SlideShare a Scribd company logo
General characters of Bryophytes
Dr. Dhole Nagesh Arjunrao
Department of Botany,
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
• Habit: The bryophytes are very small, green leafy or thalloid plant
body.
• Habitat: Bryophytes are mostly primitive amphibian thallophytes.
They generally grow on damp, shaded, humid localities. Vegetative
structure completely adapted to the land but during sexual
reproduction water is essential for sperms to swim towards the female
gamete for fertilization and their development processes.
• Plant body: The plant body is green gametophyte. It lacks the true
roots, stem and leaves. The gametophytic generation is represented by
a dominant, long lived. The gametophyte is of two types that is
thalloid and leafy gametophyte.
• Thalloid gametophyte: The thalloid gametophye lacks the true roots,
stems and leaves. The gametophyte is prostrate on ground. It is
attached to substratum by delicate hair like structure called rhizoids.
• These rhizoids are helpful in the absorption of water and minerals.
• Thalloid gametophyte bears small scale like structures on ventral
surface (Liverworts).
• Leafy gametophyte: The leafy gametophyte shows roots like
rhizoids, foliose with stem like axis and leaf like appendages
(Mosses).
• Sporophytic generation is short lived. It is dependent on
gametophytic generation. Sporophytic generation is more concerned
with asesual reproduction and formation of spores.
• Internal morphology: The internal tissue is homogenous or
differentiated parenchymatous.
• In liverworts, it is sometimes differentiated into photosynthetic and
storage regions with air chambers which contains chloroplast.
• In mosses, there may be axile cylindrical structure that surrounds
parenchymatous cortical cells.
• Reproduction in bryophytes: Bryophytes reproduces by vegetatively
and sexually.
• Vegetative reproduction: It takes place by the fragmentation,
adventitious branches, tubers (Riccia) gemma bodies (Marchantia).
• Sexual reproduction: The sexual reproduction in bryophytes is of
oogamous type.
• The male sex organ is called antheridium and female sex organ is
known as archegonium.
• The male sex organ antheridium is a multicellular, globose or club
shaped body, shortly stalked with multicellular protective jacket.
• Antheridium contains many androcyte mother cells which gives rise
to biflagellate, haploid male gametes called antherozoids.
• The female sex organ archegonium is multicellular, flask shaped body.
• They have swollen base portion called venter and narrow distal
portion known as neck.
• The neck portion shows 4-6 neck canal cells. The venter contains non
motile large female gamate called egg or oospore. 4-6 venter canal
cells
• Fertilization: The fertilization takes place in presence of water.
• The fertilization results in the formation of diploid zygote.
• Embryo: The zygote undergo repeated divisions to form
undifferentiated, multicellular structure called embryo.
• The first division of zygote is transverse and the apex of the embryo
develops from upper cell such embryo is called exosporic.
• The venter wall enlarges with developing embryo to form protective,
multicellular envelope called calyptra.
• By the further divisions and differentiation the embryo produces a
small spore producing structure called sporogonium.
• The sporogonium producing plant body is called as sporophyte.
• Sporophyte: The sporophyte is simpler than gametophyte and
dependent partially or wholly on gametophyte for its nutrition.
• The sporophyte is mainly concerned with the formation of spores.
• The sporogonium is divided into abortive foot, elongated seta and
spore producing capsule.
• In higher bryophytes like mosses sporophyte has distinct foot, seta
and capsule which are jacketed.
• The spores are produced by meiosis of spore mother cells in the
capsule.
• The capsule is concerned with the production of wind disseminated,
non-motile, cutinized spores which belongs to the category of
meiospores.
• The spores are haploid and similar morphologically. Hence the
bryophytes are homosporous.
• Spore germination and protonema: In favorable conditions each
haploid spore germinate to give rise to gametophyte plant either
directly (thalloid) or indirectly as bud from protonema (Mosses).
• The life cycle of bryophytes is completed into two generations i.e.
gametophytic and sporophytic generation which regularly alternate
with each other.
• These two generations are different from each other in case of
morphology, reproduction and nutrition. Such type of generations is
called heterologous type of alternation of generation which is a
constant feature of the life cycle of bryophytes.
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

Algae thallus
Algae thallusAlgae thallus
Algae thallus
Priya Trivedi
 
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptxHETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
Subham Saha
 
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in FunariaMorphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
SankritaShankarGaonk
 
Heterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habitHeterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habit
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Ectocarpus
EctocarpusEctocarpus
Ectocarpus
BotanyWorld
 
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptxGeneral Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
Aliya Fathima Ilyas
 
Bryophytes
BryophytesBryophytes
Bryophytes
Himanshi Chauhan
 
Funaria
FunariaFunaria
Funaria
Ankita Thakur
 
5 2 -pinus
5   2 -pinus5   2 -pinus
5 2 -pinus
VelmuruganRaj2
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
Tahir Shahzad
 
