SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1
CLIMATE & ENERGY
POLICY OF AUSTRALIA
Youssef Elhenawy
Helin Ulgen
Elmacioglu
Yasmin de Moraes
Gojo George
Omer Iradukunda
Mahmood Hebah
Piyawan Hongsiriwilai
Samuel Häußler
2
Introduction
Australia is a developed country with a mixed-market economy.
● World's 13th-largest nominal GDP in 2022.
● Rich in natural resources (i.e. coal, ores).
Primary energy mix in 2020–21:
● 92% Fossil fuels
● 8% Renewable energies
● High per capita emissions (15.3 t/c*y) compared to other countries e.g. Japan 9.7
t/c*y
https://www.energy.gov.au/sites/default/files/Australian%20Energy%20Statistics%202022%20Energy%20Update%20Report.pdf
https://www.energy.gov.au/publications/australian-energy-statistics-table-o-electricity-generation-fuel-type-2020-21-and-2021
3
Chronology
1992
Adoption of the
UNFCCC:
Australia ratifies
UNFCCC: Australia
is the 9th country to
ratify the UNFCCC
1997
Adoption of the
Kyoto Protocol
at COP3
1998
Australia signs the
Kyoto Protocol.
However, Australia
does not ratify the
Kyoto protocol
2002
Australia refuses
to ratify the
Kyoto Protocol
2005
Kyoto Protocol
comes into
force
2007
Australia ratifies
the Kyoto Protocol
Labor party Labor party
Liberal party
4
Chronology
2008
Australia’s ratification
of the Kyoto Protocol
comes into effect
Target 2008–2012:
+8% of 1990 levels
2012
Australia signs on for a
second commitment
period of the Kyoto
Protocol
Target 2013–2020: -
0.5% of 1990 levels
2021
2016
First NDC submission
under the Paris Agreement
Target to reduce GHG
emissions by 26 to 28%
below 2005 levels by 2030.
Labor party Liberal party
Australia ratified
Paris Agreement
together with EU and
many countries. 5 Years Updated NDC:
Target of net zero emissions
by 2050.
Target to reduce GHG
emissions by 26-28% below
2005 levels by 2030, and will
exceed it by up to 9%.
5
Criticism
● From other countries and the media for the lack of ambition in their NDC’s.
● Pressure to increase the emissions reduction targets.
● Has been accused of prioritizing economic concerns over environmental ones.
https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-08-20/climate-change-ipcc-australia-uk-conference-glasgow/100392252
https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/australia-ranks-dead-last-climate/
https://www.economist.com/asia/2021/10/30/australias-climate-policy-is-all-talk-and-no-
trousers?gclid=Cj0KCQiA6fafBhC1ARIsAIJjL8lCeItEw4ZKjr70nRl1xeflCVPlKa6wzoNrBBny3NdVzZyl6MsfMYIaAsKGEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds
Countries Emission Reduction Target by
2030 (%)
UK 68
EU 55
US 52
Japan 46
Australia 28
6
NDC last updated in June 2022:
● Net zero emissions by 2050
● To reduce greenhouse gas emissions 43% below
2005 levels by 2030
Commitments & Targets
https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Australias%20NDC%20June%202022%20Update%20%283%29.pdf
2021
Updated NDC:
Target of net zero
emissions by 2050.
Target to reduce GHG
emissions by 26 to 28%
below 2005 levels by
2030, and will exceed it
by up to 9 percentage.
2022
Re-Updated NDC
Labor party
Liberal party
7
1) Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF)
● Financial incentives for businesses and
organizations to reduce their GHG
emissions.
● Use of Carbon Crediting Scheme:
companies can earn carbon credit
units (ACCU) for every tonne of CO2 eq
(tCO2-e) emissions stored or avoided
by their project, which can then be sold.
Climate Policy
https://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/Infohub/Media-Centre/Pages/Resources/ERF%20media%20resources/Emissions-Position-as-at-March-2022.aspx
Cumulative total number of ERF projects
registered in each state and territory
across Australia, as at 31 March 2022
8
2) National Energy Productivity plan
(NEPP)
● Energy efficiency and
performance are key to achieve
targets.
● It is expected that the NEPP will
contribute over one quarter of the
emission reductions required to
meet the 2030 target.
