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Curriculum Knowledge
Learning and teaching in the subject
(Design & Technology)
Please sit in your
regular seat
The Sutton Trust
influenced Government education policy
03 October 2016 2
03 October 2016 3
Question 1:
“What makes great teaching?”
The six components of great teaching
1. (Pedagogical) content knowledge (Strong evidence of impact on student
outcomes)
2. Quality of instruction (Strong evidence of impact on student outcomes)
3. Classroom climate (Moderate evidence of impact on student outcomes)
4. Classroom management (Moderate evidence of impact on student outcomes)
5. Teacher beliefs (Some evidence of impact on student outcomes)
6. Professional behaviours (Some evidence of impact on student outcomes)
(Coe, et al. 2014)
“What makes great teaching?”
(Pedagogical) content knowledge
as defined by (Shulman 1987)
A teacher’s subject knowledge is an
“extremely important influence on pupil
attainment”.
Hattie (2009) cited in (Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.258)
03 October 2016 4
Session aim (learning objective)
KQ: why do we need to understand how to interpret the curriculum?
03 October 2016 5
By the end of the session you should be able to:
– define the principles of curriculum provision and the elements of learning
(knowledge),
– identify knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes related to schemes of work
(comprehension) and
– interpret current subject knowledge in relation to curriculum aims (application).
03 October 2016 6
What do you know already about
the subject curriculum you are
training to teach?
Recall the aims for your subject curriculum?
D&T
The national curriculum for design and technology aims to ensure that all
pupils:
• develop the creative, technical and practical expertise needed to perform
everyday tasks confidently and to participate successfully in an increasingly
technological world
• build and apply a repertoire of knowledge, understanding and skills in order
to design and make high-quality prototypes and products for a wide range of
users
• critique, evaluate and test their ideas and products and the work of others
• understand and apply the principles of nutrition and learn how to cook.
(Department for Education (DfE) 2014)
03 October 2016 7
Three ways of thinking about curriculum
(1) official,
(2) hidden and
(3) experienced.
03 October 2016 8
Principles of curriculum
• The nature of knowledge,
• The needs of the learner, and crucially
• The interactions between them.
(Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.235)
03 October 2016 9
Reflective Activity 9.1
To examine statements of aims and values presented in National
Curriculum and school documentation
Aim
– To examine statements of aims and values presented in National Curriculum
and school documentation.
Evidence and reflection
– Are aims and values explicitly stated within the National Curriculum and school
documentation at your disposal?
– If so, are the aims consistently supported by the stated underlying values?
– What vision of education do you derive from reading these statements?
– If not, can you derive some of the core aims and values from an examination of
the curriculum advice presented in the documentation?
(Pollard, et al. 2014b)
03 October 2016 10
Aims and values
• Breadth
• Balance
• Connection
• Coherence
• Congruence
03 October 2016 11
Elements of learning
• Facts
• Concepts
• Skills
• Principles
• Attitudes
03 October 2016 12
Reflective activity 9.3
Aim
– To consider knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes in schemes of work.
Method
– Select topics within a programme of study in a subject area. Working on your
own or preferably with a colleague, identify and list the knowledge, concepts,
skills and attitudes, which are targeted for development.
(adapted Pollard, et al. 2014b)
03 October 2016 13
TOPICS Facts Concepts Skills Principles
Reflection activity 9.4
Aim
– To consider the idea of transformations when preparing to teach.
Method
• For a particular lesson or series of lessons focus specifically on what you know about the content
and what you want your pupils to learn about the content. If teaching materials are prescribed,
review them in the light of your understanding of the subject matter.
• How do you represent your personal understanding of this content? How might you make it
meaningful for your pupils?
• Consider some ways in which you might transform the content. How might you introduce
ideas/concepts/principles?
• How can you best move pupils from what is known or familiar to new knowledge?
• Are there any strategies, activities or tasks which seem particularly appropriate?
• What makes you think they will work?
• Are there parts of the learning where pupils may misunderstand or be mislead? How might you
avoid this?
• What language will you use?
• How will you approach any subject-specialist language?
• If possible discuss your ideas for transformations with another teacher or student teacher.
(Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.261)
03 October 2016 14
References
– Coe, R., Aloisi, C., Higgins, S. and Major, L.E., 2014. What makes great
teaching? Review of the underpinning research.
