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WATER RESOURCES
• Water is prime life sustaining natural resource which cannot be created like
other commodities. It is a nature’s gift to all living beings on the earth. Water
is the elixir of life. Unfortunately for our planet, supplies are now running dry
– at an alarming rate.
• India has 4% of the world water resources and 18% of the world population.
Only handful of countries in the globe can boast of such an extensive river
network that our country has.
• The mighty Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra in the North, the Narmada-Tapi-
Mahanadi in the Central region and Godavari-Krishna-Cauvery in the South
have been symbols of existence and growth of our country right from its
inception. Yet, the availability of water resources in India has its unique
complexities.
Water Cycle
Groundwater is the water that seeps through rocks and soil and is stored below the ground. The rocks in
which groundwater is stored are called aquifers. Aquifers are typically made up of gravel, sand,
sandstone or limestone. Water moves through these rocks because they have large connected spaces
that make them permeable. The area where water fills the aquifer is called the saturated zone. The depth
from the surface at which groundwater is found is called the water table. The water table can be as
shallow as a foot below the ground or it can be a few hundred meters deep. Heavy rains can cause the
water table to rise and conversely, continuous extraction of groundwater can cause the level to fall.
AQUIFER
Any geological formation that is water-bearing is called as an
aquifer.
An aquifer is a body of porous rock or sediment saturated with
groundwater. Groundwater enters an aquifer as precipitation seeps
through the soil. It can move through the aquifer and resurface
through springs and wells.
When a water-bearing rock readily transmits water to wells and
springs, it is called an aquifer. Wells can be drilled into
the aquifers and water can be pumped out. Precipitation
eventually adds water (recharge) into the porous rock of
the aquifer.
1.Unconfined
2.confined
Confined Aquifers are those bodies of water found
accumulating in a permeable rock and are been
enclosed by two impermeable rock layers or rock
bodies. Confined Aquifers are aquifers that are found to
be overlain by a confining rock layer or rock bodies,
often made up of clay which might offer some form of
protection from surface contamination.
Unconfined Aquifer unlike confined aquifers are
generally found located near the land surface and have
no layers of clay (or other impermeable geologic
material) above the water table although they are found
lying relatively above impermeable clay rock layers.
Sources of Water: (Water sheds)
Rain
Underground water Surfacewater Evaporation water
Wells
Stream
1. Artesian
Stream
2. Gravity Stream
3. SurfaceStream
Dug Wells Shallow
Wells
Deep
Wells
Tube
Wells
Artesian
Wells
Tanks Sea Rivers Lakes Lakes
or and and formed
Ocean Streams Ponds bycollected
Water
Types of Wells:
1. Shallowwells:
- 2 to 6 mts. Diameter
- Half or Full Builtup (brick walls)
- 7 to 15 mts. Depth
- used for household purposes
2. DeepWells:
- madeof cementpipes (format)
- 20 to 40 mtsdepth
- 0.6 to0.9 mtsdiameter
- purewaterready tosupply directly
3. Tube Wells:
- 60 to 300 mtsdepth
- 0.5 to 1.3 mtsdiameter
- 40 to 50 literspersecond water flow
- Waterused forgardening orwatersupply todistantplace
- Purification is necessary
4. Artesian Wells:
- Constructed invalleyor hilly areas
- Waterpump is not required
- Purificationof water is necessary
5. Dug Wells:
- Similarto Shallowwells
- Digging toolsand spades are used todug thesewells
- Parapet wall of 1 mt. height is constructed
- Well is surrounded by insideslope
HYDROPOWER ENERGY
⚫Hydropower or Hydel-power is
the power derived from the
energy of falling water or fast
running water, which may be
harnessed for useful purposes.
⚫It is the form of renewable
energy that uses the potential
energy of water stored in dam
or kinetic energy of water
flowing through a river or a
lake for useful purposes by
converting it into other form of
energy.
H Y D RO EL EC TRIC PO W ER
⚫When the Hydro Power is
harnessed from the source to
produce Electricity, then its
called Hydro Electric Power.
⚫Through Hydropower, the
energy in falling water or fast
running water is converted
into Electricity, without using
up the water.