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of MarchantiaMorphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
SankritaShankarGaonk
 
Pellia
PelliaPellia
Pellia
Sangeeta Das
 
Marsilea details
Marsilea detailsMarsilea details
Marsilea details
rasikapatil26
 
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction "Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
Muhammad ArSlan
 
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytesEvolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
SyedaFari2
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
Marchantia
Sangeeta Das
 
Chara
CharaChara
General characters and clasification of gymnosperm
General characters and clasification of gymnospermGeneral characters and clasification of gymnosperm
General characters and clasification of gymnosperm
gohil sanjay bhagvanji
 
Selaginella ppt
Selaginella pptSelaginella ppt
Selaginella ppt
Naresh Kumar
 

What's hot (20)

Algae thallus
Algae thallusAlgae thallus
Algae thallus
 
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptxHETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
HETEROSPORY and SEED HABIT.pptx
 
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in FunariaMorphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
Morphology, anatomy and reproduction in Funaria
 
Heterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habitHeterospory and seed habit
Heterospory and seed habit
 
Ectocarpus
EctocarpusEctocarpus
Ectocarpus
 
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptxGeneral Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
General Characters of Gymnosperms.pptx
 
Bryophytes
BryophytesBryophytes
Bryophytes
 
Funaria
FunariaFunaria
Funaria
 
5 2 -pinus
5   2 -pinus5   2 -pinus
5 2 -pinus
 
Vaucheria
VaucheriaVaucheria
Vaucheria
 
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of MarchantiaMorphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
Morphological, anatomical and reproductive characters of Marchantia
 
Pellia
PelliaPellia
Pellia
 
Marsilea details
Marsilea detailsMarsilea details
Marsilea details
 
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction "Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
"Equisetum" Structural development Reproduction
 
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytesEvolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
Evolution of the sporophyte in brophytes
 
Selaginella
SelaginellaSelaginella
Selaginella
 
Marchantia
MarchantiaMarchantia
Marchantia
 
Chara
CharaChara
Chara
 
General characters and clasification of gymnosperm
General characters and clasification of gymnospermGeneral characters and clasification of gymnosperm
General characters and clasification of gymnosperm
 
Selaginella ppt
Selaginella pptSelaginella ppt
Selaginella ppt
 

Similar to General characters of bryophytes

The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
Ram Mohan
 
Plant kingdom
Plant kingdomPlant kingdom
Plant kingdom
pooja singh
 
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptxChapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
Rahul Badve
 
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdfBryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
AleenaRose4
 
Bryophytes,Pteridophytes
Bryophytes,PteridophytesBryophytes,Pteridophytes
Bryophytes,Pteridophytes
Jashaswini Roy
 
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptxPLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
musiclovers17
 
Kr bryophyta classification
Kr bryophyta classificationKr bryophyta classification
Kr bryophyta classification
DrKavitaRambal
 
3 2 bryophytes -funaria
3  2 bryophytes -funaria3  2 bryophytes -funaria
3 2 bryophytes -funaria
VelmuruganRaj2
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kailash Vilegave
 
Bryophytes
BryophytesBryophytes
Bryophytes
Nafeesa Naeem
 
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogamsbryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
stephenopokuasante
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
SyedaFari2
 
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnospermsBryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
Tracheophyta
TracheophytaTracheophyta
Tracheophyta
Veronica B
 
Reproduction in Riccia
Reproduction in RicciaReproduction in Riccia
Reproduction in Riccia
VasantaKahalkar
 
Riccia thallus structure and reproduction
Riccia thallus structure and reproductionRiccia thallus structure and reproduction
Riccia thallus structure and reproduction
Gayathri Purushothaman
 
Algae classification and Bryophytes
Algae classification and BryophytesAlgae classification and Bryophytes
Algae classification and Bryophytes
HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
Phaeophyceae.ppt
Phaeophyceae.pptPhaeophyceae.ppt
Phaeophyceae.ppt
rnath286
 
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and HornwortsBryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
AnkitRaj274827
 
Nonvascularplants
NonvascularplantsNonvascularplants
Nonvascularplants
Geonyzl Alviola
 

Similar to General characters of bryophytes (20)

The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
The plant kingdom (alage+bryophyta+pteridophyta)
 
Plant kingdom
Plant kingdomPlant kingdom
Plant kingdom
 
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptxChapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
Chapter_3_Kingdom_Plantae.pptx
 
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdfBryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
Bryology - Masters First semester revision text.pdf
 
Bryophytes,Pteridophytes
Bryophytes,PteridophytesBryophytes,Pteridophytes
Bryophytes,Pteridophytes
 
