SlideShare a Scribd company logo
the briefest of introductions to

    the psychology of creativity


                                               @clurr

Monday, 5 April 2010
this is                                [a tiny part of]              the science bit
Monday, 5 April 2010
Meaning empirical studies, and interesting theories that build on empirical work. Note that this is a massive field. I’ve tried to pick some useful and pragmatic bits but this is only
the briefest of introductions to a huge field.
image: woollywotnots.com




       it’s not
       about this
Monday, 5 April 2010
It’s not about De Bono. The empirical evidence for his approaches is actually very weak.

c.f. "Equally damaging to the scientific study of creativity, in our view, has been the takeover of the field, in the popular mind, by those who follow what might be referred to as a
pragmatic approach. Those taking this approach have been concerned primarily with developing creativity, secondarily with understanding it, but almost not at all with testing the
validity of their ideas about it." Sternberg continues, "Perhaps the foremost proponent of this approach is Edward De Bono, whose work on lateral thinking and other aspects of
creativity has had what appears to be considerable commercial success." Handbook of Creativity, Robert J. Sternberg
it’s totally not about this*




                                                                        *don’t even get me started...

Monday, 5 April 2010
Nor is it about left brains and right brains: there’s no basis in neuroscience for this idea at all. All cognitive processes of any complexity require both hemispheres to work
together in an integrated way and there’s no such thing as a left or right brained person or thinking. It’s acceptable as a
metaphor for balancing logical deduction with intuition. But that’s *it*.

for more on why this is hooey, see:

http://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/2007/10/the_left_brain_right_brain_myt.php

http://irvineccns.blogspot.com/2007/12/left-brainright-brain-wrong-minded.html
the certainty
                                                                                                     of
                                                                                                     pseudoscience
                                                                                                     can be
                                                                                                     seductive                                   (well, maybe)




                                                                                              “unique genetic memories and
                                                                                              messages of harmony and peace
                                                                                              are stored in algae”




Monday, 5 April 2010
The reason those theories are successful is because certainty sells, especially to desperate people. Even if it does require you to eat algae.
empirical science tends to
                                                                                                  offer discourse as much as
                                                                                                  certainties


                                                                                                  some of it may sound
                                                                                                  obvious :)


                                                                                                  but i hope this provides
                                                                                                  some critical basis for
                                                                                                  thinking about creativity



Monday, 5 April 2010
Right, let’s crack on. For those who are interested in the academic references, you can see them in the notes when this is uploaded to Slideshare.
what is
      creativity
      anyway?
Monday, 5 April 2010
Lots of scientific papers actually don’t define it.

[images: Gareth Pugh, afterprufrock.com]
guilford’s model of                         creative ability is old but still often used as a
      theoretical basis:

      • fluency                            - the ability to produce lots of ideas


      • flexibility                               - ability to produce lots of different types of ideas


      • originality                                - ability to produce unusual ideas


      • elaboration                                      - the ability to develop those ideas

      in the real world, it’s not just about having ideas. they must be innovative
      but also appropriate




Monday, 5 April 2010
Guilford, J.P. (1950) Creativity, American Psychologist,Volume 5, Issue 9, p444-454.

In experiments, these are often measured by how many uses you can think of for a brick. in the real world, ideas must also be appropriate
one relatively simple model defines the                                               creative process as:



                  finding                                                      solving                                implementing
             good problems                                             those problems                                              solutions




Monday, 5 April 2010
Basadur, M.S., Runco, M.A. and Vega, L.A. (2000) Understanding how creative thinking skills, attitudes and behaviors work together: A causal process model. The Journal of Creative
Behavior,Vol. 34, No. 2, 77-100.

This is one of the simpler statements and I think no less effective for it.
one relatively simple model defines the                                                  creative process as:



                 finding                                                    solving                                       implementing
            good problems                                             those problems                                                   solutions




                                                      it’s not just about having ideas




Monday, 5 April 2010
Note that it’s not just about having lots of ideas. As one of these researchers points out, in real life much of the challenge is about figuring out the problem in the first place...
and the hard work of actually making the idea happen.
“creativity is allowing
         yourself to make
         mistakes.
         “art is knowing which
         ones to keep.”

                        scott adams




Monday, 5 April 2010
psychologists tend to look at creativity in terms of one of the 4 Ps:

         •       product - looking at the outputs of creativity

         •       process - how do people produce creative products?

         •       person - what personal characteristics tend to produce creativity?

         •       press - the environment, and how this can influence creativity
Monday, 5 April 2010
Psychologists have tended to study one of these four. Some have looked at how the last two interact. The first one is interesting but tends to focus on great works, so doesn’t
tell us much about everyday creativity. The second is very interesting, but, for our purposes, inconclusive, though Kevin Dunbar’s study of biologists shows (again) that there’s a
lot of hard work involved (Dunbar, K. (1997)*).

*How scientists think: Online creativity and conceptual change in science. In T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith, & S.Vaid (Eds.) Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery and
Change. APA Press. Washington DC).

Today we’ll focus mostly on the last two.

[image: bordersmedia]
there are lots of interesting topics...
                                                   tips for enhancing creativity
           why are we creative?

                               children and education
                                                                  the unconscious

             madness
                                        intelligence
                                                                  motivation
                       personality

                                      environment         organisational creativity

       measuring creativity
                                       general vs domain-specific creativity

Monday, 5 April 2010
And not much time.
...but for lack of time we’ll cover:
            why are we creative          tips for enhancing creativity
                              children and education
                                                                the unconscious

             madness
                                       intelligence
                                                             motivation
                       personality
                                     environment         organisational creativity

       measuring creativity
                                      general vs domain-specific creativity

Monday, 5 April 2010
personality
Monday, 5 April 2010
There’s not much we can do to change this one but people tend to like to hear about personality stuff. Whilst I’m no fan of psychometric testing at
work, being aware of ways in which people may differ can be helpful in creating an environment they feel comfortable in.
openness to experience
           inventive / curious vs. cautious / conservative

      conscientiousness
           efficient / organised vs. easy-going / careless

      extroversion
           outgoing / energetic vs. shy / withdrawn                                                                             the big five
      agreeableness
           friendly / compassionate vs. competitive / outspoken

      neuroticism
           sensitive / nervous vs. secure /confident




Monday, 5 April 2010
The Big Five is the personality model with the best evidence base.

