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AECC-EVS (Dr. Mansi Rastogi)
Environment Studies- 7 Units
Books recommended- 1. Kaushik and Kaushik (hindi and
English, (ePDF for Eng available)
2. Singh and Gupta (Hindi)
Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Environmental Studies
• Environmental Studies refers to a systematic study of
environment, a branch of applied science that seeks practical
solutions for sustenance of human civilization.
• Interdisciplinary, holistic and mission oriented study
• Involves the study and understanding of the fact that even a single
phenomenon can affect the environment in a variety of ways
• with varying degrees of complexity
• different perspectives
Definitions
The term environment is derived from a French word environner
which means ‘surrounding’.
Environment is the sum total of
• all social, economical, biological, physical, and chemical
factors which constitute the human surroundings
• influences which modify and determine the development of
life and its associated characteristics.
AbioticComponents
• Abiotic or non-living components of
environment include all the physical and
chemical factors that influence living
organisms.
• Examples of abiotic components are air,
water, soil, rocks, etc.
Biotic Components
Biotic or living components are the living components
of environment and include microbes, plants,
animals, and human beings.
Components of Environment
Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies
Environmental Studies requires skills that encompass a range of
disciplines including chemistry, biology, earth sciences, atmospheric
science, statistics, mathematics, and geography.
Importance of Environmental Studies
Gaining knowledge about the Productive, aesthetic/recreational
and optional values of environment
Assess the environmental impacts induced by human activities.
It gives us basic knowledge of environment and associated problems
(exploitation of natural resources, biodiversity threats, pollution,
human induced calamity such as floods, landslides
It helps to achieve sustainable development through alternative
solutions
It helps to educate people regarding their duties towards the protection
of environment.
It helps in maintaining ecological balance
NeedforPublic Awareness
To conserve the dwindling earth’s resources
Check environmental degradation by human activities
Through media
Through organizing seminars &
conferences
Entertainment
Science centers
Through print, broadcast and
internet
Government alone cannot perform all the
clean-upfunctions.
Individual/group efforts and involvement
of youth
Mass public awareness: newspapers, radio,
television strongly influences public
opinion on conserving our environment.
MethodsforPublic Awareness
Segmentsof Environment
• Lithosphere:
Solidcomponets
Crust:<1% (Thin5-50km)
Mantle-68%(moltenstate,
2900-3500km)
Core-Femetal(innerandouter
3500km)
• Hydrosphere:Covers75%of
earth
(oceans,sea, rivers)
• Atmosphere:
~1%: (99% ofair) extendsto
1600 km from earth’s surface
Consists of O2, CO2
• Biosphere:All life (air, O2, N2,
CO2)
Sustainable Development
The term sustainable development refers
to the development that meets the needs
of the present without compromising the
ability of the future generations to meet
their own needs.
• An approach to development that looks to balance different, and often
competing, needs against an awareness of the environmental, social and
economic limitations we face as asociety.
• All too often, development is driven by one particular need, without fully
considering the wider or future impacts.
• We are already seeing the damage this kind of approach can cause, from
large-scale financial crises caused by irresponsible banking, to changes in
global climate resulting from our dependence on fossil fuel-based energy
sources.
• blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for
all
3 pillars of SD
Environment
Social
Economic
• 17 goals
No poverty, Zero hunger, Good health and well being, Quality
education, Gender Equality ………….
Sustainable development goals (SDG’s)
Measures for Sustainable Development
SD
population
control
Reducing
per capita
demand of
natural
resources
Using
efficient
technologic
al devices
Sustainable
agriculture
Promoting
environmental
awareness
through
education
Following
the 3Rs
(reduce,
reuse, and
recycling)
approach
Indices
1. Current status
2. Anticipated
Progress gap
between
predicted value
and specified
target (2030)
SustainableBuildingMaterials: Approach
Greenbuildings
Green building (also known as eco buildings or sustainable
building) refers to a structure and using process that throughout a
building's life-cycle:
from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance,
renovation, and demolition is
• environmentally responsible
• resource-efficient
Objectiveofgreen buildings
• Designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on
human health and the natural environment
• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.