⚫The setup which is
constructed to derive
Electrical Energy from
Hydropower is called Hydro
Electric Power Plant.
CONSTRUCTION
 The basic components of a Hydro
Electric Power Plant is:
Primary Element:
 Catchment’s area
 Reservoir
 Dam
 Prime mover
Powerhouse & Equipments
Safety Devices:
 Spill ways
 Surge tank
 Trash rack
 Switchgears & other protecting
devices
WORKING
 The flowing water is
directed at turbines (water
wheels),
which causes the turbine
to
rotate, converting water’s
kinetic energy
into mechanical
energy.
The mechanical energy
produced by turbine is
converted into Electrical
Energy using a
turbine generator.
 Inside the generator, the
shaft of the turbine spins a
magnet
inside coils of copper wire,
which in turn
produces Electric
Current.
GENERATIO N O F PO W ER
The power of a hydropower plant is generally dependent
upon the water flow rate and the drop height of the
system, and on the efficiency of the water turbine, gear
mechanism, generator and transformer.
A/c the generating capacity of power plants, it is mainly
classified into three categories:
 Large [Capacity > 30 MW]
 Small [30 MW > Capacity > 10 MW]
 Micro [Capacity < 10 MW]
Types of Hydroelectric powerplant
• Conventional Plants:
Conventional plants use potential energy from dammed water. The energy
extracted depends on the volume and head of the water. The difference between
height of water level in the reservoir and the water outflow level is called as
water head.
• Pumped Storage Plant:
In pumped storage plant, a second reservoir is constructed near the water outflow
from the turbine. When the demand of electricity is low, the water from lower
reservoir is pumped into the upper (main) reservoir. This is to ensure sufficient
amount of water available in the main reservoir to fulfill the peak loads.
• Run-Of-River Plant:
In this type of facility, no dam is constructed and, hence, reservoir is absent. A
portion of river is diverted through a penstock or canal to the turbine. Thus, only
the water flowing from the river is available for the generation. And due to
absence of reservoir, any oversupply of water is passed unused.
Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Once a dam is constructed, electricity
can be produced at a constant rate.
• If electricity is not needed, the sluice
gates can be shut, stopping electricity
generation. The water can be saved for
use another time when electricity
demand is high.
• Dams are designed to last many decades
and so can contribute to the generation
of electricity for many years /decades.
• The lake that forms behind the dam can
be used for water sports and leisure /
pleasure activities. Often large dams
become tourist attractions in their own
right.
• The lake's water can be used for
irrigation purposes.
• Dams are extremely expensive to
build and must be built toa very high
standard.
• The high cost of dam construction
means that they must operate for
many decades to become profitable.
• The flooding of large areas of land
means that the natural environment
is destroyed.
• People living in villages and towns
that are in the valley to be flooded,
must move out. This means that they
lose their farms and businesses.
• The building of large dams can cause
serious geological damage.
HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION
IN INDIA
 India contributes 4% of total Hydropower Energy produced in
the World.
 In India, 25.31% of total electricity requirement is full-filled by
Hydropower Energy.
 India is ranked 7th worldwide in terms of Hydropower
Generation.
 Only 24 % of the hydropower potential of the country has been
harnessed so far and 8% is under various stages of development.
 The total potential harnessed/under harnessing would thus be
about 49,000 MW. The share of hydropower in the overall energy
mix has been declining over the years. Against an ideal
hydroelectric-thermal mix of 40: 60 it presently stands at 24:76.
A Final Note…..
Hydro Electric Power Plant has a major problem associated with it
is complexity in making projects and some other technical
challenges. Such as:
• Variability of the sea conditions
• Matching the generating equipment the wave characteristics
• Equipment construction
• Housing and mooring the equipment
• Energy transmission
• Resistance to storm damage
Despite of having some major drawbacks, Hydropower stands as
the most significant renewable energy source. It uses the single
but very powerful energy force of moving water.
By some comparison, it competes with the energy produced by
fossil fuels and nuclear power, but is considered much cleaner
and more simplistic.