First identified by e.g. T upes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. USAF ASD Tech. Rep. No. 61-97, Lackland Airforce Base, TX: U. S.
Air Force (but described by many others).
openness to experience
           openness to fantasy - good imagination
           aesthetics - artistic interests
           feelings - experiencing and valuing feelings
           actions - trying new things, having many interests
           ideas - curious, smart, likes challenges
           values - unconventional,, liberal
      conscientiousness
      extroversion
      agreeableness
      neuroticism
                                                                                                                     strong +ve correlation
                                                                                                                     some +ve correlation
Monday, 5 April 2010
Of the big 5, the personality factor most associated with creativity is openness to experience across many, many studies.

See e.g. McCrae, Robert R, Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Vol 52(6), Jun 1987, 1258-1265.

Openness to experience is split into openness to fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions , ideas, and values (unconventional, liberal). Actions, values and feelings are less strongly
related than the others - you can be calm or conservative and still creative, and liking to try new things doesn’t necessarily translate into creating new things.

This is related to work on sensation seeking* - e.g. Zuckerman - dimensions of sensation seeking are boredom susceptibility (intolerance for being bored), disinhibition (taking
social risks like heavy alcohol use. one night stands) experience seeking (needing new experiences, can include art or museums) and thrill and adventure seeking (physical risks,
extreme sports ).

(* Zuckerman, Marvin; Kolin, Elizabeth A.; Price, Leah; Zoob, Ina. , Development of a sensation-seeking scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology.Vol 28(6), Dec 1964, 477-482)
openness to experience
      conscientiousness
          ambition
          discipline
          responsibility
          self-control
      extroversion
      agreeableness
      neuroticism

                                                                          -ve correlation for arts but not science

Monday, 5 April 2010
Conscientiousness is generally associated with positive work outcomes, like showing up for work on time and getting things done by deadlines. But there’s evidence that in some
domains (e.g. art, possibly design and advertising)

G J Feist (1998): A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol 2, No 4, 290-309.

other factors are more complex - scientists tend to be conscientious to some extent - if you lack a certain level of conscientiousness you won’t make it as a scientist at all.
However, more conscientiousness isn’t necessarily better - the most creative scientists are no more conscientious. Perhaps creativity provides shortcuts for some types of work
which less intelligent people can achieve through sheer effort.
creativity
                                                                                                          WIN


                                                                                                          conscientiousness
                                                                                                          FAIL



Monday, 5 April 2010
Peter Saville’s FAC 001 publicity poster for the first Factory night in Manchester in 1978 may have been seminal, but was effectively useless for marketing. It was famously
delivered on the night of the event itself because Saville spent so long trying to find the perfect shade of yellow.
one study of advertising and design workers found:

                                                                  •       a negative correlation between creativity and
                                                                         conscientiousness

                                                                  • a positive correlation with neuroticism,
                                                                         extraversion and openness to experience

Monday, 5 April 2010
Far be it from me to pander to stereotypes about web designers.

G A Gelade (1997): Creativity in Conflict: The Personality of the Commercial Creative, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, Issue:Volume 158, Number 1 / March 1997, Pages:67 -
78

[image - Nathan Barley, Channel 4]

    •
individual differences have implications for managing people:

             •         people who score high on openness to experience
                       produced more creative results on open-ended tasks

             •         people who are high on conscientiousness will produce less
                       creative results when their work is closely monitored

             •         people who are low on emotional stability (especially those who are
                       also introverted) do particularly badly when they think they are being

                       evaluated




Monday, 5 April 2010
I’m not comfortable with personality psychometrics in the hiring process - individual differences explain much less of our behaviour than intuition would lead us to think (see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_attribution_error for why this is).

But an understanding of how people may differ can help people to work together.

George JM, Zhou J., 1986, When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: an interactional approach. J Appl Psychol. 2001 Jun;86(3):513-24
Chamorro-Premuzic, & Reichenbacher, T, 2008, Effects of personality and threat of evaluation on divergent and convergent thinking, Journal of Research in Personality, 42,
1095-1101
motivation
Monday, 5 April 2010
[no apologies for this image: snowbombing]
much of the debate boils down to



      intrinsic motivation - doing something because you
      enjoy it or get personal meaning out of it
      vs

      extrinsic motivation - doing it for external reward, like
      money or praise


      neither one is objectively better or worse




Monday, 5 April 2010
lots of evidence suggests that high
                                    levels of intrinsic motivation
     to do something lead to more creative output



     this works even if you just prime                                              people to think about
     intrinsic motivations before doing a task




Monday, 5 April 2010
Ruscio, J., D. M. Whitney, and T. M. Amabile. "Looking Inside the Fishbowl of Creativity:Verbal and Behavioral Predictors of Creative Performance." Creativity Research Journal 11, no.
3 (1998): 243-263.

Greer, M & Levine, E (1991) Enhancing creative performance in college students. Journal of Creative Behaviour, 25, 250-255

Graef, R, Csikszentmihalyi, M, Giannino, SM (1983) Measuring intrinsic motivation in everyday life, Leisure Studies, 2, 155-168

Amabile, T. M., R. Conti, H. Coon, J. Lazenby, and M. Herron. "Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity." Academy of Management Journal 39, no. 5 (October 1996):
1154-1184.
“to establish a place of work
       where engineers can feel the
       joy of technological
       innovation, be aware of their
       mission to society, and work
       to their heart’s content.”
       masaru ibuka, founder of sony




Monday, 5 April 2010
The first purposes of incorporation of Sony.

[image: sonyinsider.com]
•       involvement in the task is particularly important (e.g. being in flow
                   state)

           •       higher feelings of autonomy or freedom tend to be related to
                   higher levels of intrinsic motivation - i.e. if you can choose what to do,
                   and how to do it, you’ll probably enjoy it more and thus be more
                   creative
Monday, 5 April 2010
Ruscio, J., D. M. Whitney, and T. M. Amabile (1998)- "Looking Inside the Fishbowl of Creativity:Verbal and Behavioral Predictors of Creative Performance." Creativity Research Journal
11, no. 3: 243-263.