There have been four stages:
• Pragmatic resource conservation
• Moral and aesthetic nature preservation
• Utilitarian conservation
• Biocentric preservation
STAGES
Utilitarian conservation
Utilitarianism is a theory of morality that advocates actions that foster
happiness or pleasure and oppose actions that cause unhappiness or
harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political
decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society
as a whole. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in
the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group.
Biocentric preservation
The term biocentrism encompasses all environmental ethics that "extend
the status of moral object from human beings to all living things in
nature". ... Biocentrists observe that all species have inherent value, and
that humans are not "superior" to other species in a moral or ethical
sense.
112
BRIEF HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTALISM
,
Perhaps the
first real
environmental
activists were
the Bishnoi
Hindus of
Khejarli, who
were
slaughtered by
the Maharaja
of Jodhpur in
1720 for
attempting to
protect the
forest that he
felled to build
himself a
palace
The Greek
physicians
Hippocrates
and Galen
began to
observe
environmental
health
problems such
as acid
contamination
in copper
miners.
Five thousand
years ago the
Indus
civilisation
of Mohenjo
Darro (an
ancient city in
modern-day
Pakistan),
were already
recognizing
the effects of
pollution on
human health
and practiced
waste
management
and sanitation.
1835, Ralph
Waldo
Emerson
wrote Nature,
encouraging
us to
appreciate the
natural world
American
Botanist Willia
m
Bartram and
ornithologist J
ames
Audubon
dedicated
themselves to
the
conservation
of wildlife.
At the end of
the 19th
century, in
Jena,
Germany,
zoologist Erns
t
Haeckel wrot
e about
science we
now know as
ecology.
an anti-
nuclear
manifesto in
1955 with
British
philosopher
Bertrand
Russell,
Campaign for
Nuclear
Disarmament,
in the UK
In the early
20th century,
the
chemist Alice
Hamilton led
a campaign
against lead
poisoning
from leaded
gasoline, and
it took
governments
50 years to
ban leaded
gasoline.
Rachel Carson
brought the
environmenta
l movement
into focus
with the 1962
publication
of Silent
Spring,
describing the
impact of
chemical
pesticides on
biodiversity.
Rex Weyler
co-founder of
Greenpeace
International
in 1979.
BRIEF HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTALISM
,

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Scope of Environment.pdf

  • 1. AECC-EVS (Dr. Mansi Rastogi) Environment Studies- 7 Units Books recommended- 1. Kaushik and Kaushik (hindi and English, (ePDF for Eng available) 2. Singh and Gupta (Hindi)
  • 3. Environmental Studies • Environmental Studies refers to a systematic study of environment, a branch of applied science that seeks practical solutions for sustenance of human civilization. • Interdisciplinary, holistic and mission oriented study • Involves the study and understanding of the fact that even a single phenomenon can affect the environment in a variety of ways • with varying degrees of complexity • different perspectives
  • 4. Definitions The term environment is derived from a French word environner which means ‘surrounding’. Environment is the sum total of • all social, economical, biological, physical, and chemical factors which constitute the human surroundings • influences which modify and determine the development of life and its associated characteristics.
  • 5. AbioticComponents • Abiotic or non-living components of environment include all the physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms. • Examples of abiotic components are air, water, soil, rocks, etc.
  • 6. Biotic Components Biotic or living components are the living components of environment and include microbes, plants, animals, and human beings. Components of Environment
  • 7.
  • 8. Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies Environmental Studies requires skills that encompass a range of disciplines including chemistry, biology, earth sciences, atmospheric science, statistics, mathematics, and geography.