– Department for Education (DfE), 2014. National curriculum [online]. Gov.UK.
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-curriculum
[Accessed 11/03 2014].
– Department of Education and Science, 1985. <br />The Curriculum from 5 to
16 <br />HMI Series: Curriculum Matters No. 2 [online]. London: Her Majesty's
Stationery Office 1984-9. Available at:
http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/hmi-curricmatters/index.html
[Accessed 11/03 2014].
– Pollard, A., Black-Hawkins, K., Hodges, G.C., Dudley, P., James, M., Linklater,
H., Swaffield, S., Swann, M., Turner, F., Warwick, P. and Winterbottom, M.,
2014a. Reflective Teaching in Schools. Bloomsbury Publishing.
– Pollard, A., Black-Hawkins, K., Hodges, G.C., Dudley, P., James, M., Linklater,
H., Swaffield, S., Swann, M., Turner, F., Warwick, P. and Winterbottom, M.,
2014b. Reflective Teaching in Schools (online) [online]. Bloomsbury Publishing.
Available at: http://reflectiveteaching.co.uk/ [Accessed 11/03 2014].
– Shulman, L.S., 1986. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching.
Educational Researcher, , 4-14.
03 October 2016 15

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Session5curriculumknowledge01

  • 1. Curriculum Knowledge Learning and teaching in the subject (Design & Technology) Please sit in your regular seat
  • 2. The Sutton Trust influenced Government education policy 03 October 2016 2
  • 3. 03 October 2016 3 Question 1: “What makes great teaching?” The six components of great teaching 1. (Pedagogical) content knowledge (Strong evidence of impact on student outcomes) 2. Quality of instruction (Strong evidence of impact on student outcomes) 3. Classroom climate (Moderate evidence of impact on student outcomes) 4. Classroom management (Moderate evidence of impact on student outcomes) 5. Teacher beliefs (Some evidence of impact on student outcomes) 6. Professional behaviours (Some evidence of impact on student outcomes) (Coe, et al. 2014)
  • 4. “What makes great teaching?” (Pedagogical) content knowledge as defined by (Shulman 1987) A teacher’s subject knowledge is an “extremely important influence on pupil attainment”. Hattie (2009) cited in (Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.258) 03 October 2016 4
  • 5. Session aim (learning objective) KQ: why do we need to understand how to interpret the curriculum? 03 October 2016 5
  • 6. By the end of the session you should be able to: – define the principles of curriculum provision and the elements of learning (knowledge), – identify knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes related to schemes of work (comprehension) and – interpret current subject knowledge in relation to curriculum aims (application). 03 October 2016 6 What do you know already about the subject curriculum you are training to teach?
  • 7. Recall the aims for your subject curriculum? D&T The national curriculum for design and technology aims to ensure that all pupils: • develop the creative, technical and practical expertise needed to perform everyday tasks confidently and to participate successfully in an increasingly technological world • build and apply a repertoire of knowledge, understanding and skills in order to design and make high-quality prototypes and products for a wide range of users • critique, evaluate and test their ideas and products and the work of others • understand and apply the principles of nutrition and learn how to cook. (Department for Education (DfE) 2014) 03 October 2016 7
  • 8. Three ways of thinking about curriculum (1) official, (2) hidden and (3) experienced. 03 October 2016 8
  • 9. Principles of curriculum • The nature of knowledge, • The needs of the learner, and crucially • The interactions between them. (Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.235) 03 October 2016 9
  • 10. Reflective Activity 9.1 To examine statements of aims and values presented in National Curriculum and school documentation Aim – To examine statements of aims and values presented in National Curriculum and school documentation. Evidence and reflection – Are aims and values explicitly stated within the National Curriculum and school documentation at your disposal? – If so, are the aims consistently supported by the stated underlying values? – What vision of education do you derive from reading these statements? – If not, can you derive some of the core aims and values from an examination of the curriculum advice presented in the documentation? (Pollard, et al. 2014b) 03 October 2016 10
  • 11. Aims and values • Breadth • Balance • Connection • Coherence • Congruence 03 October 2016 11
  • 12. Elements of learning • Facts • Concepts • Skills • Principles • Attitudes 03 October 2016 12