Zhou, J (1998) Feedback valence, feedback style, task autonomy, and achievement orientation: Interactive effects on creative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology.Vol 83
(2), Apr 1998, 261-276

See also Csikszentmihalyi on Flow, e.g. TED talk at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXIeFJCqsPs

[image - idancerecords.com]
•       if you offer people a reward
             to do something that they
             already find interesting, you
             may decrease intrinsic
             motivation and thus
             creativity

     •       priming people to think about
             extrinsic motivations
             (money, status, evaluation)
             reduces creativity, but only
             on open ended tasks




Monday, 5 April 2010
Amabile, T. M. "Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19 (March 1983): 146-156.

Amabile, T. M. "Attributions of Creativity: What Are the Consequences?" Creativity Research Journal 8, no. 4 (1995): 423-426.
R. Eisenberger, M. Selbst (1994), "Does reward increase or decrease creativity?", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Vol. 66 pp.1116 - 1127.
Greene, D., & Lepper, M. R. (1974, September). Intrinsic motivation: How to turn play into work. Psychology Today, 49-54.

Kohn, A. (1993), Punished by Reward: The Trouble With Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A ́s, Praise, and Other Bribes, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
photo by tim_caynes




              • the negative effects depend on whether the extrinsic motivation is
                seen as controlling or supportive

              • extrinsic motivation helps improve intrinsic motivation when
                you’re given constructive feedback that recognizes your
                creative accomplishment
Monday, 5 April 2010
e.g. Amabile, T. M. "Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace."Human Resource Management Review 3, no. 3
(autumn 1993): 185-201.
this is the difference between QA...

         i’m supervising you to make sure
         you don’t f*** up




Monday, 5 April 2010
...and support

                        gosh, this is interesting, isn’t it? how
                       can we learn more about it?

Monday, 5 April 2010
it’s OK to have an ego


       many great people have
       combined high intrinsic
       motivation with a strong
       desire for recognition




Monday, 5 April 2010
Howard E. Gruber (1981) Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
remember this?




                 finding       solving        implementing
            good problems   those problems      solutions




Monday, 5 April 2010
remember this?




                 finding                                                 solving                                     implementing
            good problems                                          those problems                                                solutions




                       loving what you do                                                          the prospect of
                       supports you at the                                                         money and
                       fun, idea generation                                                        recognition helps
                       stages                                                                      you get through the
                                                                                                   hard work needed to
                                                                                                   develop those ideas


Monday, 5 April 2010
   e.g. Amabile, T. M. 1993: "Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace."Human Resource Management
       Review 3, no. 3


   PS: If you want to read more on this I recommend looking up Teresa Amabile: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=ovr&facId=6409
photo by rogoyski




                                                                                                            tips for
                                                                                                           enhancing
                                                                                                           creativity



Monday, 5 April 2010
OK, the soundbitey quick wins bit. Some of this may sound flippant but all of it has a basis in evidence.
photo by jeevs




                                                                                                  enjoy what you do
                                                                                                  did I say that already? :)




Monday, 5 April 2010
Csikszentmihalyi talks about immersing yourself in whatever you do by finding something meaningful in it. People who find this easy have autotelic personalities but we can all
cultivate it. And if you can’t find anything meaningful in it, you ought to be doing something else.
the ‘conscious’ bits
                                                                                                        of the mind are serial
                                                                                                        - they can only process
                                                                                                        one thing at a
                                                                                                        time

                                                                                                        remind you of anything?




Monday, 5 April 2010
Don’t rely on your conscious mind. If you even believe in consciousness. Some very clever people don’t, e.g. see Dennett:

Dennett, Daniel (1991), Allen Lane, ed., Consciousness Explained, The Penguin Press.

Unintentionally summed up nicely by Radiohead as “just cos you feel it, doesn’t mean it’s there.”
the       unconscious bits are massively parallel
    which would you rather rely on?


Monday, 5 April 2010
        NASA’s Pleiades supercomputer - an SGI® Altix® ICE system with 14,080 Intel® Xeon® quad-core processors (56,320 cores, 110 racks) running at 544 trillion floating
        point operations per second (teraflops). (see nasa.gov).
the unconscious mind is a much more powerful information processor but
        it won’t get a word in edgeways until you distract the conscious mind

        engaging the conscious mind in something else, even just for a few
        minutes, results in much more creative outputs


Monday, 5 April 2010
See the works of Ap Dijksterhuis at http://www.unconsciouslab.com/index.php?page=People&subpage=Ap%20Dijksterhuis, e.g.

Dijksterhuis at al (2006) On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect Science 311, 1005
the presence of green
              things increases creative
              output, perhaps because
              makes us feel calm and
              positive




Monday, 5 April 2010
May sound like it’s from the department of the bleeding obvious, but no less valid for it.
e.g. R. S. Ulrich (1993): "Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes." In S. Kellert and E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press
photo by a r pratana




    balance group and individual work
    social loafing/diffusion of responsibility result in fewer ideas




Monday, 5 April 2010
A meta analysis of 20 studies showed that in most cases, people working on their own produced more and better ideas than those working in groups.

Brian Mullen ; Craig Johnson ;Eduardo Salas, (1991), Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Groups: A Meta-Analytic Integration, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 12,
Issue 1 March 1991 , pages 3 - 23
photo: dom dada




                                                              switch some members of groups

Monday, 5 April 2010
The most successful Broadway musicals are produced by teams comprised of a combination of people who have worked together before and those who have not.

Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, and Luís A. Nunes Amaral (2005). “Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance.”
Science 308(5722): 697-702.

Summarised at http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/index.php/Kellogg/article/collaboration_and_creativity
X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X
                                                                                                   X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X
        look at something
                                                                                                   X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X
        unconventional
                                                                                                   X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X
                                                                                                   X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X
                                                                                                   X         X         X         X         X        X         X         X




Monday, 5 April 2010
Förster, J. (2009). Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: How mere exposure influences level of construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 444-447.
lie down




Monday, 5 April 2010
Perhaps because it makes you relaxed. Noradrenaline, of which you produce more when standing up, may inhibit creativity.