  • 9. Importance of Environmental Studies Gaining knowledge about the Productive, aesthetic/recreational and optional values of environment Assess the environmental impacts induced by human activities. It gives us basic knowledge of environment and associated problems (exploitation of natural resources, biodiversity threats, pollution, human induced calamity such as floods, landslides It helps to achieve sustainable development through alternative solutions It helps to educate people regarding their duties towards the protection of environment. It helps in maintaining ecological balance
  • 10. NeedforPublic Awareness To conserve the dwindling earth’s resources Check environmental degradation by human activities Through media Through organizing seminars & conferences Entertainment Science centers Through print, broadcast and internet Government alone cannot perform all the clean-upfunctions. Individual/group efforts and involvement of youth Mass public awareness: newspapers, radio, television strongly influences public opinion on conserving our environment. MethodsforPublic Awareness
  • 11.
  • 13. • Lithosphere: Solidcomponets Crust:<1% (Thin5-50km) Mantle-68%(moltenstate, 2900-3500km) Core-Femetal(innerandouter 3500km) • Hydrosphere:Covers75%of earth (oceans,sea, rivers) • Atmosphere: ~1%: (99% ofair) extendsto 1600 km from earth’s surface Consists of O2, CO2 • Biosphere:All life (air, O2, N2, CO2)
  • 14. Sustainable Development The term sustainable development refers to the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. • An approach to development that looks to balance different, and often competing, needs against an awareness of the environmental, social and economic limitations we face as asociety. • All too often, development is driven by one particular need, without fully considering the wider or future impacts. • We are already seeing the damage this kind of approach can cause, from large-scale financial crises caused by irresponsible banking, to changes in global climate resulting from our dependence on fossil fuel-based energy sources.
  • 15. • blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all 3 pillars of SD Environment Social Economic • 17 goals No poverty, Zero hunger, Good health and well being, Quality education, Gender Equality …………. Sustainable development goals (SDG’s)
  • 16.
  • 17. Measures for Sustainable Development SD population control Reducing per capita demand of natural resources Using efficient technologic al devices Sustainable agriculture Promoting environmental awareness through education Following the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycling) approach Indices 1. Current status 2. Anticipated Progress gap between predicted value and specified target (2030)
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Greenbuildings Green building (also known as eco buildings or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition is • environmentally responsible • resource-efficient Objectiveofgreen buildings • Designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.
  • 24.
  • 25. There have been four stages: • Pragmatic resource conservation • Moral and aesthetic nature preservation • Utilitarian conservation • Biocentric preservation STAGES
  • 26.
  • 27. Utilitarian conservation Utilitarianism is a theory of morality that advocates actions that foster happiness or pleasure and oppose actions that cause unhappiness or harm. When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Biocentric preservation The term biocentrism encompasses all environmental ethics that "extend the status of moral object from human beings to all living things in nature". ... Biocentrists observe that all species have inherent value, and that humans are not "superior" to other species in a moral or ethical sense.
  • 28. 112 BRIEF HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTALISM , Perhaps the first real environmental activists were the Bishnoi Hindus of Khejarli, who were slaughtered by the Maharaja of Jodhpur in 1720 for attempting to protect the forest that he felled to build himself a palace The Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen began to observe environmental health problems such as acid contamination in copper miners. Five thousand years ago the Indus civilisation of Mohenjo Darro (an ancient city in modern-day Pakistan), were already recognizing the effects of pollution on human health and practiced waste management and sanitation. 1835, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote Nature, encouraging us to appreciate the natural world American Botanist Willia m Bartram and ornithologist J ames Audubon dedicated themselves to the conservation of wildlife.
  • 29. At the end of the 19th century, in Jena, Germany, zoologist Erns t Haeckel wrot e about science we now know as ecology. an anti- nuclear manifesto in 1955 with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, in the UK In the early 20th century, the chemist Alice Hamilton led a campaign against lead poisoning from leaded gasoline, and it took governments 50 years to ban leaded gasoline. Rachel Carson brought the environmenta l movement into focus with the 1962 publication of Silent Spring, describing the impact of chemical pesticides on biodiversity. Rex Weyler co-founder of Greenpeace International in 1979. BRIEF HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENTALISM ,