
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptxSBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
renukadSDNBVC
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
Sangeeta Das
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
vaishalidandge3
 
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdfchlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
AneeqJaved
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
kaslinsas
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo
Oedogonium
OedogoniumOedogonium
Oedogonium
MANSI
 
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptxMicrobes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
MidhatSarfraz
 
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproductionReproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
Dhaneesh Ram
 
Sexual reproduction in protozoa
Sexual reproduction in protozoaSexual reproduction in protozoa
Sexual reproduction in protozoa
Al Nahian Avro
 
Lecture 6.pptx
Lecture 6.pptxLecture 6.pptx
Lecture 6.pptx
ZakariaMohamed34
 
BOTANY .docx
BOTANY .docxBOTANY .docx
BOTANY .docx
TAIMOORSHAHZAD13
 
Ectocarpusppt y.vani
Ectocarpusppt y.vaniEctocarpusppt y.vani
Ectocarpusppt y.vani
Katta Vani
 
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
ranamuneeb25
 
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
nishakataria10
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kailash Vilegave
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo

Similar to Spirogyra (20)

All about about spirogyra.pptx
All about about spirogyra.pptxAll about about spirogyra.pptx
All about about spirogyra.pptx
 
Spirogyra ppt.pptx
Spirogyra ppt.pptxSpirogyra ppt.pptx
Spirogyra ppt.pptx
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
 
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptxSBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
SBP- paper-1-unit-2 algae.pptx
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
 
Plasmodiophoromycetes
PlasmodiophoromycetesPlasmodiophoromycetes
Plasmodiophoromycetes
 
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdfchlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
chlamydomonas-200423170217.pdf
 
Chlamydomonas
ChlamydomonasChlamydomonas
Chlamydomonas
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo
Albugo
 
Oedogonium
OedogoniumOedogonium
Oedogonium
 
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptxMicrobes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
Microbes, Man and Environment (fungal replication) .pptx
 
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproductionReproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
Reproduction of Algae | Vegetative, Asexual & Sexual reproduction
 
Sexual reproduction in protozoa
Sexual reproduction in protozoaSexual reproduction in protozoa
Sexual reproduction in protozoa
 
Lecture 6.pptx
Lecture 6.pptxLecture 6.pptx
Lecture 6.pptx
 
BOTANY .docx
BOTANY .docxBOTANY .docx
BOTANY .docx
 
Ectocarpusppt y.vani
Ectocarpusppt y.vaniEctocarpusppt y.vani
Ectocarpusppt y.vani
 
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx12b. Spirogyra.pptx
12b. Spirogyra.pptx
 
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
Algae (DIVERSITY OF MICROBES)
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
 
Albugo
AlbugoAlbugo
Albugo
 

Recently uploaded

20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
Sharon Liu
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptxCytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
Hitesh Sikarwar
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
David Osipyan
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
MAGOTI ERNEST
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Aditi Bajpai
 
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptxShallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Gokturk Mehmet Dilci
 
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
AbdullaAlAsif1
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
MaheshaNanjegowda
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
TinyAnderson
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Leonel Morgado
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
muralinath2
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
Sérgio Sacani
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
PRIYANKA PATEL
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
yqqaatn0
 
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptxmolar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
Anagha Prasad
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
vluwdy49
 
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero WaterSharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts
 
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................pptbordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
kejapriya1
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
University of Maribor
 

Recently uploaded (20)

20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
20240520 Planning a Circuit Simulator in JavaScript.pptx
 
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
原版制作(carleton毕业证书)卡尔顿大学毕业证硕士文凭原版一模一样
 
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptxCytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
Cytokines and their role in immune regulation.pptx
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
 
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptxThe use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
The use of Nauplii and metanauplii artemia in aquaculture (brine shrimp).pptx
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
 
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptxShallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
Shallowest Oil Discovery of Turkiye.pptx
 
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
Unlocking the mysteries of reproduction: Exploring fecundity and gonadosomati...
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
 
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdfTopic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
Topic: SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN CHILDREN-3.pdf
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
 