Hydropower remains popular even in third-world countries,
which
do not have the resources to build expensive nuclear
generating stations.
The major WQ issues are ;
1. Pathogenic pollution in both sources
2. Salinity in both sources
3. Fluoride, Nitrate and Arsenic problems in
Groundwater
4. Oxygen depletion in Surface water
5. Eutrophication in Surface water
6. Toxicity in Ground and Surface water
7. Ecological Health in surface water
Major causes for water quality degradation are :
1. Domestic Wastewater
2. Industrial Wastewater
3. Rural and Slum Population
4. Wastewater and Pollutants from Un-sewered Towns
5. Pollutants in Agricultural Run-off and Drainage Waters (Diffuse
pollution)
6. Deposition of Air-Pollutants
Dams and its Social and Environmental Impacts:
Advantagesof Dams:
1. Helps in watersupply in Summer.
2. Blocking thewater flow towards Sea.
3. For forming artificial lakes to maintaindailywater
supply.
4. Helps in irrigationand electricitygeneration.
5. Useful in creating Ecosystems for Birds and Aquatic
Animals.
6. Useful to farmers toyield multiplecrops in ayear.
Problems Caused by Dams:
1. Fragmentationand Physical Transformation of rivers.
2. Serious impacton river-line Ecosystem.
3. Social consequencesof largedams due todisplacementof
peoples.
4. Waterlogging and selinizationof the surrounding land.
5. Dislodging animal population, damaging their habitat and
cutting of their migratory routes.
6. Disruption of fishing and water- way traffic.
7. emissionof green housegasesdue to rotting of vegetation.
8. Serious impacton tribal people.
9. failure in achieving the targeted objectives and high cost.
STRATEGIES FOR FACING THE CHALLENGES
1. Developmental activities to reduce Gap between availability and utilization
2. Management Practices to bridge Gap between creation and utilization of facilities
3. Research & Development to mitigate Gap between demand and availability
Gap between availability and utilization
1. Storages
groundwater recharge
Watershed development
Rainwater Harvesting
Pollution Control
Desalination of water
Management Practices; to bridge a Gap between Creation
and utilization of facilities
1. Efficient water distribution network
2. Equity and demand based management
3. Participatory Water Management
4. Cropping pattern
5. Realistic water rates
6. Waste water treatment
7. Recycle and reuse of waste water
8. Use water efficiently and share fairly
9. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater
10. Extension, Renovation and Modernisation of old schemes
Research & Development : to mitigate Gap between demand
and availability
1. Advanced Irrigation techniques
2. IT tools for water distribution
3. Development of Modelling Tools
4. Less water consuming gadgets
5. Water saving Technologies
6. Research in desalination & wastewater Treatment
7. Developing water resistant crop varieties
8. Policy Research, Etc.
MINERAL
RESOURCES
Classification of Minerals:
1. Energy Providing Minerals: Coal, Natural Gas and
Mineral oil etc.
2. Valuable Minerals: Gold, Silverand Diamond.
3. Minerals Useful in Construction Work: Stones,
Marbles, Limeetc.
4. Industrial Minerals: Iron, Copper, Manganese,
aluminumetc.
Process of mining
Impact of Mines and Minerals on
Environment:
1. Air pollution by the emission of Sulphur Dioxide and
Nitrogen Monoxide (SO2 and NO) during the mining
process.
2. Various typesof diseases arisesdue toairpollution.
3. Possibility of Acid Rain due toToxicsubstances in theair.
4. Increase in Noise pollution due to the useof Heavy
machineries in mining process.
5. Emission of Radon and Thorone in the Uranium Mines.
6. When water flows from mines, there will be Water
Pollution.
7. Polluted waterobtained from the Natural oil wells may
create Land pollution.
Environmental Impacts of Mining
Microbial Mining
• Biomining is the process of using microorganisms
(microbes) to extract metals of economic interest
from rock ores or mine waste.
• Biomining techniques may also be used to clean
up sites that have been polluted with metals.
Valuable metals are commonly bound up in solid
minerals.
• Bioleaching commonly refers
to biomining technology applied to base metals;
whereas,
• Biooxidation is normally applied to sulfidic-
refractory gold ores and concentrates.