Climate Policy
National Energy Productivity Plan (NEPP) details
https://policy.asiapacificenergy.org/sites/default/files/NEPP%20Annual%20Report%202016_0.pdf
9
Australian electricity generation by
renewables
Generation from renewables has increased
167% over the past decade
3) Renewable energy target scheme (RETs)
● Incentives for both small and large scale
renewable projects.
○ Large scale RE target aiming to deliver
33,000 GWh of extra renewable
electricity each year until 2030.
○ Small scale RE projects increase allows
the system owners to sell surplus
electricity to retailers by the use of
small-scale technology certificates
(STCs)
● Renewable energy accounted for 27.7% of
the total electricity generation in 2020 and it
is expected to reach 61% by 2030.
Energy Policy
10
4) Funding for “clean” hydrogen* and carbon
capture and storage (CCS) technologies
● 80 renewable hydrogen projects announced
○ 15 have passed the final investment
decision.
○ Total budget amounts 1.27 bn USD.
● Very important in terms of fuel security.
● Intended uses:
○ to replace natural gas for homes, industry and
cooking.
○ for fuel cells to generate electricity to power
cars.
○ to store energy and generate electricity for
remote areas.
○ to trade clean energy with other countries.
Energy Policy
*clean hydrogen means hydrogen
produced using renewable energy or using
fossil fuels with substantial carbon
capture.
https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/08/20/australia-has-big-hydrogen-export-opportunity/
Energy resource options for producing hydrogen
across Australia’s states and territories
11
● National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme
○ single national framework for reporting company information about: GHG emissions, energy
production, energy consumption.
● Safeguard Mechanism
○ Largest GHG emitters (>100,000 tonnes CO2 eq / year) must keep emissions below a limit
(baseline).
○ Electricity, mining, oil and gas production, manufacturing, transport, and waste facilities.
● Upgrading the electricity grid to support more renewable power.
● Reducing the price of electric vehicles.
● Supporting businesses and industries to innovate and adopt smarter practices and technologies.
● Encouraging businesses and consumers to reduce emissions.
● Helping the land and agriculture sector reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
● Regulating fuel quality by setting fuel quality standards and labelling requirements.
Energy & Climate Policy
12
USD 7.59 billion to support different
energy technologies through new or
amended policies (2021)
USD 1.69 billion for unconditional
fossil fuels through 20 policies (9
quantified and 11 unquantified)
Energy & Climate Policy
USD 587.96 million for
conditional fossil fuels through 5
policies (4 quantified and 1
unquantified)
USD 3.29 billion for unconditional clean energy
through 29 policies (25 quantified and 4 unquantified)
USD 1.29 billion for conditional
clean energy through 13
policies (13 quantified)
USD 1.29 billion for conditional
clean energy through 13 policies
(13 quantified)
$2.28 billion
Fossil fuel
energy
$4.57 billion
Clean
energy
13
LULUCF & Forest Fires
● Australia is using LULUCF to meet its
Paris Agreement targets.
○ Over 70% of its carbon sink.
○ has potential for further carbon
sequestration.
● Accurate monitoring and reporting are
essential for effective LULUCF
accounting.
● Forest management practices and
changes in land use can affect LULUCF.
● The impact of forest fires on LULUCF
highlights the need for forest
management and fire prevention.
○ 2019-2020 bushfires burned over
18 million ha
14
● Becoming more intense due to climate change.
● Causing significant damage to wildlife, homes, and
infrastructure.
● Emitting massive amounts of CO2 and other pollutants into the
atmosphere.
● The fires in 2019 and 2020, added an extra 186 million tons of
carbon into the atmosphere.
Forest Fires
15
Australia's Kyoto Protocol reports include:
● GHG emissions
● Used land-use, land-use change, and forestry
to meet its targets.
Australia's Paris Agreement NDC reports about:
● Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.
● Adaptation to unavoidable impacts of climate
change.
● Promotion of sustainable land use practices.
● Increase of energy efficiency and renewable
energy.
● Support to low-carbon transportation
options.
● Encouraging of waste reduction and
recycling.
UNFCCC
16
UNFCCC recent negotiations
● COP 18 - 2012
○ Sign of the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol
■ Target of 99.5% of 1990 emissions levels by 2020 (equivalent to 5%
below 2000 emission levels by 2020)
● COP 20 - 2014
Australia on behalf of umbrella group:
○ Commitment to the negotiations of the Paris Agreement next year.
○ Commitment to take strong and effective Climate Action.
● COP 22 - 2016
○ Ratification of the Paris Agreement.
■ Target to reduce GHG emissions by 26 to 28% below 2005 levels
by 2030.
● COP 23 - 2017
○ 2030 target to reduce emissions by 26 to 28 per cent below 2005 levels.
https://unfccc.int/documents/623827
17
UNFCCC recent negotiations
● COP 24 - 2018
○ Policies to align strong economic growth with emissions reduction.
● COP 26 Glasgow - 2021
○ Net zero emissions by 2050.
○ Technology will have the answers to a decarbonised economy.
● COP 27 - 2022
○ Increase the emissions reduction target to 43% by 2030 in the
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
■ Assistance to the region with $900 million to deal with climate
emergency (2022)
○ Within this decade, 82 per cent of Australia’s energy supply will be
renewable.
https://unfccc.int/documents/623827
18
Future climate agreement negotiations
● From 1 July 2022, new Department of Climate Change, Energy,
the Environment and Water (DCCEEW).
● Climate Change Act (8 September 2022)
○ It legislates Australia’s targets by 2030 and 2050.
○ It requires the Minister to prepare an Annual Climate
Change Statement to Parliament (holding the Government
accountable for meeting Australia’s targets and creating
effective climate change policy.)
● Each Australian state has stated or made a commitment to
reach net zero by 2050, or earlier.
○ NSW: 50%; Victoria: 50%; Queensland: 30%; South Australia:
at least 50%; Western Australia: 80% below 2020 levels;
ACT: 65-75% (on 1990 levels); Tasmania: achieved net zero
in 2015.
https://www.dcceew.gov.au/climate-change/strategies#toc_0
19
Thanks for your attention!
Questions?
20
References
1. https://www.energypolicytracker.org/country/australia/
2. https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/australia/
3. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri
efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction
4. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/3/438
5. https://www.atse.org.au/news-and-events/article/emissions-targets-are-we-on-track/
6. https://unfccc.int/NDCREG?fbclid=IwAR0AEN1JVu0u-
7LxkooKjB3zTSscxmcflkXp6m7WLnkBpf89mLKylF1rLGo
7. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-08-20/climate-change-ipcc-australia-uk-conference-
glasgow/100392252
8. https://www.aofm.gov.au/media/967
9. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri
efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction
10. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/3/438
11. https://www.atse.org.au/news-and-events/article/emissions-targets-are-we-on-track/
12. https://www.energy.gov.au/data/australian-electricity-generation-fuel-mix
13. https://www.energy.gov.au/data/renewables
14. https://www.trade.gov/market-intelligence/australia-renewable-energy
15. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri
efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction
16. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fires-doubled-australias-carbon-emissions-ecosystems-may-
never-soak-it-back-
up/#:~:text=These%20fires%20likely%20released%20somewhere,year%20by%20burning%20fossil%20fuels