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically youngThe debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
The debris of the ‘last major merger’ is dynamically young
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
 
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
如何办理(uvic毕业证书)维多利亚大学毕业证本科学位证书原版一模一样
 
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptxmolar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
 
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero WaterSharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
 
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................pptbordetella pertussis.................................ppt
bordetella pertussis.................................ppt
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
 

Spirogyra

  • 1. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 1 Classification: Class: Chlorophyceae Order: Zygnematales/Conjugales Family: Zygnemaceae Genus: Spirogyra (Fritsch, 1935)
  • 2. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 2 Spirogyra is a common free-floating green alga. It is an unbranched, filamentous, fresh water alga. The filament is very fine, long and slimy to touch, hence the name 'pond silk' or water silk. It forms a green floating mass, hence the name 'pond scum'. Each filament, when examined under the compound microscope, is seen to be made up of fairly long cylindrical cells attached end to end. In each cell, just within the cell wall, there is a lining layer of cytoplasm enclosing a large central vacuole. The nucleus is found in the centre of the vacuole, suspended by fine cytoplasmic strands that arise from the outer cytoplasmic layer.
  • 3. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 3
  • 4. The chloroplast is quite characteristic of the plant. It is long, flat and spirally coiled inside the cell. In each cell there may be 1-14 chloroplasts. Many pyrenoids are embedded along the length of the chloroplast. They contain chlorophyll and make their food by photosynthesis. Spirogyra is a filamentous alga. Its cells form long, thin strands that, in vast numbers, contribute to the familiar green, slimy ‘blanket weed’ in ponds. Seen under the microscope, each filament consists of an extensive chain of identical cells. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 4
  • 5. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 5 cytoplasm nucleus vacuole Each cell contains a helical chloroplast, a nucleus, cytoplasm and a vacuole enclosed in a cellulose cell wall. chloroplast nucleus
  • 6. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 6 Reproduction: Spirogyra multiplies vegetatively, asexually and sexually. Sexual reproduction is by conjugation. 1. Fragmentation in Spirogyra
  • 7. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 7 Fragmentation is a form of vegetative reproduction where the organism is split into new a fragment which develops into new. Fragmentation is the normal mode of reproduction in Spirogyra which is also known as vegetative reproduction. Fragmentation can occur due to mechanical injury caused by water currents, biting aquatic animals, and or by gelatinization of middle lamellum.
  • 8. 7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 8 During this process the filaments splits or break into single cells or small lengths. Then by the process of mitosis and through cell enlargement each newly formed piece grows into a new filament. Each fragment will develop in to new filament and splitting of filaments may or may not be deliberate. Meiosis cell division is not present in fragmentation. Fragmentation of algal mass of spirogyra results in a clone which is genetically identical to the parent algae.
  • 9. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 9 Spirogyra Sexual Reproduction
  • 10. 7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 10 Sexual reproduction only takes place under adverse conditions, for example, when the pond dries up. This can be simulated in a dish in the laboratory by allowing a collection dry up gradually over a few days.
  • 11. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 11 Reproduction: Spirogyra reproduces both asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction is by means of spore productions. There is also vegetative reproduction in some species. (1) Vegetative Reproduction: it takes place due to fragmentation. The filament may break due to mechanical injury or due to dissoloution of middle lamella or gelatinization of cells.
  • 12. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 12
  • 13. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 13 (2) Asexual Reproduction: It takes place by means of akinetes, aplanospores and azygospores. These are formed due to the contraction of protoplasm and formation of new cellulose walls around it. These spores are formed under unfavourable conditions. During favourable conditions, they germinate to form the new filament. (3) Sexual Reproduction: Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra takes place by conjugation. It is isogamous type. Fusion of these non- flagllate gametes is resulted in zygospore. Two methods of conjugation have been found in Spirogyra i.e. (1) Lateral conjugation and (2) Scalariform conjugation. These are discussed below.