Lipnicki, DM, and Byrne, DG,(2005), Thinking on your back: Solving anagrams faster when
supine than when standing, Cognitive Brain Research,Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 719-722
and more, hot off the press from psyblog today:

      http://www.spring.org.uk/2010/03/boost-creativity-7-unusual-psychological-
      techniques.php?
      utm_campaign=twitter&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitter




Monday, 5 April 2010
thank you
                         @clurr



Monday, 5 April 2010
you may like:


      Robert J Sternberg, 1998, ‘Handbook of Creativity’
      Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1988, ‘Creativity’
      J C Kaufman, 2009, ‘Creativity 101’
      Richard Wiseman, 2009, ‘59 Seconds’         (for quick fixes)



      Psyblog: http://www.spring.org.uk/


      full academic references are in the notes



Monday, 5 April 2010

More Related Content

What's hot

Existential perspective
Existential perspectiveExistential perspective
Existential perspective
RustamAli44
 
Structuralism
StructuralismStructuralism
Structuralism
Simrat Simrat
 
Attention
AttentionAttention
Perception
PerceptionPerception
Perception
PS Deb
 
Skinner learning theory
Skinner learning theorySkinner learning theory
Skinner learning theory
Amna Abid
 
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needsTheories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Dr. Amjad Ali Arain
 
Measuring Creativity
Measuring CreativityMeasuring Creativity
Measuring Creativity
Husnara Ansari
 
Behavioristic theories
Behavioristic theoriesBehavioristic theories
Behavioristic theories
Manu Melwin Joy
 
Theories of intelligence
Theories of intelligenceTheories of intelligence
Theories of intelligence
SaloniSawhney1
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
Dr. Manju N D
 
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligencesSternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
Janette Balagot
 
Cattell's Theory of Personality
Cattell's Theory of PersonalityCattell's Theory of Personality
Cattell's Theory of Personality
MiniCabalquinto1
 
Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
Humanistic Theories: Carl RogersHumanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
getyourcheaton
 
Structure of intelligence
Structure of intelligenceStructure of intelligence
Structure of intelligence
France Capareda
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
Zil Shah
 
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, PsychologistInterest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
LAKSHMANAN S
 
Scope and importance of educational psychology
Scope and importance of educational psychologyScope and importance of educational psychology
Scope and importance of educational psychology
AnnieThakur3
 
Tolman theory of learning
Tolman theory of learningTolman theory of learning
Tolman theory of learning
Ajay Guleria
 
Motivation, Educational Psychology
Motivation, Educational PsychologyMotivation, Educational Psychology
Motivation, Educational Psychology
Hala Fawzi
 
Positive Psychology ppt
Positive Psychology pptPositive Psychology ppt
Positive Psychology ppt
Yojana Gangam
 

What's hot (20)

Existential perspective
Existential perspectiveExistential perspective
Existential perspective
 
Structuralism
StructuralismStructuralism
Structuralism
 
Attention
AttentionAttention
Attention
 
Perception
PerceptionPerception
Perception
 
Skinner learning theory
Skinner learning theorySkinner learning theory
Skinner learning theory
 
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needsTheories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Theories of motivation: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
 
Measuring Creativity
Measuring CreativityMeasuring Creativity
Measuring Creativity
 
Behavioristic theories
Behavioristic theoriesBehavioristic theories
Behavioristic theories
 
Theories of intelligence
Theories of intelligenceTheories of intelligence
Theories of intelligence
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
 
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligencesSternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligences
 
Cattell's Theory of Personality
Cattell's Theory of PersonalityCattell's Theory of Personality
Cattell's Theory of Personality
 
Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
Humanistic Theories: Carl RogersHumanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
Humanistic Theories: Carl Rogers
 
Structure of intelligence
Structure of intelligenceStructure of intelligence
Structure of intelligence
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
 
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, PsychologistInterest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
 
Scope and importance of educational psychology
Scope and importance of educational psychologyScope and importance of educational psychology
Scope and importance of educational psychology
 
Tolman theory of learning
Tolman theory of learningTolman theory of learning
Tolman theory of learning
 
Motivation, Educational Psychology
Motivation, Educational PsychologyMotivation, Educational Psychology
Motivation, Educational Psychology
 
Positive Psychology ppt
Positive Psychology pptPositive Psychology ppt
Positive Psychology ppt
 

Viewers also liked

Interusability: designing a coherent system UX
Interusability: designing a coherent system UXInterusability: designing a coherent system UX
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX
Claire Rowland
 
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshopUXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
Claire Rowland
 
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
Claire Rowland
 
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
Claire Rowland
 
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshopThe network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
Claire Rowland
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
Joseph Zeoli
 
CREATIVITY POWERPOINT
CREATIVITY POWERPOINTCREATIVITY POWERPOINT
CREATIVITY POWERPOINT
Andrew Schwartz
 
Creative Thinking
Creative ThinkingCreative Thinking
Creative Thinking
Tony Yoo
 
Creative Thinking Presentation
Creative Thinking PresentationCreative Thinking Presentation
Creative Thinking Presentation
ColinGodefroy
 
Creativity exercises
Creativity exercisesCreativity exercises
Creativity exercises
Frank Calberg
 
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
Ben Rennie
 
Can We Assess Creativity?
Can We Assess Creativity?Can We Assess Creativity?
Can We Assess Creativity?
John Spencer
 
Innovation vs. Creativity
Innovation vs. CreativityInnovation vs. Creativity
Innovation vs. Creativity
Saneel Radia
 
Creativity & innovation
Creativity & innovationCreativity & innovation
Creativity & innovation
Ledarskapscentrum
 
Open Source Creativity
Open Source CreativityOpen Source Creativity
Open Source Creativity
Sara Cannon
 
The Case for Creativity
The Case for CreativityThe Case for Creativity
The Case for Creativity
James Hurman
 
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and CreativitySpecial Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
Jason Theodor
 
Creativity and Design Thinking
Creativity and Design ThinkingCreativity and Design Thinking
Creativity and Design Thinking
Luís Gustavo Martins
 
Chaos and Creativity
Chaos and CreativityChaos and Creativity
Chaos and Creativity
Jason Theodor
 
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem SolvingCreative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
Asma Karoobi
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Interusability: designing a coherent system UX
Interusability: designing a coherent system UXInterusability: designing a coherent system UX
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX
 
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshopUXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
UXLx 2015: 'Designing Connected Products workshop
 
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
Direct manipulation is broken: O'Reilly Design Conference Jan 2016
 
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
UX for the internet of things: ThingsCon 150505
 
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshopThe network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
The network as a design material: Interaction 16 workshop
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
 
CREATIVITY POWERPOINT
CREATIVITY POWERPOINTCREATIVITY POWERPOINT
CREATIVITY POWERPOINT
 
Creative Thinking
Creative ThinkingCreative Thinking
Creative Thinking
 
Creative Thinking Presentation
Creative Thinking PresentationCreative Thinking Presentation
Creative Thinking Presentation
 
Creativity exercises
Creativity exercisesCreativity exercises
Creativity exercises
 
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
Rethinking creativity & innovation (for LiveWire)
 
Can We Assess Creativity?
Can We Assess Creativity?Can We Assess Creativity?
Can We Assess Creativity?
 
Innovation vs. Creativity
Innovation vs. CreativityInnovation vs. Creativity
Innovation vs. Creativity
 
Creativity & innovation
Creativity & innovationCreativity & innovation
Creativity & innovation
 
Open Source Creativity
Open Source CreativityOpen Source Creativity
Open Source Creativity
 
The Case for Creativity
The Case for CreativityThe Case for Creativity
The Case for Creativity
 
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and CreativitySpecial Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
Special Marketing Edition of Chaos and Creativity
 
Creativity and Design Thinking
Creativity and Design ThinkingCreativity and Design Thinking
Creativity and Design Thinking
 
Chaos and Creativity
Chaos and CreativityChaos and Creativity
Chaos and Creativity
 
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem SolvingCreative Thinking & Problem Solving
Creative Thinking & Problem Solving
 

Similar to Psychology Of Creativity - London IA 30.03.10

Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
Saiful Islam
 
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
Lina Markauskaite
 
Re_THINK Spark
Re_THINK SparkRe_THINK Spark
Re_THINK Spark
Cameron
 
Creativity tony coloma
Creativity tony colomaCreativity tony coloma
Creativity tony coloma
Tony Coloma
 
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skillsCREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
 
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anywayProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
DaliaCulbertson719
 
Creative process
Creative processCreative process
Creative process
Living Sky School Division
 
Philos.ppt
Philos.pptPhilos.ppt
Philos.ppt
AldenRichards4
 
Philos.ppt
Philos.pptPhilos.ppt
Qualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
Qualitative content analysis in Media PsychologyQualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
Qualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
Jenna Condie
 
Creativity Presentation Haabjoern
Creativity Presentation HaabjoernCreativity Presentation Haabjoern
Creativity Presentation Haabjoern
Ragnar Haabjoern
 
Creativity Innovation
Creativity InnovationCreativity Innovation
Creativity Innovation
Andrew Kohl
 
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designers
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designersDesigning Research: research methods for interaction designers
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designers
Sam Ladner
 
The value of creativity part 1
The value of creativity part 1The value of creativity part 1
The value of creativity part 1
kmo004
 
Creativity in workplace
Creativity in workplaceCreativity in workplace
Creativity in workplace
Danes Ganancial
 
The New Conditions for Creativity
The New Conditions for Creativity The New Conditions for Creativity
The New Conditions for Creativity
Edward Cotton
 
Speaking of Science... the art of science communication
Speaking of Science... the art of science communicationSpeaking of Science... the art of science communication
Speaking of Science... the art of science communication
Stephanie Chasteen
 
SRC interdisciplinary terrain
SRC interdisciplinary terrainSRC interdisciplinary terrain
SRC interdisciplinary terrain
Sarah Cornell
 
Explanation andy tharby
Explanation   andy tharbyExplanation   andy tharby
Explanation andy tharby
shaun_allison
 
Research Methods Lecture 1
Research Methods Lecture 1Research Methods Lecture 1
Research Methods Lecture 1
Helena Hollis
 

Similar to Psychology Of Creativity - London IA 30.03.10 (20)

Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
Simply Connecting Dots - Inspiring lessons from the expert on how to train yo...
 
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
Learning for knowledgeable action: A mini presentation Nov 6 2013
 
Re_THINK Spark
Re_THINK SparkRe_THINK Spark
Re_THINK Spark
 
Creativity tony coloma
Creativity tony colomaCreativity tony coloma
Creativity tony coloma
 
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skillsCREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
CREATIVITY - 21st Century skills
 
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anywayProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
ProcessNathaniel Barr, PhDWhat is creativity, anyway
 
Creative process
Creative processCreative process
Creative process
 
Philos.ppt
Philos.pptPhilos.ppt
Philos.ppt
 
Philos.ppt
Philos.pptPhilos.ppt
Philos.ppt
 
Qualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
Qualitative content analysis in Media PsychologyQualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
Qualitative content analysis in Media Psychology
 
Creativity Presentation Haabjoern
Creativity Presentation HaabjoernCreativity Presentation Haabjoern
Creativity Presentation Haabjoern
 
Creativity Innovation
Creativity InnovationCreativity Innovation
Creativity Innovation
 
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designers
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designersDesigning Research: research methods for interaction designers
Designing Research: research methods for interaction designers
 
The value of creativity part 1
The value of creativity part 1The value of creativity part 1
The value of creativity part 1
 
Creativity in workplace
Creativity in workplaceCreativity in workplace
Creativity in workplace
 
The New Conditions for Creativity
The New Conditions for Creativity The New Conditions for Creativity
The New Conditions for Creativity
 
Speaking of Science... the art of science communication
Speaking of Science... the art of science communicationSpeaking of Science... the art of science communication
Speaking of Science... the art of science communication
 
SRC interdisciplinary terrain
SRC interdisciplinary terrainSRC interdisciplinary terrain
SRC interdisciplinary terrain
 
Explanation andy tharby
Explanation   andy tharbyExplanation   andy tharby
Explanation andy tharby
 
Research Methods Lecture 1
Research Methods Lecture 1Research Methods Lecture 1
Research Methods Lecture 1
 

More from Claire Rowland

UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI: Key quest...
UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI:  Key quest...UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI:  Key quest...
UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI: Key quest...
Claire Rowland
 
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected productsUX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
Claire Rowland
 
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
Claire Rowland
 
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
Claire Rowland
 
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
Claire Rowland
 
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
Claire Rowland
 
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UXInterusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
Claire Rowland
 
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market - IoT 14
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market -  IoT 14Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market -  IoT 14
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market - IoT 14
Claire Rowland
 
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su..."Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
Claire Rowland
 
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
Claire Rowland
 
Service design for the cloud of diverse devices
Service design for the cloud of diverse devicesService design for the cloud of diverse devices
Service design for the cloud of diverse devices
Claire Rowland
 
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
Claire Rowland
 
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paper
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paperFjord: Digital Nomads white paper
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paper
Claire Rowland
 
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
Claire Rowland
 
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slidesOver the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
Claire Rowland
 

More from Claire Rowland (15)

UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI: Key quest...
UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI:  Key quest...UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI:  Key quest...
UX Scotland 2018: Systems, discontinuities and thinking beyond UI: Key quest...
 
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected productsUX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
UX Day Mannheim: UX for systems of connected products
 
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
UX for Connected Products: EuroIA16
 
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
Design for failure in the IoT: what could possibly go wrong?
 
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
Interusability: designing a coherent system UX: NUX 23.10.15
 
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
Over the Air 15: Experience design for the IoT: system UX & interusability 15...
 
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UXInterusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
Interusability: Designing a Coherent System UX
 
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market - IoT 14
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market -  IoT 14Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market -  IoT 14
Getting the IoT into Tesco: Internet of things UX for the mass market - IoT 14
 
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su..."Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Su...
 
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
(now an old version) The Web and Beyond: "Siri, did I leave the oven on?" Mun...
 
Service design for the cloud of diverse devices
Service design for the cloud of diverse devicesService design for the cloud of diverse devices
Service design for the cloud of diverse devices
 
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
Updated: Design beyond the glowing rectangle (Polish IA Summit 2011)
 
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paper
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paperFjord: Digital Nomads white paper
Fjord: Digital Nomads white paper
 
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
Design beyond the glowing rectangle - EuroIA2010
 
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slidesOver the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
Over the Air: Inspiration/Outspiration panel slides
 

Recently uploaded

CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdfCocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
PabloMartelLpez
 
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House - Economic and Environmental Solution...
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House -  Economic and Environmental Solution...Connect Conference 2022: Passive House -  Economic and Environmental Solution...
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House - Economic and Environmental Solution...
TE Studio
 
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in IndiaRevolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
amrsoftec1
 
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
Decomart Studio
 
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in NoidaPDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
PoojaSaini954651
 
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With DesignsGame Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
184804
 
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
qo1as76n
 
Practical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
Practical eLearning Makeovers for EveryonePractical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
Practical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
Bianca Woods
 
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
k7nm6tk
 
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptxUNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
GOWSIKRAJA PALANISAMY
 
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
pmgdscunsri
 
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
qo1as76n
 
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANEEASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
Febless Hernane
 
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburghVirtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
millarj46
 
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdfSECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
eloprejohn333
 
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdfAHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
talaatahm
 
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
Techno Merch
 
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8djDivertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
lunaemel03
 
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economicoZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
jhonguerrerobarturen
 
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdfARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
Knight Moves
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdfCocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
CocaCola_Brand_equity_package_2012__.pdf
 
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House - Economic and Environmental Solution...
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House -  Economic and Environmental Solution...Connect Conference 2022: Passive House -  Economic and Environmental Solution...
Connect Conference 2022: Passive House - Economic and Environmental Solution...
 
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in IndiaRevolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
Revolutionizing the Digital Landscape: Web Development Companies in India
 
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
Top Interior Designers in Bangalore.pdf1
 
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in NoidaPDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
PDF SubmissionDigital Marketing Institute in Noida
 
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With DesignsGame Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
Game Concept Presentation for Ukrainian Mythology Based Game With Designs
 
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
哪里办理美国中央华盛顿大学毕业证双学位证书原版一模一样
 
Practical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
Practical eLearning Makeovers for EveryonePractical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
Practical eLearning Makeovers for Everyone
 
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
一比一原版(LSBU毕业证书)伦敦南岸大学毕业证如何办理
 
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptxUNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
UNIT IV-VISUAL STYLE AND MOBILE INTERFACES.pptx
 
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
Maximize Your Content with Beautiful Assets : Content & Asset for Landing Page
 
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
定制美国西雅图城市大学毕业证学历证书原版一模一样
 
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANEEASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
EASY TUTORIAL OF HOW TO USE CAPCUT BY: FEBLESS HERNANE
 
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburghVirtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
Virtual Tour Application Powerpoint for museum of edinburgh
 
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdfSECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
SECURING BUILDING PERMIT CITY OF CALOOCAN.pdf
 
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdfAHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
AHMED TALAAT ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO .pdf
 
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
Technoblade The Legacy of a Minecraft Legend.
 
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8djDivertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
Divertidamente SLIDE.pptxufururururuhrurid8dj
 
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economicoZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
ZAPATILLAS 2 X 110 ABRIL.pdf compra economico
 
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdfARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
ARENA - Young adults in the workplace (Knight Moves).pdf
 

