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Smart Grid – Future Electric Grid
.
Electric Engineering
RAM NARAYAN MEENA
14115097 (E7)
Technical communication
August 9th, 2017
 Power grid :-
 Introduction
 Objectives
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Smart Grid :-
 Introduction
 Features
 Communication network
 Benefits
 Challenges and Research Opportunities
 Scheme and projects of Smart grid in india
Outline :
INTRODUCTION of power grid
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering
electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating
stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission
lines that carry power from distant sources to demand canters,
sometimes across international boundaries.
Grid is geographically divided in five regions - Northern, Eastern,
Western, North Eastern and Southern.
National control
centre(1)
Regional control
centre(5)
State control
centre(33)
 Each of the five regions has a Regional Load Despatch Centre
(RLDC) .
 Every state has a State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC), which is
the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system in
the state.
 As per the Electricity Act 2003, the Regional Load Despatch
Centre monitor grid operations, exercise supervision and control over
the inter-state transmission system .
Objective of power grid
• Principle concerning national grid is total import equals to total
export.
∑import=∑export
• When supply is more than demand , power is wasted &
this excessive power is transferred to another zone
where shortage of power leads to power cuts.
• Restoring power in quickest possible time
in the event of any natural disasters like
super cyclone, flood etc. through
deployment of Emergency Restoration
Systems.
• Exercise supervision and control over the Inter-State
transmission system.
• To facilitate private sector participation in transmission system
through Independent Private Transmission Company / Joint
Ventures.
• Geographically widely spread Indian Grid can facilitate
interconnections with Neighbouring countries like India-Nepal,
India-Bhutan, India-Bangladesh.
ADVANTAGES
• ECONOMIC
GENERATION
Many power
stations all
contribute to the
total demand at
busy times but at
off peak times
some can be shut
down.
• CONVENIENCE
Very large power
stations can be built
at the most
convenient
locations, for
example nuclear
power stations can
be built in areas
where few people
live, often at the
coast where cooling
water is easily
available.
NTPC's Indira Gandhi Super 1,500 MW
Thermal Power Project in Haryana.
• Less pollution
Pollution can be kept
away from cities and large
power stations can be built,
which are more efficient.
Power can be diverted to
where it is needed, if there is
high demand or a breakdown.
Surplus power can be used to
pump water up into reservoirs
to be used to generate
hydroelectric power when
there is a peak in demand.
• If a power station needs to be turned off for any reason the
consumers (houses and businesses) can continue to
receive electricity from other power stations.​
• Efficiency
any extra electricity in the system can be used to pump
water up hill to be used later to generate electricity in a
hydroelectric power station.
• Other advantages
I. A single power station failure does not cut off any
users.
II. National grid system can cope better with peak
consumption hours occurring at different times at
different locations in the area that the system covers.
III. Electricity can be used from any power station to
meet demand in any part of the
country.
DISADVANTAGES
• Some power is wasted heating the cables. Overhead
power cables and their supporting towers are an
eyesore in some places. If underground cables have to
be used, they are much more expensive. Smaller local
electricity generating projects, such as wind turbines
and/or panels of solar cells, are unreliable compared to
a national grid fed by major fixed power generating
stations.
• Expensive, demands a lot of investment which is
difficult for economically backward country such as
India .
• Loads are primarily inductive (motors,
large!) and will cause huge line drops,
necessitating power factor correction
devices (expensive).
• Remote village links will drag down the
steady-state stability of the entire grid
because of poor voltage profile (may
cause frequent outage disturbances).
SMART GRID
=
Power grid
+
new technologies and equipment
Introduction of SMART GRID
A smart grid is an electrical grid which
includes a variety of operational and energy
measures including smart meters, smart appliances,
renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency
resources.
Electronic power conditioning and control
of the production and distribution of electricity are
important aspects of the smart grid.