  • 14. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 14 (i) Lateral conjugation: It takes place between two cells of the same filament. Such species are, therefore, called homothallic. Lateral conjugation again is of three types: (a) Indirect Lateral conjugation (b) Terminal conjugation (c) Direct Lateral conjugation. (a) Indirect Lateral conjugation: In this process there is a tube-like outgrowth in-between two adjacent cells close to the common cross walls. These outgrowths extend laterally ultimately forming conjugation tube. The contracted protoplasm of one cell moves to the adjacent cell and fuses to form the zygospore. The zygospore is diploid in nature.
  • 15. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 15
  • 16. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 16
  • 17. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 17
  • 18. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 18 (b) Terminal conjugation: In this method, the so-called male gamete enters the female gamete by perforating the septum of conjugation tube. The conjugation tubes are produced on either side of the septum of the two conjugating cells. (c) Direct Lateral conjugation: In this case, the filament is attached to the substratum by its basal cell. Lateral conjugation takes place between two cells placed immediately next to the basal cell. One cell swells known as the female cell and the other cell becomes conical known as male cell. The male gamete passes through the septum piercing it. The nuclei are fused forming the diploid zygospore.
  • 19. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 19 (ii) Scalariform conjugation: The scalariform conjugation takes place between the cells of two different filaments, therefore, the species are heterothallic. In this case, two physiologically different filaments lie parallel to each other. Then two outgrowths arise which are called conjugation tube. Further growth of the conjugation tube pushes the filaments apart. Later the conjugation tube dissolves forming a passage. Simultaneously the protoplasm of the conjugated cells contracts and forms gametes. The male gamete moves through the conjugation tube into the female cell of another filament.
  • 20. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 20
  • 21. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 21
  • 22. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 22 Zygospore - The mature zygospore has three layered walls. These zygospores are liberated by the death and decay of the female cell wall. Zygospore germinates during favourable condition. Each zygospore nucleus divides meiotically to produce four haploid of which three degenerate and only one remains functional. On germination, the zygospore gives rise to a single haploid filament. In this way, the life cycle is completed. Fusion of two nuclei results in formation of diploid zygospore. After the formation of zygospore the cell of male filament becomes empty while the cells of the female filament are filled with zygospore.
  • 23. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 23
  • 24. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 24 Two or more filaments come to lie side by side and projections grow out from cells which are in close proximity. There is probably some sort of chemical message released by contiguous filaments The wall between the projections starts to break down where they meet and cell contents start to shrink by plasmolysis (water loss).
  • 25. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 25
  • 26. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 26
  • 27. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 27
  • 28. 7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 28
  • 29. 7/23/2018This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 29 The protoplast of one cell moves through the conjugation tube and fuses with the protoplast of the other. This is a form of anisogamous reproduction and is referred to as scalariform conjugation; functionally, the protoplast that moves is a male gamete. Both gametes are non-flagellated. The resulting zygote develops a thick wall which is resistant to adverse conditions and may lie dormant for some time. On germination, the nucleus of the zygote undergoes meiosis; four nuclei are formed (as is usual in meiosis), three degenerate and the resulting uninucleate cell divides to form a haploid filament.
  • 30. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 30
  • 31. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 31
  • 32. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 32
  • 33. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 33
  • 34. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 34 Observe the figures carefully and label them
  • 35. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 35 1. Give a brief account of lateral and scalariform conjugation in Spirogyra. 2. Give an illustrated account of the life history of Spirogyra. 3. The filaments of Spirogyra loose their colour after conjugation. Why ? 4. Enlist the identifying characters of Spirogyra.
  • 36. 7/23/2018 This lecture slide/hand-out is not an alternative to lectures, books and other references: FOR STUDENTS' additional reading purpose ONLY 36 References Fritsch, F.G. 1935, 1945. The Structure and Reproduction of Algae. Vol. I & II. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. (589.3/6167, 6168) Mauseth, J. D. (1998). Botany: An introduction to plant biology. Boston: Jones and Bartlett. Raven, P. H., Evert, R. F., & Eichhorn, S. E. (1999). Biology of plants. New York: W.H. Freeman. Sharma, O. P. (2011). Algae. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. Vashishta, B. R., & Sinha, A. K. (2014). Botany for degree students : Fungi. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd. Vashishta, B. R. (1960). Botany for degree students. Delhi: S. Chand.