More Related Content

Similar to Summary of the Climate and Energy Policy of Australia

Final 21_05_2015
Final 21_05_2015Final 21_05_2015
Final 21_05_2015
bacissimi
 
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 WarsawWWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
WWF ITALIA
 
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive SummaryWorld Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
Marcellus Drilling News
 
Transition to low-emission development
Transition to low-emission developmentTransition to low-emission development
Transition to low-emission development
UNDPhr
 
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EEHEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
nooone
 
Climate Wedges
Climate Wedges Climate Wedges
Climate Wedges
Kalaivanan Murthy
 
Physics Ferguson
Physics FergusonPhysics Ferguson
Physics Ferguson
fergui
 
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
EricPROUST3
 
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize ImpactNext Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
World Resources Institute (WRI)
 
Kyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
Kyoto protocol with respect to PakistanKyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
Kyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
Ash Hassan
 
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
OECD Environment
 
Policy directions to 2050
Policy directions to 2050Policy directions to 2050
Policy directions to 2050
wbcsd
 
energy-revolution-report-2009
energy-revolution-report-2009energy-revolution-report-2009
energy-revolution-report-2009
Aladdin Diakun
 
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility (BC3 Summer ...
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility  (BC3 Summer ...The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility  (BC3 Summer ...
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility (BC3 Summer ...
BC3 - Basque Center for Climate Change
 
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
Stéfan Le Dû
 
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax  - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdfNet Final1 - Carbon Tax  - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
devyandrawork
 
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptxGeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
2130165
 
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
NewClimate Institute
 
World nuclear-performance-report-2016
World nuclear-performance-report-2016World nuclear-performance-report-2016
World nuclear-performance-report-2016
Leonam Guimarães
 
Green economy
Green economyGreen economy
Green economy
Munish Sudan
 

Similar to Summary of the Climate and Energy Policy of Australia (20)

Final 21_05_2015
Final 21_05_2015Final 21_05_2015
Final 21_05_2015
 
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 WarsawWWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
WWF: Policy Expectations for COP 19 Warsaw
 
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive SummaryWorld Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
World Energy Outlook 2016 - Executive Summary
 
Transition to low-emission development
Transition to low-emission developmentTransition to low-emission development
Transition to low-emission development
 
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EEHEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
HEC Presentation about IPEEC and EE
 
Climate Wedges
Climate Wedges Climate Wedges
Climate Wedges
 
Physics Ferguson
Physics FergusonPhysics Ferguson
Physics Ferguson
 
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
The Important Role of Nuclear in a Low-Carbon World - The view of the ENS Hig...
 
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize ImpactNext Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
Next Generation NDCs: Setting Sectoral Targets to Maximize Impact
 
Kyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
Kyoto protocol with respect to PakistanKyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
Kyoto protocol with respect to Pakistan
 
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
Post2015 mazria(architecture2030)roadmap zero emissions ccxg gf march2014-pre...
 
Policy directions to 2050
Policy directions to 2050Policy directions to 2050
Policy directions to 2050
 
energy-revolution-report-2009
energy-revolution-report-2009energy-revolution-report-2009
energy-revolution-report-2009
 
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility (BC3 Summer ...
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility  (BC3 Summer ...The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility  (BC3 Summer ...
The Paris meeting: the vision of an international power utility (BC3 Summer ...
 
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
Energy transition in france (and cooperation with Japan)
 
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax  - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdfNet Final1 - Carbon Tax  - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
Net Final1 - Carbon Tax - IAI ICAEW Joint Webinar (Oka).pdf
 
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptxGeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
GeographyReview32_2_Climate.pptx
 
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
GHG mitigation scenarios for major emitting countries - COP 23
 
World nuclear-performance-report-2016
World nuclear-performance-report-2016World nuclear-performance-report-2016
World nuclear-performance-report-2016
 
Green economy
Green economyGreen economy
Green economy
 

Recently uploaded

COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
shannenchiww
 
Relation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in developmentRelation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in development
bikramkunwar2020d
 
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
nainasharma6nov #v08
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
janvikumar4133
 
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official WebsiteThe Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
reema kushawaha
 
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
harshitkulshrestha02
 
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
SilviaDiaz732746
 
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
Open Access Research Paper
 
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptxImpact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
jyotisengar11
 
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cellGroup 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
temitayopaul1
 
Climate Change News clipping and Newspapers
Climate Change News clipping and NewspapersClimate Change News clipping and Newspapers
Climate Change News clipping and Newspapers
parasfahimshehri
 
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
nitikag840
 
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER    EXTREMITIES.1.pptxABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER    EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
shahidiqbalssg3
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
jasmeekdhillon
 
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Dr. Salem Baidas
 
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
geetikamehta1998
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
rhiannateal
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
45unexpected
 
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate ChangeNews Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
parasfahimshehri
 
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
Open Access Research Paper
 

Recently uploaded (20)

COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
COM322A slide show singapore ambitious green plan 2030
 
Relation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in developmentRelation between tourism and environment in development
Relation between tourism and environment in development
 
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
1All New Mahindra Thar SUV - Price, Specifications & Colors
 
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Delhi 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official WebsiteThe Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
The Bank of Punjab: The Official Website
 
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
300169310-Seminar-Report-on-hydrogen-as-the-future-fuel.docx
 
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
391606120-deberes-Science-3-Primaria.pdf
 
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
Detachment, distinguishing proof of bacterial pathogens from infected Shing (...
 