Examples
Acidithobacillus species like A. thiooxidans or A. caldus and
microorganisms from the
genus Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus, Sulfolobus, Acidianus,
Ferroplasma, etc.,
Phytomining involves growing plants on top of low
grade ores. Plants absorb metal ions through their
roots. It removes toxic metals from contaminated soil –
around old mines. In the future, when supplies of
higher grade ores have run out, metals might be
extracted by burning the plants to produce ash.
Hyperaccumulator Sebertia
acuminata is
commercially used for
Ni Phytomining and it can
produce sap with up to 25% Ni
by weight
Plant species Helianthus
annuus L. (sunflower) and
Kalanchoe serrata L. (magic
tower) were used for Cu
extraction
FOOD RESOURCES
Land
 Usesof Land:
1. For Residential and for Construction purpose.
2. For theconstruction of roads.
3. For Agricultural and for Gardening purpose.
4. Forcreating Forests.
5. For theconstruction of big Industrial Units.
6. For preparing canal and waterresources.
 Misusesof Land:
1. Destruction of forests.
2. Unused grass land.
3. Non planned urbanization.
4. Excess useof chemical fertilizers.
5. Useof land for mineral industries.
Soil protection:
1. Avoid Soil erosion.
2. Avoid Watercongestion.
3. Waterslopon the slope has to be controlled to
minimum speed.
4. Watershould beabsorbed in the soil with a slow
speed.
5. Control thewind velocity bygrowing more trees.
6. Constructthedrain of such a breadth that the soil
particles may be kept tostick one another.
Importance of Land in India:
 India is an Agricultural Economyand it is inevitable to
have Agricultural activities without proper usage of
available land resource.
 60% of the land in India is eithercultivable or non
cultivable in which 1/3 of which is not proper forcrop-yield
due to soil erosion and less mineral content in the land.
 1/3 land is having less productivity.
 So we haveonly 1/3 land available forcropyield.
 Due to deforestation the problem of soil erosion is
increasing day byday.
 Toincrease the crop production, we have to use scientific
farming techniquesand will have to look for the solutions
towards soil erosion.
Steps to conserve the Land:
1. Waste land reclamation. (convert the non cultivable
land intocultivable land)
2. Adopting diversity by the useof proper irrigation
technique.
3. The Agricultural lands should be kept reserved for
the Agricultural useonly.
4. Useof Hybrid seeds should be promoted to maintain
the fertilityof the land for long period.
5. Grow more trees toavoid soil erosion.
6. Farmers should be given advicesafterproper testing
of the land minerals.
THANK YOU

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Water resources. its depletion and its conservation

  • 2.
  • 3. • Water is prime life sustaining natural resource which cannot be created like other commodities. It is a nature’s gift to all living beings on the earth. Water is the elixir of life. Unfortunately for our planet, supplies are now running dry – at an alarming rate. • India has 4% of the world water resources and 18% of the world population. Only handful of countries in the globe can boast of such an extensive river network that our country has. • The mighty Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra in the North, the Narmada-Tapi- Mahanadi in the Central region and Godavari-Krishna-Cauvery in the South have been symbols of existence and growth of our country right from its inception. Yet, the availability of water resources in India has its unique complexities.
  • 5. Groundwater is the water that seeps through rocks and soil and is stored below the ground. The rocks in which groundwater is stored are called aquifers. Aquifers are typically made up of gravel, sand, sandstone or limestone. Water moves through these rocks because they have large connected spaces that make them permeable. The area where water fills the aquifer is called the saturated zone. The depth from the surface at which groundwater is found is called the water table. The water table can be as shallow as a foot below the ground or it can be a few hundred meters deep. Heavy rains can cause the water table to rise and conversely, continuous extraction of groundwater can cause the level to fall.
  • 6. AQUIFER Any geological formation that is water-bearing is called as an aquifer. An aquifer is a body of porous rock or sediment saturated with groundwater. Groundwater enters an aquifer as precipitation seeps through the soil. It can move through the aquifer and resurface through springs and wells. When a water-bearing rock readily transmits water to wells and springs, it is called an aquifer. Wells can be drilled into the aquifers and water can be pumped out. Precipitation eventually adds water (recharge) into the porous rock of the aquifer. 1.Unconfined 2.confined
  • 7.