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptxPLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
PLANT-KINGDOM-3.pptx
 
Kr bryophyta classification
Kr bryophyta classificationKr bryophyta classification
Kr bryophyta classification
 
3 2 bryophytes -funaria
3  2 bryophytes -funaria3  2 bryophytes -funaria
3 2 bryophytes -funaria
 
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegaveKingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
Kingdom Plantae presented by Vrushali Gharat to Mr. Kailash vilegave
 
Bryophytes
BryophytesBryophytes
Bryophytes
 
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogamsbryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
bryophytes and pteridophytes.ppt cryptogams
 
Anthoceros
AnthocerosAnthoceros
Anthoceros
 
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnospermsBryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms
 
Tracheophyta
TracheophytaTracheophyta
Tracheophyta
 
Reproduction in Riccia
Reproduction in RicciaReproduction in Riccia
Reproduction in Riccia
 
Riccia thallus structure and reproduction
Riccia thallus structure and reproductionRiccia thallus structure and reproduction
Riccia thallus structure and reproduction
 
Algae classification and Bryophytes
Algae classification and BryophytesAlgae classification and Bryophytes
Algae classification and Bryophytes
 
Phaeophyceae.ppt
Phaeophyceae.pptPhaeophyceae.ppt
Phaeophyceae.ppt
 
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and HornwortsBryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
Bryophyta: Exploring the World of Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
 
Nonvascularplants
NonvascularplantsNonvascularplants
Nonvascularplants
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functionsUltrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
 

More from Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar (20)

Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptxUltra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
Ultra-structure and functions of plasma membrane.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Chloroplast.pptx
 
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptxUltrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
Ultrastructure and functions of Mitochondira.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functionsUltrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
Ultrastructure of Lysosomes and its functions
 
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Endoplasmic reticulum and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptxUltrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
Ultrastructure of Golgi appratus and functions.pptx
 
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functionsUltrastructure of Nucleus and functions
Ultrastructure of Nucleus and functions
 
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functionsUltra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
Ultra-structure of Ribosomes and functions
 
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
8. Vegetative and sexual reproduction in funaria
 
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
7. Funaria : External morphology and internal structure of axis
 
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
6. Classification and economic importance of bryophytes
 
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
5. Sexual reproduction in marchantia
 
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features2. Marchantia distribution and external features
2. Marchantia distribution and external features
 
1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes1. General characters of bryophytes
1. General characters of bryophytes
 
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteriaEconomic importance of viruses and bacteria
Economic importance of viruses and bacteria
 
Plant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elementsPlant nutrition minor elements
Plant nutrition minor elements
 
Plant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elementsPlant nutrition major elements
Plant nutrition major elements
 
Ascent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpirationAscent of sap and transpiration
Ascent of sap and transpiration
 
Plant water relation
Plant water relationPlant water relation
Plant water relation
 
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficitDiffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
Diffusion, diffusion pressure, diffusion pressure deficit
 

Recently uploaded

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero WaterSharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Texas Alliance of Groundwater Districts
 
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptxmolar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
Anagha Prasad
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
Sérgio Sacani
 
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdfSAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
KrushnaDarade1
 
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
University of Maribor
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Aditi Bajpai
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
by6843629
 
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theoryEquivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Daniel Tubbenhauer
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Leonel Morgado
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
PRIYANKA PATEL
 
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobelaziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
İsa Badur
 
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdfApplied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
University of Hertfordshire
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
David Osipyan
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
vluwdy49
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
University of Maribor
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
MaheshaNanjegowda
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
muralinath2
 
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan,kP,Pakistan
 
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless ReproducibilityDeep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
University of Rennes, INSA Rennes, Inria/IRISA, CNRS
 
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdfThornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero WaterSharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
Sharlene Leurig - Enabling Onsite Water Use with Net Zero Water
 
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptxmolar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
molar-distalization in orthodontics-seminar.pptx
 
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defectsThe binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
The binding of cosmological structures by massless topological defects
 
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdfSAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
SAR of Medicinal Chemistry 1st by dk.pdf
 
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
Remote Sensing and Computational, Evolutionary, Supercomputing, and Intellige...
 
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
Micronuclei test.M.sc.zoology.fisheries.
 
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
8.Isolation of pure cultures and preservation of cultures.pdf
 
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theoryEquivariant neural networks and representation theory
Equivariant neural networks and representation theory
 
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
Describing and Interpreting an Immersive Learning Case with the Immersion Cub...
 