  • 13. Reflective activity 9.3 Aim – To consider knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes in schemes of work. Method – Select topics within a programme of study in a subject area. Working on your own or preferably with a colleague, identify and list the knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes, which are targeted for development. (adapted Pollard, et al. 2014b) 03 October 2016 13 TOPICS Facts Concepts Skills Principles
  • 14. Reflection activity 9.4 Aim – To consider the idea of transformations when preparing to teach. Method • For a particular lesson or series of lessons focus specifically on what you know about the content and what you want your pupils to learn about the content. If teaching materials are prescribed, review them in the light of your understanding of the subject matter. • How do you represent your personal understanding of this content? How might you make it meaningful for your pupils? • Consider some ways in which you might transform the content. How might you introduce ideas/concepts/principles? • How can you best move pupils from what is known or familiar to new knowledge? • Are there any strategies, activities or tasks which seem particularly appropriate? • What makes you think they will work? • Are there parts of the learning where pupils may misunderstand or be mislead? How might you avoid this? • What language will you use? • How will you approach any subject-specialist language? • If possible discuss your ideas for transformations with another teacher or student teacher. (Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.261) 03 October 2016 14
  • 15. References – Coe, R., Aloisi, C., Higgins, S. and Major, L.E., 2014. What makes great teaching? Review of the underpinning research. – Department for Education (DfE), 2014. National curriculum [online]. Gov.UK. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-curriculum [Accessed 11/03 2014]. – Department of Education and Science, 1985. <br />The Curriculum from 5 to 16 <br />HMI Series: Curriculum Matters No. 2 [online]. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office 1984-9. Available at: http://www.educationengland.org.uk/documents/hmi-curricmatters/index.html [Accessed 11/03 2014]. – Pollard, A., Black-Hawkins, K., Hodges, G.C., Dudley, P., James, M., Linklater, H., Swaffield, S., Swann, M., Turner, F., Warwick, P. and Winterbottom, M., 2014a. Reflective Teaching in Schools. Bloomsbury Publishing. – Pollard, A., Black-Hawkins, K., Hodges, G.C., Dudley, P., James, M., Linklater, H., Swaffield, S., Swann, M., Turner, F., Warwick, P. and Winterbottom, M., 2014b. Reflective Teaching in Schools (online) [online]. Bloomsbury Publishing. Available at: http://reflectiveteaching.co.uk/ [Accessed 11/03 2014]. – Shulman, L.S., 1986. Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, , 4-14. 03 October 2016 15

Editor's Notes

  1. founded in 1997 by Sir Peter Lampl to improve social mobility through education. As well as being a think-tank, the Sutton Trust is a ‘do-tank,’ having funded over 200 programmes, commissioned over 140 research studies and influenced Government education policy by pushing social mobility to the top of the political agenda.
  2. Great teaching is defined as that which leads to improved student progress The six components of great teaching
  3. Pedagogical knowledge, as defined by (Shulman 1987) is one of three forms of subject knowledge (the other two being: content knowledge and curricular knowledge) that Hattie (2009) cited in (Pollard, et al. 2014a, p.258) suggests as an “extremely important influence on pupil attainment”.
  4. In this session we are going to be developing our knowledge of the facts, concepts, principles and skills (Schwab 1978)associated with interpreting a curriculum. This will support our subject curriculum knowledge for teaching and learning. In todays session we will be learning all about the curriculum (knowledge) and its associated frameworks (concepts). We will have a go at using the framework to lesson plan (skills) and we will consider why a framework is needed (attitudes)
  5. Why do we teach what we teach? Pollard, et al. (2014) discusses how most countries have a Nation Curriculum (NC) and a local curriculum. The curriculum can generally be divided into three types: (1) official, (2) hidden and (3) experienced. Official curriculum. This is statutory and non-statutory curriculum, decided by local and national policy. For example: the NC and local school curriculum. Hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum is the curriculum pupils learn from the way they are treated in school and the differences between teachers and pupils (authority, class, race, gender) Experienced curriculum. This I am sketchier on. It is the curriculum that pupil’s experience.
  6. Follow-up How easy was it to identify elements in the four categories? Which were explicit, and which implicit? Has the activity led you to refine or extend your plans? How could the framework be used to take stock of pupil learning in your classroom?