The most import feature of smart grids is two way flow of enrgy and
information which allows :
1. Distributed power generation
2. Self-monitoring
3. Self-maintenance
4. Adaptive and isolating micro-grids
5. Various customer choices
Smart Grid Communication Network
( SGCN )
Representative segments of an SGCN
Home Area Network [ HAN ]:
Wide Area Network [ WAN ]:
Neighbour Area Network [ NAN ]:
Wireless CommunicationTechnologies for SGCN
The benefits associated with the Smart Grid include:
 More efficient transmission of electricity
 Quicker restoration of electricity after power disturbances
 Reduced operations and management costs for utilities, and
ultimately lower power costs for consumers
 Reduced peak demand, which will also help lower electricity rates
 Increased integration of large-scale renewable energy systems
 Better integration of customer-owner power generation systems,
including renewable energy systems
 Improved security
 Giving Consumers Control
Technical Challenges and
Research Opportunities in
SGCNs
Wireless Mesh Routing
Protocols
Security
QoS Differentiation for
Real and Non-Real
Time Transmisions
Network Design
Data Processing
Smart Grid Pilot Projects in
India
The Smart Grid: What It Isn’t.
o Smart meter isn’t Smart Grid
o Devices such as wind turbines, plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles and solar arrays are not part of the Smart
Grid. Rather, the Smart Grid encompasses the
technology that enables us to integrate, interface with
and intelligently control these innovations and others.
REFERENCES
• http://web.anl.gov/eesa/pdfs/brochures/PowerGridBrochure.pdf
• http://intranet.powergridindia.com/pn/downloads/Presentations/
JS-MoP%20visit.ppt
• The Electric Power Grid: Today and Tomorrow-Massoud &
Amin
• http://nrldc.org/docs/documents/Articles/GridMgmtOverview_No
v2007_ElectricalIndia.pdf
• Report of the Enquiry Committee on Grid Disturbance in
Northern Region on 30th July 2012 and in Northern, Eastern
and North-Eastern Region on 31st July 2012, Government of
India, Ministry of Power, August 2012
Thank you
If we all did the things we are capable of doing,
we would literally astound ourselves.
thomas a. edison (1847-1931)

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Smart Grid - Future Electric Grid

  • 1. Smart Grid – Future Electric Grid . Electric Engineering RAM NARAYAN MEENA 14115097 (E7) Technical communication August 9th, 2017
  • 2.  Power grid :-  Introduction  Objectives  Advantages  Disadvantages  Smart Grid :-  Introduction  Features  Communication network  Benefits  Challenges and Research Opportunities  Scheme and projects of Smart grid in india Outline :
  • 3. INTRODUCTION of power grid An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand canters, sometimes across international boundaries.
  • 4. Grid is geographically divided in five regions - Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern and Southern.
  • 5. National control centre(1) Regional control centre(5) State control centre(33)  Each of the five regions has a Regional Load Despatch Centre (RLDC) .  Every state has a State Load Despatch Centre (SLDC), which is the apex body to ensure integrated operation of the power system in the state.  As per the Electricity Act 2003, the Regional Load Despatch Centre monitor grid operations, exercise supervision and control over the inter-state transmission system .
  • 6. Objective of power grid • Principle concerning national grid is total import equals to total export. ∑import=∑export • When supply is more than demand , power is wasted & this excessive power is transferred to another zone where shortage of power leads to power cuts. • Restoring power in quickest possible time in the event of any natural disasters like super cyclone, flood etc. through deployment of Emergency Restoration Systems.
  • 7. • Exercise supervision and control over the Inter-State transmission system. • To facilitate private sector participation in transmission system through Independent Private Transmission Company / Joint Ventures. • Geographically widely spread Indian Grid can facilitate interconnections with Neighbouring countries like India-Nepal, India-Bhutan, India-Bangladesh.
  • 8. ADVANTAGES • ECONOMIC GENERATION Many power stations all contribute to the total demand at busy times but at off peak times some can be shut down.