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptxImpact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
Impact of climate change on fruit quality.pptx
 
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cellGroup 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
Group 14 presentation.pptx on Microbial fuel cell
 
Climate Change News clipping and Newspapers
Climate Change News clipping and NewspapersClimate Change News clipping and Newspapers
Climate Change News clipping and Newspapers
 
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Bangalore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER    EXTREMITIES.1.pptxABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER    EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
ABDOMEN MUSCLE& MUSCLE OF LOWER EXTREMITIES.1.pptx
 
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptxDesertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
Desertification-A Project by Gurnaaz.pptx
 
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
 
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
WORLD POPULATION AND YOUTH DAY 2024.....
 
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
Big Ass Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
Busty Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service Av...
 
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate ChangeNews Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
News Clippings and Newspapers related to Climate Change
 
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
Novel biosynthesized nanosilver impregnated heat modified montmorillonite cla...
 

Summary of the Climate and Energy Policy of Australia

  • 1. 1 CLIMATE & ENERGY POLICY OF AUSTRALIA Youssef Elhenawy Helin Ulgen Elmacioglu Yasmin de Moraes Gojo George Omer Iradukunda Mahmood Hebah Piyawan Hongsiriwilai Samuel Häußler
  • 2. 2 Introduction Australia is a developed country with a mixed-market economy. ● World's 13th-largest nominal GDP in 2022. ● Rich in natural resources (i.e. coal, ores). Primary energy mix in 2020–21: ● 92% Fossil fuels ● 8% Renewable energies ● High per capita emissions (15.3 t/c*y) compared to other countries e.g. Japan 9.7 t/c*y https://www.energy.gov.au/sites/default/files/Australian%20Energy%20Statistics%202022%20Energy%20Update%20Report.pdf https://www.energy.gov.au/publications/australian-energy-statistics-table-o-electricity-generation-fuel-type-2020-21-and-2021
  • 3. 3 Chronology 1992 Adoption of the UNFCCC: Australia ratifies UNFCCC: Australia is the 9th country to ratify the UNFCCC 1997 Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol at COP3 1998 Australia signs the Kyoto Protocol. However, Australia does not ratify the Kyoto protocol 2002 Australia refuses to ratify the Kyoto Protocol 2005 Kyoto Protocol comes into force 2007 Australia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol Labor party Labor party Liberal party
  • 4. 4 Chronology 2008 Australia’s ratification of the Kyoto Protocol comes into effect Target 2008–2012: +8% of 1990 levels 2012 Australia signs on for a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol Target 2013–2020: - 0.5% of 1990 levels 2021 2016 First NDC submission under the Paris Agreement Target to reduce GHG emissions by 26 to 28% below 2005 levels by 2030. Labor party Liberal party Australia ratified Paris Agreement together with EU and many countries. 5 Years Updated NDC: Target of net zero emissions by 2050. Target to reduce GHG emissions by 26-28% below 2005 levels by 2030, and will exceed it by up to 9%.
  • 5. 5 Criticism ● From other countries and the media for the lack of ambition in their NDC’s. ● Pressure to increase the emissions reduction targets. ● Has been accused of prioritizing economic concerns over environmental ones. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-08-20/climate-change-ipcc-australia-uk-conference-glasgow/100392252 https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/australia-ranks-dead-last-climate/ https://www.economist.com/asia/2021/10/30/australias-climate-policy-is-all-talk-and-no- trousers?gclid=Cj0KCQiA6fafBhC1ARIsAIJjL8lCeItEw4ZKjr70nRl1xeflCVPlKa6wzoNrBBny3NdVzZyl6MsfMYIaAsKGEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds Countries Emission Reduction Target by 2030 (%) UK 68 EU 55 US 52 Japan 46 Australia 28