  • 8. Confined Aquifers are those bodies of water found accumulating in a permeable rock and are been enclosed by two impermeable rock layers or rock bodies. Confined Aquifers are aquifers that are found to be overlain by a confining rock layer or rock bodies, often made up of clay which might offer some form of protection from surface contamination. Unconfined Aquifer unlike confined aquifers are generally found located near the land surface and have no layers of clay (or other impermeable geologic material) above the water table although they are found lying relatively above impermeable clay rock layers.
  • 9.
  • 10. Sources of Water: (Water sheds) Rain Underground water Surfacewater Evaporation water Wells Stream 1. Artesian Stream 2. Gravity Stream 3. SurfaceStream Dug Wells Shallow Wells Deep Wells Tube Wells Artesian Wells Tanks Sea Rivers Lakes Lakes or and and formed Ocean Streams Ponds bycollected Water
  • 11. Types of Wells: 1. Shallowwells: - 2 to 6 mts. Diameter - Half or Full Builtup (brick walls) - 7 to 15 mts. Depth - used for household purposes 2. DeepWells: - madeof cementpipes (format) - 20 to 40 mtsdepth - 0.6 to0.9 mtsdiameter - purewaterready tosupply directly
  • 12. 3. Tube Wells: - 60 to 300 mtsdepth - 0.5 to 1.3 mtsdiameter - 40 to 50 literspersecond water flow - Waterused forgardening orwatersupply todistantplace - Purification is necessary 4. Artesian Wells: - Constructed invalleyor hilly areas - Waterpump is not required - Purificationof water is necessary 5. Dug Wells: - Similarto Shallowwells - Digging toolsand spades are used todug thesewells - Parapet wall of 1 mt. height is constructed - Well is surrounded by insideslope
  • 13. HYDROPOWER ENERGY ⚫Hydropower or Hydel-power is the power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. ⚫It is the form of renewable energy that uses the potential energy of water stored in dam or kinetic energy of water flowing through a river or a lake for useful purposes by converting it into other form of energy.
  • 14. H Y D RO EL EC TRIC PO W ER ⚫When the Hydro Power is harnessed from the source to produce Electricity, then its called Hydro Electric Power. ⚫Through Hydropower, the energy in falling water or fast running water is converted into Electricity, without using up the water. ⚫The setup which is constructed to derive Electrical Energy from Hydropower is called Hydro Electric Power Plant.
  • 15. CONSTRUCTION  The basic components of a Hydro Electric Power Plant is: Primary Element:  Catchment’s area  Reservoir  Dam  Prime mover Powerhouse & Equipments Safety Devices:  Spill ways  Surge tank  Trash rack  Switchgears & other protecting devices
  • 16. WORKING  The flowing water is directed at turbines (water wheels), which causes the turbine to rotate, converting water’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy produced by turbine is converted into Electrical Energy using a turbine generator.  Inside the generator, the shaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of copper wire, which in turn produces Electric Current.
  • 17. GENERATIO N O F PO W ER The power of a hydropower plant is generally dependent upon the water flow rate and the drop height of the system, and on the efficiency of the water turbine, gear mechanism, generator and transformer. A/c the generating capacity of power plants, it is mainly classified into three categories:  Large [Capacity > 30 MW]  Small [30 MW > Capacity > 10 MW]  Micro [Capacity < 10 MW]
  • 18. Types of Hydroelectric powerplant • Conventional Plants: Conventional plants use potential energy from dammed water. The energy extracted depends on the volume and head of the water. The difference between height of water level in the reservoir and the water outflow level is called as water head. • Pumped Storage Plant: In pumped storage plant, a second reservoir is constructed near the water outflow from the turbine. When the demand of electricity is low, the water from lower reservoir is pumped into the upper (main) reservoir. This is to ensure sufficient amount of water available in the main reservoir to fulfill the peak loads. • Run-Of-River Plant: In this type of facility, no dam is constructed and, hence, reservoir is absent. A portion of river is diverted through a penstock or canal to the turbine. Thus, only the water flowing from the river is available for the generation. And due to absence of reservoir, any oversupply of water is passed unused.