  • 9. • CONVENIENCE Very large power stations can be built at the most convenient locations, for example nuclear power stations can be built in areas where few people live, often at the coast where cooling water is easily available. NTPC's Indira Gandhi Super 1,500 MW Thermal Power Project in Haryana.
  • 10. • Less pollution Pollution can be kept away from cities and large power stations can be built, which are more efficient. Power can be diverted to where it is needed, if there is high demand or a breakdown. Surplus power can be used to pump water up into reservoirs to be used to generate hydroelectric power when there is a peak in demand.
  • 11. • If a power station needs to be turned off for any reason the consumers (houses and businesses) can continue to receive electricity from other power stations.​
  • 12. • Efficiency any extra electricity in the system can be used to pump water up hill to be used later to generate electricity in a hydroelectric power station.
  • 13. • Other advantages I. A single power station failure does not cut off any users. II. National grid system can cope better with peak consumption hours occurring at different times at different locations in the area that the system covers. III. Electricity can be used from any power station to meet demand in any part of the country.
  • 14. DISADVANTAGES • Some power is wasted heating the cables. Overhead power cables and their supporting towers are an eyesore in some places. If underground cables have to be used, they are much more expensive. Smaller local electricity generating projects, such as wind turbines and/or panels of solar cells, are unreliable compared to a national grid fed by major fixed power generating stations. • Expensive, demands a lot of investment which is difficult for economically backward country such as India .
  • 15. • Loads are primarily inductive (motors, large!) and will cause huge line drops, necessitating power factor correction devices (expensive). • Remote village links will drag down the steady-state stability of the entire grid because of poor voltage profile (may cause frequent outage disturbances).
  • 16. SMART GRID = Power grid + new technologies and equipment
  • 17. Introduction of SMART GRID A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources. Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid.
  • 18. The most import feature of smart grids is two way flow of enrgy and information which allows : 1. Distributed power generation 2. Self-monitoring 3. Self-maintenance 4. Adaptive and isolating micro-grids 5. Various customer choices
  • 19.
  • 20. Smart Grid Communication Network ( SGCN )
  • 21. Representative segments of an SGCN Home Area Network [ HAN ]: Wide Area Network [ WAN ]: Neighbour Area Network [ NAN ]:
  • 23. The benefits associated with the Smart Grid include:  More efficient transmission of electricity  Quicker restoration of electricity after power disturbances  Reduced operations and management costs for utilities, and ultimately lower power costs for consumers  Reduced peak demand, which will also help lower electricity rates  Increased integration of large-scale renewable energy systems  Better integration of customer-owner power generation systems, including renewable energy systems  Improved security  Giving Consumers Control
  • 24. Technical Challenges and Research Opportunities in SGCNs Wireless Mesh Routing Protocols Security QoS Differentiation for Real and Non-Real Time Transmisions Network Design Data Processing
  • 25.
  • 26. Smart Grid Pilot Projects in India
  • 27.
  • 28. The Smart Grid: What It Isn’t. o Smart meter isn’t Smart Grid o Devices such as wind turbines, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and solar arrays are not part of the Smart Grid. Rather, the Smart Grid encompasses the technology that enables us to integrate, interface with and intelligently control these innovations and others.
  • 29. REFERENCES • http://web.anl.gov/eesa/pdfs/brochures/PowerGridBrochure.pdf • http://intranet.powergridindia.com/pn/downloads/Presentations/ JS-MoP%20visit.ppt • The Electric Power Grid: Today and Tomorrow-Massoud & Amin • http://nrldc.org/docs/documents/Articles/GridMgmtOverview_No v2007_ElectricalIndia.pdf • Report of the Enquiry Committee on Grid Disturbance in Northern Region on 30th July 2012 and in Northern, Eastern and North-Eastern Region on 31st July 2012, Government of India, Ministry of Power, August 2012
  • 30. Thank you If we all did the things we are capable of doing, we would literally astound ourselves. thomas a. edison (1847-1931)