  • 6. 6 NDC last updated in June 2022: ● Net zero emissions by 2050 ● To reduce greenhouse gas emissions 43% below 2005 levels by 2030 Commitments & Targets https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/NDC/2022-06/Australias%20NDC%20June%202022%20Update%20%283%29.pdf 2021 Updated NDC: Target of net zero emissions by 2050. Target to reduce GHG emissions by 26 to 28% below 2005 levels by 2030, and will exceed it by up to 9 percentage. 2022 Re-Updated NDC Labor party Liberal party
  • 7. 7 1) Emissions Reduction Fund (ERF) ● Financial incentives for businesses and organizations to reduce their GHG emissions. ● Use of Carbon Crediting Scheme: companies can earn carbon credit units (ACCU) for every tonne of CO2 eq (tCO2-e) emissions stored or avoided by their project, which can then be sold. Climate Policy https://www.cleanenergyregulator.gov.au/Infohub/Media-Centre/Pages/Resources/ERF%20media%20resources/Emissions-Position-as-at-March-2022.aspx Cumulative total number of ERF projects registered in each state and territory across Australia, as at 31 March 2022
  • 8. 8 2) National Energy Productivity plan (NEPP) ● Energy efficiency and performance are key to achieve targets. ● It is expected that the NEPP will contribute over one quarter of the emission reductions required to meet the 2030 target. Climate Policy National Energy Productivity Plan (NEPP) details https://policy.asiapacificenergy.org/sites/default/files/NEPP%20Annual%20Report%202016_0.pdf
  • 9. 9 Australian electricity generation by renewables Generation from renewables has increased 167% over the past decade 3) Renewable energy target scheme (RETs) ● Incentives for both small and large scale renewable projects. ○ Large scale RE target aiming to deliver 33,000 GWh of extra renewable electricity each year until 2030. ○ Small scale RE projects increase allows the system owners to sell surplus electricity to retailers by the use of small-scale technology certificates (STCs) ● Renewable energy accounted for 27.7% of the total electricity generation in 2020 and it is expected to reach 61% by 2030. Energy Policy
  • 10. 10 4) Funding for “clean” hydrogen* and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies ● 80 renewable hydrogen projects announced ○ 15 have passed the final investment decision. ○ Total budget amounts 1.27 bn USD. ● Very important in terms of fuel security. ● Intended uses: ○ to replace natural gas for homes, industry and cooking. ○ for fuel cells to generate electricity to power cars. ○ to store energy and generate electricity for remote areas. ○ to trade clean energy with other countries. Energy Policy *clean hydrogen means hydrogen produced using renewable energy or using fossil fuels with substantial carbon capture. https://www.pv-magazine.com/2018/08/20/australia-has-big-hydrogen-export-opportunity/ Energy resource options for producing hydrogen across Australia’s states and territories
  • 11. 11 ● National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Scheme ○ single national framework for reporting company information about: GHG emissions, energy production, energy consumption. ● Safeguard Mechanism ○ Largest GHG emitters (>100,000 tonnes CO2 eq / year) must keep emissions below a limit (baseline). ○ Electricity, mining, oil and gas production, manufacturing, transport, and waste facilities. ● Upgrading the electricity grid to support more renewable power. ● Reducing the price of electric vehicles. ● Supporting businesses and industries to innovate and adopt smarter practices and technologies. ● Encouraging businesses and consumers to reduce emissions. ● Helping the land and agriculture sector reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ● Regulating fuel quality by setting fuel quality standards and labelling requirements. Energy & Climate Policy
  • 12. 12 USD 7.59 billion to support different energy technologies through new or amended policies (2021) USD 1.69 billion for unconditional fossil fuels through 20 policies (9 quantified and 11 unquantified) Energy & Climate Policy USD 587.96 million for conditional fossil fuels through 5 policies (4 quantified and 1 unquantified) USD 3.29 billion for unconditional clean energy through 29 policies (25 quantified and 4 unquantified) USD 1.29 billion for conditional clean energy through 13 policies (13 quantified) USD 1.29 billion for conditional clean energy through 13 policies (13 quantified) $2.28 billion Fossil fuel energy $4.57 billion Clean energy
  • 13. 13 LULUCF & Forest Fires ● Australia is using LULUCF to meet its Paris Agreement targets. ○ Over 70% of its carbon sink. ○ has potential for further carbon sequestration. ● Accurate monitoring and reporting are essential for effective LULUCF accounting. ● Forest management practices and changes in land use can affect LULUCF. ● The impact of forest fires on LULUCF highlights the need for forest management and fire prevention. ○ 2019-2020 bushfires burned over 18 million ha
  • 14. 14 ● Becoming more intense due to climate change. ● Causing significant damage to wildlife, homes, and infrastructure. ● Emitting massive amounts of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. ● The fires in 2019 and 2020, added an extra 186 million tons of carbon into the atmosphere. Forest Fires
  • 15. 15 Australia's Kyoto Protocol reports include: ● GHG emissions ● Used land-use, land-use change, and forestry to meet its targets. Australia's Paris Agreement NDC reports about: ● Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. ● Adaptation to unavoidable impacts of climate change. ● Promotion of sustainable land use practices. ● Increase of energy efficiency and renewable energy. ● Support to low-carbon transportation options. ● Encouraging of waste reduction and recycling. UNFCCC
  • 16. 16 UNFCCC recent negotiations ● COP 18 - 2012 ○ Sign of the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ■ Target of 99.5% of 1990 emissions levels by 2020 (equivalent to 5% below 2000 emission levels by 2020) ● COP 20 - 2014 Australia on behalf of umbrella group: ○ Commitment to the negotiations of the Paris Agreement next year. ○ Commitment to take strong and effective Climate Action. ● COP 22 - 2016 ○ Ratification of the Paris Agreement. ■ Target to reduce GHG emissions by 26 to 28% below 2005 levels by 2030. ● COP 23 - 2017 ○ 2030 target to reduce emissions by 26 to 28 per cent below 2005 levels. https://unfccc.int/documents/623827
  • 17. 17 UNFCCC recent negotiations ● COP 24 - 2018 ○ Policies to align strong economic growth with emissions reduction. ● COP 26 Glasgow - 2021 ○ Net zero emissions by 2050. ○ Technology will have the answers to a decarbonised economy. ● COP 27 - 2022 ○ Increase the emissions reduction target to 43% by 2030 in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). ■ Assistance to the region with $900 million to deal with climate emergency (2022) ○ Within this decade, 82 per cent of Australia’s energy supply will be renewable. https://unfccc.int/documents/623827
  • 18. 18 Future climate agreement negotiations ● From 1 July 2022, new Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water (DCCEEW). ● Climate Change Act (8 September 2022) ○ It legislates Australia’s targets by 2030 and 2050. ○ It requires the Minister to prepare an Annual Climate Change Statement to Parliament (holding the Government accountable for meeting Australia’s targets and creating effective climate change policy.) ● Each Australian state has stated or made a commitment to reach net zero by 2050, or earlier. ○ NSW: 50%; Victoria: 50%; Queensland: 30%; South Australia: at least 50%; Western Australia: 80% below 2020 levels; ACT: 65-75% (on 1990 levels); Tasmania: achieved net zero in 2015. https://www.dcceew.gov.au/climate-change/strategies#toc_0
  • 19. 19 Thanks for your attention! Questions?
  • 20. 20 References 1. https://www.energypolicytracker.org/country/australia/ 2. https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/australia/ 3. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction 4. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/3/438 5. https://www.atse.org.au/news-and-events/article/emissions-targets-are-we-on-track/ 6. https://unfccc.int/NDCREG?fbclid=IwAR0AEN1JVu0u- 7LxkooKjB3zTSscxmcflkXp6m7WLnkBpf89mLKylF1rLGo 7. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-08-20/climate-change-ipcc-australia-uk-conference- glasgow/100392252 8. https://www.aofm.gov.au/media/967 9. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction 10. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/3/438 11. https://www.atse.org.au/news-and-events/article/emissions-targets-are-we-on-track/ 12. https://www.energy.gov.au/data/australian-electricity-generation-fuel-mix 13. https://www.energy.gov.au/data/renewables 14. https://www.trade.gov/market-intelligence/australia-renewable-energy 15. https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/Bri efingBook45p/EmissionsReduction 16. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fires-doubled-australias-carbon-emissions-ecosystems-may- never-soak-it-back- up/#:~:text=These%20fires%20likely%20released%20somewhere,year%20by%20burning%20fossil%20fuels