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptxESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
ESR spectroscopy in liquid food and beverages.pptx
 
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobelaziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
aziz sancar nobel prize winner: from mardin to nobel
 
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdfApplied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
Applied Science: Thermodynamics, Laws & Methodology.pdf
 
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
3D Hybrid PIC simulation of the plasma expansion (ISSS-14)
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
 
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNERandomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
Randomised Optimisation Algorithms in DAPHNE
 
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different formsBasics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
Basics of crystallography, crystal systems, classes and different forms
 
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptxOedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
Oedema_types_causes_pathophysiology.pptx
 
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...THEMATIC  APPERCEPTION  TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST(TAT) cognitive abilities, creativity, and critic...
 
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless ReproducibilityDeep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
Deep Software Variability and Frictionless Reproducibility
 
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdfThornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf
 

General characters of bryophytes

  • 1. General characters of Bryophytes Dr. Dhole Nagesh Arjunrao Department of Botany, Digambarrao Bindu ACS College, Bhokar
  • 2. • Habit: The bryophytes are very small, green leafy or thalloid plant body. • Habitat: Bryophytes are mostly primitive amphibian thallophytes. They generally grow on damp, shaded, humid localities. Vegetative structure completely adapted to the land but during sexual reproduction water is essential for sperms to swim towards the female gamete for fertilization and their development processes. • Plant body: The plant body is green gametophyte. It lacks the true roots, stem and leaves. The gametophytic generation is represented by a dominant, long lived. The gametophyte is of two types that is thalloid and leafy gametophyte. • Thalloid gametophyte: The thalloid gametophye lacks the true roots, stems and leaves. The gametophyte is prostrate on ground. It is attached to substratum by delicate hair like structure called rhizoids.
  • 3. • These rhizoids are helpful in the absorption of water and minerals. • Thalloid gametophyte bears small scale like structures on ventral surface (Liverworts). • Leafy gametophyte: The leafy gametophyte shows roots like rhizoids, foliose with stem like axis and leaf like appendages (Mosses). • Sporophytic generation is short lived. It is dependent on gametophytic generation. Sporophytic generation is more concerned with asesual reproduction and formation of spores. • Internal morphology: The internal tissue is homogenous or differentiated parenchymatous.
  • 4. • In liverworts, it is sometimes differentiated into photosynthetic and storage regions with air chambers which contains chloroplast. • In mosses, there may be axile cylindrical structure that surrounds parenchymatous cortical cells. • Reproduction in bryophytes: Bryophytes reproduces by vegetatively and sexually. • Vegetative reproduction: It takes place by the fragmentation, adventitious branches, tubers (Riccia) gemma bodies (Marchantia). • Sexual reproduction: The sexual reproduction in bryophytes is of oogamous type. • The male sex organ is called antheridium and female sex organ is known as archegonium.
  • 5. • The male sex organ antheridium is a multicellular, globose or club shaped body, shortly stalked with multicellular protective jacket. • Antheridium contains many androcyte mother cells which gives rise to biflagellate, haploid male gametes called antherozoids. • The female sex organ archegonium is multicellular, flask shaped body. • They have swollen base portion called venter and narrow distal portion known as neck. • The neck portion shows 4-6 neck canal cells. The venter contains non motile large female gamate called egg or oospore. 4-6 venter canal cells • Fertilization: The fertilization takes place in presence of water.
  • 6. • The fertilization results in the formation of diploid zygote. • Embryo: The zygote undergo repeated divisions to form undifferentiated, multicellular structure called embryo. • The first division of zygote is transverse and the apex of the embryo develops from upper cell such embryo is called exosporic. • The venter wall enlarges with developing embryo to form protective, multicellular envelope called calyptra. • By the further divisions and differentiation the embryo produces a small spore producing structure called sporogonium. • The sporogonium producing plant body is called as sporophyte. • Sporophyte: The sporophyte is simpler than gametophyte and dependent partially or wholly on gametophyte for its nutrition.
  • 7. • The sporophyte is mainly concerned with the formation of spores. • The sporogonium is divided into abortive foot, elongated seta and spore producing capsule. • In higher bryophytes like mosses sporophyte has distinct foot, seta and capsule which are jacketed. • The spores are produced by meiosis of spore mother cells in the capsule. • The capsule is concerned with the production of wind disseminated, non-motile, cutinized spores which belongs to the category of meiospores. • The spores are haploid and similar morphologically. Hence the bryophytes are homosporous.
  • 8. • Spore germination and protonema: In favorable conditions each haploid spore germinate to give rise to gametophyte plant either directly (thalloid) or indirectly as bud from protonema (Mosses). • The life cycle of bryophytes is completed into two generations i.e. gametophytic and sporophytic generation which regularly alternate with each other. • These two generations are different from each other in case of morphology, reproduction and nutrition. Such type of generations is called heterologous type of alternation of generation which is a constant feature of the life cycle of bryophytes.