  • 19. Advantages: Disadvantages: • Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate. • If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. • Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years /decades. • The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. • The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. • Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built toa very high standard. • The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. • The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. • People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. • The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage.
  • 20. HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION IN INDIA  India contributes 4% of total Hydropower Energy produced in the World.  In India, 25.31% of total electricity requirement is full-filled by Hydropower Energy.  India is ranked 7th worldwide in terms of Hydropower Generation.  Only 24 % of the hydropower potential of the country has been harnessed so far and 8% is under various stages of development.  The total potential harnessed/under harnessing would thus be about 49,000 MW. The share of hydropower in the overall energy mix has been declining over the years. Against an ideal hydroelectric-thermal mix of 40: 60 it presently stands at 24:76.
  • 21. A Final Note….. Hydro Electric Power Plant has a major problem associated with it is complexity in making projects and some other technical challenges. Such as: • Variability of the sea conditions • Matching the generating equipment the wave characteristics • Equipment construction • Housing and mooring the equipment • Energy transmission • Resistance to storm damage Despite of having some major drawbacks, Hydropower stands as the most significant renewable energy source. It uses the single but very powerful energy force of moving water. By some comparison, it competes with the energy produced by fossil fuels and nuclear power, but is considered much cleaner and more simplistic. Hydropower remains popular even in third-world countries, which do not have the resources to build expensive nuclear generating stations.
  • 22. The major WQ issues are ; 1. Pathogenic pollution in both sources 2. Salinity in both sources 3. Fluoride, Nitrate and Arsenic problems in Groundwater 4. Oxygen depletion in Surface water 5. Eutrophication in Surface water 6. Toxicity in Ground and Surface water 7. Ecological Health in surface water
  • 23. Major causes for water quality degradation are : 1. Domestic Wastewater 2. Industrial Wastewater 3. Rural and Slum Population 4. Wastewater and Pollutants from Un-sewered Towns 5. Pollutants in Agricultural Run-off and Drainage Waters (Diffuse pollution) 6. Deposition of Air-Pollutants
  • 24.
  • 25. Dams and its Social and Environmental Impacts: Advantagesof Dams: 1. Helps in watersupply in Summer. 2. Blocking thewater flow towards Sea. 3. For forming artificial lakes to maintaindailywater supply. 4. Helps in irrigationand electricitygeneration. 5. Useful in creating Ecosystems for Birds and Aquatic Animals. 6. Useful to farmers toyield multiplecrops in ayear.
  • 26. Problems Caused by Dams: 1. Fragmentationand Physical Transformation of rivers. 2. Serious impacton river-line Ecosystem. 3. Social consequencesof largedams due todisplacementof peoples. 4. Waterlogging and selinizationof the surrounding land. 5. Dislodging animal population, damaging their habitat and cutting of their migratory routes. 6. Disruption of fishing and water- way traffic. 7. emissionof green housegasesdue to rotting of vegetation. 8. Serious impacton tribal people. 9. failure in achieving the targeted objectives and high cost.
  • 27. STRATEGIES FOR FACING THE CHALLENGES 1. Developmental activities to reduce Gap between availability and utilization 2. Management Practices to bridge Gap between creation and utilization of facilities 3. Research & Development to mitigate Gap between demand and availability Gap between availability and utilization 1. Storages groundwater recharge Watershed development Rainwater Harvesting Pollution Control Desalination of water
  • 28. Management Practices; to bridge a Gap between Creation and utilization of facilities 1. Efficient water distribution network 2. Equity and demand based management 3. Participatory Water Management 4. Cropping pattern 5. Realistic water rates 6. Waste water treatment 7. Recycle and reuse of waste water 8. Use water efficiently and share fairly 9. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater 10. Extension, Renovation and Modernisation of old schemes
  • 29. Research & Development : to mitigate Gap between demand and availability 1. Advanced Irrigation techniques 2. IT tools for water distribution 3. Development of Modelling Tools 4. Less water consuming gadgets 5. Water saving Technologies 6. Research in desalination & wastewater Treatment 7. Developing water resistant crop varieties 8. Policy Research, Etc.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Classification of Minerals: 1. Energy Providing Minerals: Coal, Natural Gas and Mineral oil etc. 2. Valuable Minerals: Gold, Silverand Diamond. 3. Minerals Useful in Construction Work: Stones, Marbles, Limeetc. 4. Industrial Minerals: Iron, Copper, Manganese, aluminumetc.
  • 35.
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  • 38.
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  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46. Impact of Mines and Minerals on Environment: 1. Air pollution by the emission of Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Monoxide (SO2 and NO) during the mining process. 2. Various typesof diseases arisesdue toairpollution. 3. Possibility of Acid Rain due toToxicsubstances in theair. 4. Increase in Noise pollution due to the useof Heavy machineries in mining process. 5. Emission of Radon and Thorone in the Uranium Mines. 6. When water flows from mines, there will be Water Pollution. 7. Polluted waterobtained from the Natural oil wells may create Land pollution.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51. Microbial Mining • Biomining is the process of using microorganisms (microbes) to extract metals of economic interest from rock ores or mine waste. • Biomining techniques may also be used to clean up sites that have been polluted with metals. Valuable metals are commonly bound up in solid minerals. • Bioleaching commonly refers to biomining technology applied to base metals; whereas, • Biooxidation is normally applied to sulfidic- refractory gold ores and concentrates.
  • 52. Examples Acidithobacillus species like A. thiooxidans or A. caldus and microorganisms from the genus Leptospirillum, Sulfobacillus, Sulfolobus, Acidianus, Ferroplasma, etc.,
  • 53. Phytomining involves growing plants on top of low grade ores. Plants absorb metal ions through their roots. It removes toxic metals from contaminated soil – around old mines. In the future, when supplies of higher grade ores have run out, metals might be extracted by burning the plants to produce ash. Hyperaccumulator Sebertia acuminata is commercially used for Ni Phytomining and it can produce sap with up to 25% Ni by weight Plant species Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) and Kalanchoe serrata L. (magic tower) were used for Cu extraction
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 57.
  • 58.
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  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65. Land  Usesof Land: 1. For Residential and for Construction purpose. 2. For theconstruction of roads. 3. For Agricultural and for Gardening purpose. 4. Forcreating Forests. 5. For theconstruction of big Industrial Units. 6. For preparing canal and waterresources.  Misusesof Land: 1. Destruction of forests. 2. Unused grass land. 3. Non planned urbanization. 4. Excess useof chemical fertilizers. 5. Useof land for mineral industries.
  • 66.
  • 67.
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  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73. Soil protection: 1. Avoid Soil erosion. 2. Avoid Watercongestion. 3. Waterslopon the slope has to be controlled to minimum speed. 4. Watershould beabsorbed in the soil with a slow speed. 5. Control thewind velocity bygrowing more trees. 6. Constructthedrain of such a breadth that the soil particles may be kept tostick one another.
  • 74. Importance of Land in India:  India is an Agricultural Economyand it is inevitable to have Agricultural activities without proper usage of available land resource.  60% of the land in India is eithercultivable or non cultivable in which 1/3 of which is not proper forcrop-yield due to soil erosion and less mineral content in the land.  1/3 land is having less productivity.  So we haveonly 1/3 land available forcropyield.  Due to deforestation the problem of soil erosion is increasing day byday.  Toincrease the crop production, we have to use scientific farming techniquesand will have to look for the solutions towards soil erosion.
  • 75. Steps to conserve the Land: 1. Waste land reclamation. (convert the non cultivable land intocultivable land) 2. Adopting diversity by the useof proper irrigation technique. 3. The Agricultural lands should be kept reserved for the Agricultural useonly. 4. Useof Hybrid seeds should be promoted to maintain the fertilityof the land for long period. 5. Grow more trees toavoid soil erosion. 6. Farmers should be given advicesafterproper testing of the land minerals.
  • 76.
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