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The Smart Power Grid Stephen Lee Senior Technical Executive  Power Delivery & Utilization October 21, 2009 IEEE Power Electronics Society Santa Clara Valley Chapter
Outline Of Presentation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
EPRI’s Smart Grid Leadership Common Information Model (CIM) for Energy Management Systems (EMS) Utility Communication Architecture (UCA) for Substation Automation IntelliGrid Architecture NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Roadmap Smart Grid Demonstration Projects 1990 1995 2000 2010 2005
Smart Grid: Focus on What is Possible Smart Grid Need an Objective Assessment of the Potential for Smart Transmission and the Path to Achieve it
What is The  Smart Grid? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Many Definitions – But One  VISION Highly Instrumented with Advanced Sensors and Computing Interconnected by a Communication Fabric that Reaches Every Device
Smart Grid Domains Source: EPRI Report to NIST on Smart Grid Interoperability, June 2009
Current State – Power Grid Operations 2-4 Sec scan rates Limited to info from lines and transformers at substations MW, MVAR, KV breaker status Limited Grid Visibility
Smart Transmission State – Power Grid Operations Higher speed scan rates Allows more frequent analysis of system state Enhanced Grid Visibility 750 +282j 250 +84j 100 +62j 20 + 8j 276 + 120j 130 + 8j 300 + 100j 750 + 262j 440 + 200j 120 + 11j 350 + 150j 227 + 420j 704 + 308j 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 176 +88j
End-to-End Power Delivery Chain Operation & Planning Data Communication Wide Area Control Sensors Monitoring, Modeling, Analysis, Coordination & Control End-uses & DR Distribution System Transmission System Energy Storage Fuel Supply System Fuel Source/Storage Power Plants Renewable Plants Controllers ZIP M Dynamic Load Models Dynamic Power Plant Models
North America Electricity Interconnections
Independent System Operators / Regional Transmission Operators (ISO/RTO)
North America Electricity Balancing Authorities
New Challenges for a Smart Grid ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Foundations Need Strengthening ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Effective System Restoration Can Reduce The Societal Impact Of Widespread Blackouts Source: NSF/EPRI Workshop on Understanding and Preventing Cascading Failures in Power Systems, Oct 28, 2005. Extensive (magnitude & duration) blackouts  cost Billions of $ to the economy
New Solutions Are Needed ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Role of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on Smart Grid Standards ,[object Object],Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007  Title XIII, Section 1305  Smart Grid Interoperability Framework
Smart Grid Domains
Smart Grid Networks
Key Standards Organizations Involved in the Development of “Smart Grid” Infrastructure ISO IEC International standards- developing  organizations National Organizations Trade, technical, and government Consortia and user groups JTC 1 ANSI(US) EIA/CEMA IEEE ASHRAE SAE UCA International Zigbee  Alliance AEIC Meter Group BACnet ™ Users ITU IEC 61970/68 CIM Users IEC 61850 Users Open AMI AHAM Utility AMI Open HAN  BACnet ™ Mfrs JTC 1 WG 25 *Representative Sample ASHRAE SSPC 135 UIWG ANSI C12 Series EPRI IWG ISA  IETF CENELEC Other Projects NIST RD&D Projects EPRI Projects CEC Projects DOD Projects DOE Projects
NIST Phase 1 Plan March September 2009 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
NIST Phase 2 and Phase 3 Plan March September 2009 2010 PHASE 1 Recognize a set of initial existing consensus standards and develop a roadmap to fill gaps PHASE 2 Establish public/private Standards Panel to provide ongoing recommendations for new/revised standards to be recognized by NIST PHASE 3 Conformity Framework (including Testing and Certification)
Smart Grid Enabling Consumers to be More Efficient Numerous studies have been conducted to quantify the impact of information on electricity consumption Making Consumers Energy Aware
Prices to Devices Tomorrow’s Smart Pricing Efficient Building Systems Utility Communications Dynamic Systems Control Data Management Distribution Operations Distributed Generation and Storage Plug-In Hybrids Smart End-Use Devices Control Interface Advanced Metering Consumer Portal and Building EMS Internet Renewables PV ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Future HAN Applications for Energy Management Smart Energy Application Profile 2.0 Air Conditioner Pool Pump Water Heater Refrigerator Computer/Laptop Flat Screen TV Washer/Dryer Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Wind Turbine Solar Panels ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What is Demand Response? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Image source: GDF Suez
…and DR will be needed to help balance increasing intermittent resources on the Grid… V f High Low Supply Demand But a Smarter Grid isn’t a panacea for DR… lack of  Measurement &Verification standards still a key barrier
Smart Grid Enabling PHEV Through Smart Charging ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Plug-In Vehicle AMI Path Smart Charging Back End Energy Management, Cust ID, Billing Non-AMI Path Standard Interface
Variability of Wind Generation
Solar Thermal (CSP)  vs Photovoltaic (PV) Output Source: Larry Stoddard, Black & Veatch Sunny Day Cloudy Day
Load, Wind Output, Solar Output Time of Day MW Load Solar Wind
Net Load Time of Day MW Net Load Load Faster Ramp Sudden V-turn
Typical Spring Week Generation by Fuel Type  [ACTUAL] PUCT Project 37339 Workshop 08/20/2009
Positioning of Energy Storage Options  Flow Batteries: Zn/Cl  Zn-Air  ZrBr  VRB  PSB  Novel Systems  NaS Battery Li-Ion Battery  NiCd NiMH High Power Fly Wheels SMES High Power Super Caps 1 kW  10 kW  100 kW  1 MW  10 MW  100 MW  1 GW Lead Acid Battery High Energy  Super Caps ZEBRA Battery System Power Ratings Discharge Time at Rated Power Seconds  Minutes  Hours UPS  Grid Support  Energy Management Power Quality  Load Shifting  Bridging Power  Bulk Power Mgt  Pumped Hydro CAES © 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Advanced Lead Acid Battery Metal-Air  Batteries   Nano-cap hybrids?
Compressed Air Energy Storage AEC CAES Plant (McIntosh, Alabama):   - - Arial View - - ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],AEC McIntosh Site: CAES Plant On Right and Two Combustion Turbines On Left
Advanced CAES Plant: Schematic - - - Second Generation “Chiller” Design- - - CT Module Exhaust Air Compressor Combustion Turbine Motor ,[object Object],Air Intercoolers Recuperator Fuel Expander Storage Estimated Cap. Cost (2008 $) ~ $600/kW to $750/kW + Substation, Permits & Contingencies Constant Output Pressure Regulation Valve (For Salt Geology) The CAES plant design and technology presented above is described in U.S. Patent Numbers 7389644 and 4872307, invented by Dr. Michael Nakhamkin, Chief Technology Officer, Energy Storage and Power LLC.  Use of this technology may require a license.   Heat Rate Energy Ratio 3810 0.70
Online Stability Monitoring & Analysis Wide Area Visualization Model Validation & Adjustment Controlled Separation & Restoration PMU Applications Improve situational awareness Increase transfer capabilities  Prevent cascading failures & reduce wide-area blackouts Reduce system restoration time and outage durations Improve accuracy of models Research Development Application Demonstration
Wide Area Visualization  using PMU and EMS Data ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Measurement-based Voltage Stability Analysis   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
PMU-based Controlled Separation  Scheme ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Application of Synchrophasor Measurements for Validating System Planning Models  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],THANK YOU!

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The Smart Power Grid

  • 1. The Smart Power Grid Stephen Lee Senior Technical Executive Power Delivery & Utilization October 21, 2009 IEEE Power Electronics Society Santa Clara Valley Chapter
  • 2.
  • 3. EPRI’s Smart Grid Leadership Common Information Model (CIM) for Energy Management Systems (EMS) Utility Communication Architecture (UCA) for Substation Automation IntelliGrid Architecture NIST Smart Grid Interoperability Roadmap Smart Grid Demonstration Projects 1990 1995 2000 2010 2005
  • 4. Smart Grid: Focus on What is Possible Smart Grid Need an Objective Assessment of the Potential for Smart Transmission and the Path to Achieve it
  • 5.
  • 6. Smart Grid Domains Source: EPRI Report to NIST on Smart Grid Interoperability, June 2009
  • 7. Current State – Power Grid Operations 2-4 Sec scan rates Limited to info from lines and transformers at substations MW, MVAR, KV breaker status Limited Grid Visibility
  • 8. Smart Transmission State – Power Grid Operations Higher speed scan rates Allows more frequent analysis of system state Enhanced Grid Visibility 750 +282j 250 +84j 100 +62j 20 + 8j 276 + 120j 130 + 8j 300 + 100j 750 + 262j 440 + 200j 120 + 11j 350 + 150j 227 + 420j 704 + 308j 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 176 +88j
  • 9. End-to-End Power Delivery Chain Operation & Planning Data Communication Wide Area Control Sensors Monitoring, Modeling, Analysis, Coordination & Control End-uses & DR Distribution System Transmission System Energy Storage Fuel Supply System Fuel Source/Storage Power Plants Renewable Plants Controllers ZIP M Dynamic Load Models Dynamic Power Plant Models
  • 10. North America Electricity Interconnections
  • 11. Independent System Operators / Regional Transmission Operators (ISO/RTO)
  • 12. North America Electricity Balancing Authorities
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Effective System Restoration Can Reduce The Societal Impact Of Widespread Blackouts Source: NSF/EPRI Workshop on Understanding and Preventing Cascading Failures in Power Systems, Oct 28, 2005. Extensive (magnitude & duration) blackouts cost Billions of $ to the economy
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 20. Key Standards Organizations Involved in the Development of “Smart Grid” Infrastructure ISO IEC International standards- developing organizations National Organizations Trade, technical, and government Consortia and user groups JTC 1 ANSI(US) EIA/CEMA IEEE ASHRAE SAE UCA International Zigbee Alliance AEIC Meter Group BACnet ™ Users ITU IEC 61970/68 CIM Users IEC 61850 Users Open AMI AHAM Utility AMI Open HAN BACnet ™ Mfrs JTC 1 WG 25 *Representative Sample ASHRAE SSPC 135 UIWG ANSI C12 Series EPRI IWG ISA IETF CENELEC Other Projects NIST RD&D Projects EPRI Projects CEC Projects DOD Projects DOE Projects
  • 21.
  • 22. NIST Phase 2 and Phase 3 Plan March September 2009 2010 PHASE 1 Recognize a set of initial existing consensus standards and develop a roadmap to fill gaps PHASE 2 Establish public/private Standards Panel to provide ongoing recommendations for new/revised standards to be recognized by NIST PHASE 3 Conformity Framework (including Testing and Certification)
  • 23. Smart Grid Enabling Consumers to be More Efficient Numerous studies have been conducted to quantify the impact of information on electricity consumption Making Consumers Energy Aware
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27. …and DR will be needed to help balance increasing intermittent resources on the Grid… V f High Low Supply Demand But a Smarter Grid isn’t a panacea for DR… lack of Measurement &Verification standards still a key barrier
  • 28.
  • 29. Variability of Wind Generation
  • 30. Solar Thermal (CSP) vs Photovoltaic (PV) Output Source: Larry Stoddard, Black & Veatch Sunny Day Cloudy Day
  • 31. Load, Wind Output, Solar Output Time of Day MW Load Solar Wind
  • 32. Net Load Time of Day MW Net Load Load Faster Ramp Sudden V-turn
  • 33. Typical Spring Week Generation by Fuel Type [ACTUAL] PUCT Project 37339 Workshop 08/20/2009
  • 34. Positioning of Energy Storage Options Flow Batteries: Zn/Cl Zn-Air ZrBr VRB PSB Novel Systems NaS Battery Li-Ion Battery NiCd NiMH High Power Fly Wheels SMES High Power Super Caps 1 kW 10 kW 100 kW 1 MW 10 MW 100 MW 1 GW Lead Acid Battery High Energy Super Caps ZEBRA Battery System Power Ratings Discharge Time at Rated Power Seconds Minutes Hours UPS Grid Support Energy Management Power Quality Load Shifting Bridging Power Bulk Power Mgt Pumped Hydro CAES © 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Advanced Lead Acid Battery Metal-Air Batteries Nano-cap hybrids?
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. Online Stability Monitoring & Analysis Wide Area Visualization Model Validation & Adjustment Controlled Separation & Restoration PMU Applications Improve situational awareness Increase transfer capabilities Prevent cascading failures & reduce wide-area blackouts Reduce system restoration time and outage durations Improve accuracy of models Research Development Application Demonstration
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.