Psychology Of Creativity - London IA 30.03.10

  • 1. the briefest of introductions to the psychology of creativity @clurr Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 2. this is [a tiny part of] the science bit Monday, 5 April 2010 Meaning empirical studies, and interesting theories that build on empirical work. Note that this is a massive field. I’ve tried to pick some useful and pragmatic bits but this is only the briefest of introductions to a huge field.
  • 3. image: woollywotnots.com it’s not about this Monday, 5 April 2010 It’s not about De Bono. The empirical evidence for his approaches is actually very weak. c.f. "Equally damaging to the scientific study of creativity, in our view, has been the takeover of the field, in the popular mind, by those who follow what might be referred to as a pragmatic approach. Those taking this approach have been concerned primarily with developing creativity, secondarily with understanding it, but almost not at all with testing the validity of their ideas about it." Sternberg continues, "Perhaps the foremost proponent of this approach is Edward De Bono, whose work on lateral thinking and other aspects of creativity has had what appears to be considerable commercial success." Handbook of Creativity, Robert J. Sternberg
  • 4. it’s totally not about this* *don’t even get me started... Monday, 5 April 2010 Nor is it about left brains and right brains: there’s no basis in neuroscience for this idea at all. All cognitive processes of any complexity require both hemispheres to work together in an integrated way and there’s no such thing as a left or right brained person or thinking. It’s acceptable as a metaphor for balancing logical deduction with intuition. But that’s *it*. for more on why this is hooey, see: http://scienceblogs.com/neurophilosophy/2007/10/the_left_brain_right_brain_myt.php http://irvineccns.blogspot.com/2007/12/left-brainright-brain-wrong-minded.html
  • 5. the certainty of pseudoscience can be seductive (well, maybe) “unique genetic memories and messages of harmony and peace are stored in algae” Monday, 5 April 2010 The reason those theories are successful is because certainty sells, especially to desperate people. Even if it does require you to eat algae.
  • 6. empirical science tends to offer discourse as much as certainties some of it may sound obvious :) but i hope this provides some critical basis for thinking about creativity Monday, 5 April 2010 Right, let’s crack on. For those who are interested in the academic references, you can see them in the notes when this is uploaded to Slideshare.
  • 7. what is creativity anyway? Monday, 5 April 2010 Lots of scientific papers actually don’t define it. [images: Gareth Pugh, afterprufrock.com]
  • 8. guilford’s model of creative ability is old but still often used as a theoretical basis: • fluency - the ability to produce lots of ideas • flexibility - ability to produce lots of different types of ideas • originality - ability to produce unusual ideas • elaboration - the ability to develop those ideas in the real world, it’s not just about having ideas. they must be innovative but also appropriate Monday, 5 April 2010 Guilford, J.P. (1950) Creativity, American Psychologist,Volume 5, Issue 9, p444-454. In experiments, these are often measured by how many uses you can think of for a brick. in the real world, ideas must also be appropriate
  • 9. one relatively simple model defines the creative process as: finding solving implementing good problems those problems solutions Monday, 5 April 2010 Basadur, M.S., Runco, M.A. and Vega, L.A. (2000) Understanding how creative thinking skills, attitudes and behaviors work together: A causal process model. The Journal of Creative Behavior,Vol. 34, No. 2, 77-100. This is one of the simpler statements and I think no less effective for it.
  • 10. one relatively simple model defines the creative process as: finding solving implementing good problems those problems solutions it’s not just about having ideas Monday, 5 April 2010 Note that it’s not just about having lots of ideas. As one of these researchers points out, in real life much of the challenge is about figuring out the problem in the first place... and the hard work of actually making the idea happen.
  • 11. “creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes. “art is knowing which ones to keep.” scott adams Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 12. psychologists tend to look at creativity in terms of one of the 4 Ps: • product - looking at the outputs of creativity • process - how do people produce creative products? • person - what personal characteristics tend to produce creativity? • press - the environment, and how this can influence creativity Monday, 5 April 2010 Psychologists have tended to study one of these four. Some have looked at how the last two interact. The first one is interesting but tends to focus on great works, so doesn’t tell us much about everyday creativity. The second is very interesting, but, for our purposes, inconclusive, though Kevin Dunbar’s study of biologists shows (again) that there’s a lot of hard work involved (Dunbar, K. (1997)*). *How scientists think: Online creativity and conceptual change in science. In T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith, & S.Vaid (Eds.) Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery and Change. APA Press. Washington DC). Today we’ll focus mostly on the last two. [image: bordersmedia]
  • 13. there are lots of interesting topics... tips for enhancing creativity why are we creative? children and education the unconscious madness intelligence motivation personality environment organisational creativity measuring creativity general vs domain-specific creativity Monday, 5 April 2010 And not much time.
  • 14. ...but for lack of time we’ll cover: why are we creative tips for enhancing creativity children and education the unconscious madness intelligence motivation personality environment organisational creativity measuring creativity general vs domain-specific creativity Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 15. personality Monday, 5 April 2010 There’s not much we can do to change this one but people tend to like to hear about personality stuff. Whilst I’m no fan of psychometric testing at work, being aware of ways in which people may differ can be helpful in creating an environment they feel comfortable in.
  • 16. openness to experience inventive / curious vs. cautious / conservative conscientiousness efficient / organised vs. easy-going / careless extroversion outgoing / energetic vs. shy / withdrawn the big five agreeableness friendly / compassionate vs. competitive / outspoken neuroticism sensitive / nervous vs. secure /confident Monday, 5 April 2010 The Big Five is the personality model with the best evidence base. First identified by e.g. T upes, E. C., & Christal, R. E. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings. USAF ASD Tech. Rep. No. 61-97, Lackland Airforce Base, TX: U. S. Air Force (but described by many others).
  • 17. openness to experience openness to fantasy - good imagination aesthetics - artistic interests feelings - experiencing and valuing feelings actions - trying new things, having many interests ideas - curious, smart, likes challenges values - unconventional,, liberal conscientiousness extroversion agreeableness neuroticism strong +ve correlation some +ve correlation Monday, 5 April 2010 Of the big 5, the personality factor most associated with creativity is openness to experience across many, many studies. See e.g. McCrae, Robert R, Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Vol 52(6), Jun 1987, 1258-1265. Openness to experience is split into openness to fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions , ideas, and values (unconventional, liberal). Actions, values and feelings are less strongly related than the others - you can be calm or conservative and still creative, and liking to try new things doesn’t necessarily translate into creating new things. This is related to work on sensation seeking* - e.g. Zuckerman - dimensions of sensation seeking are boredom susceptibility (intolerance for being bored), disinhibition (taking social risks like heavy alcohol use. one night stands) experience seeking (needing new experiences, can include art or museums) and thrill and adventure seeking (physical risks, extreme sports ). (* Zuckerman, Marvin; Kolin, Elizabeth A.; Price, Leah; Zoob, Ina. , Development of a sensation-seeking scale. Journal of Consulting Psychology.Vol 28(6), Dec 1964, 477-482)
  • 18. openness to experience conscientiousness ambition discipline responsibility self-control extroversion agreeableness neuroticism -ve correlation for arts but not science Monday, 5 April 2010 Conscientiousness is generally associated with positive work outcomes, like showing up for work on time and getting things done by deadlines. But there’s evidence that in some domains (e.g. art, possibly design and advertising) G J Feist (1998): A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol 2, No 4, 290-309. other factors are more complex - scientists tend to be conscientious to some extent - if you lack a certain level of conscientiousness you won’t make it as a scientist at all. However, more conscientiousness isn’t necessarily better - the most creative scientists are no more conscientious. Perhaps creativity provides shortcuts for some types of work which less intelligent people can achieve through sheer effort.
  • 19. creativity WIN conscientiousness FAIL Monday, 5 April 2010 Peter Saville’s FAC 001 publicity poster for the first Factory night in Manchester in 1978 may have been seminal, but was effectively useless for marketing. It was famously delivered on the night of the event itself because Saville spent so long trying to find the perfect shade of yellow.
  • 20. one study of advertising and design workers found: • a negative correlation between creativity and conscientiousness • a positive correlation with neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience Monday, 5 April 2010 Far be it from me to pander to stereotypes about web designers. G A Gelade (1997): Creativity in Conflict: The Personality of the Commercial Creative, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, Issue:Volume 158, Number 1 / March 1997, Pages:67 - 78 [image - Nathan Barley, Channel 4] •
  • 21. individual differences have implications for managing people: • people who score high on openness to experience produced more creative results on open-ended tasks • people who are high on conscientiousness will produce less creative results when their work is closely monitored • people who are low on emotional stability (especially those who are also introverted) do particularly badly when they think they are being evaluated Monday, 5 April 2010 I’m not comfortable with personality psychometrics in the hiring process - individual differences explain much less of our behaviour than intuition would lead us to think (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fundamental_attribution_error for why this is). But an understanding of how people may differ can help people to work together. George JM, Zhou J., 1986, When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: an interactional approach. J Appl Psychol. 2001 Jun;86(3):513-24 Chamorro-Premuzic, & Reichenbacher, T, 2008, Effects of personality and threat of evaluation on divergent and convergent thinking, Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1095-1101
  • 22. motivation Monday, 5 April 2010 [no apologies for this image: snowbombing]
  • 23. much of the debate boils down to intrinsic motivation - doing something because you enjoy it or get personal meaning out of it vs extrinsic motivation - doing it for external reward, like money or praise neither one is objectively better or worse Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 24. lots of evidence suggests that high levels of intrinsic motivation to do something lead to more creative output this works even if you just prime people to think about intrinsic motivations before doing a task Monday, 5 April 2010 Ruscio, J., D. M. Whitney, and T. M. Amabile. "Looking Inside the Fishbowl of Creativity:Verbal and Behavioral Predictors of Creative Performance." Creativity Research Journal 11, no. 3 (1998): 243-263. Greer, M & Levine, E (1991) Enhancing creative performance in college students. Journal of Creative Behaviour, 25, 250-255 Graef, R, Csikszentmihalyi, M, Giannino, SM (1983) Measuring intrinsic motivation in everyday life, Leisure Studies, 2, 155-168 Amabile, T. M., R. Conti, H. Coon, J. Lazenby, and M. Herron. "Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity." Academy of Management Journal 39, no. 5 (October 1996): 1154-1184.
  • 25. “to establish a place of work where engineers can feel the joy of technological innovation, be aware of their mission to society, and work to their heart’s content.” masaru ibuka, founder of sony Monday, 5 April 2010 The first purposes of incorporation of Sony. [image: sonyinsider.com]
  • 26. involvement in the task is particularly important (e.g. being in flow state) • higher feelings of autonomy or freedom tend to be related to higher levels of intrinsic motivation - i.e. if you can choose what to do, and how to do it, you’ll probably enjoy it more and thus be more creative Monday, 5 April 2010 Ruscio, J., D. M. Whitney, and T. M. Amabile (1998)- "Looking Inside the Fishbowl of Creativity:Verbal and Behavioral Predictors of Creative Performance." Creativity Research Journal 11, no. 3: 243-263. Zhou, J (1998) Feedback valence, feedback style, task autonomy, and achievement orientation: Interactive effects on creative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology.Vol 83 (2), Apr 1998, 261-276 See also Csikszentmihalyi on Flow, e.g. TED talk at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXIeFJCqsPs [image - idancerecords.com]
  • 27. if you offer people a reward to do something that they already find interesting, you may decrease intrinsic motivation and thus creativity • priming people to think about extrinsic motivations (money, status, evaluation) reduces creativity, but only on open ended tasks Monday, 5 April 2010 Amabile, T. M. "Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19 (March 1983): 146-156. Amabile, T. M. "Attributions of Creativity: What Are the Consequences?" Creativity Research Journal 8, no. 4 (1995): 423-426. R. Eisenberger, M. Selbst (1994), "Does reward increase or decrease creativity?", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Vol. 66 pp.1116 - 1127. Greene, D., & Lepper, M. R. (1974, September). Intrinsic motivation: How to turn play into work. Psychology Today, 49-54. Kohn, A. (1993), Punished by Reward: The Trouble With Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A ́s, Praise, and Other Bribes, Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • 28. photo by tim_caynes • the negative effects depend on whether the extrinsic motivation is seen as controlling or supportive • extrinsic motivation helps improve intrinsic motivation when you’re given constructive feedback that recognizes your creative accomplishment Monday, 5 April 2010 e.g. Amabile, T. M. "Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace."Human Resource Management Review 3, no. 3 (autumn 1993): 185-201.
  • 29. this is the difference between QA... i’m supervising you to make sure you don’t f*** up Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 30. ...and support gosh, this is interesting, isn’t it? how can we learn more about it? Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 31. it’s OK to have an ego many great people have combined high intrinsic motivation with a strong desire for recognition Monday, 5 April 2010 Howard E. Gruber (1981) Darwin on man: A psychological study of scientific creativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
  • 32. remember this? finding solving implementing good problems those problems solutions Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 33. remember this? finding solving implementing good problems those problems solutions loving what you do the prospect of supports you at the money and fun, idea generation recognition helps stages you get through the hard work needed to develop those ideas Monday, 5 April 2010 e.g. Amabile, T. M. 1993: "Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace."Human Resource Management Review 3, no. 3 PS: If you want to read more on this I recommend looking up Teresa Amabile: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=ovr&facId=6409
  • 34. photo by rogoyski tips for enhancing creativity Monday, 5 April 2010 OK, the soundbitey quick wins bit. Some of this may sound flippant but all of it has a basis in evidence.
  • 35. photo by jeevs enjoy what you do did I say that already? :) Monday, 5 April 2010 Csikszentmihalyi talks about immersing yourself in whatever you do by finding something meaningful in it. People who find this easy have autotelic personalities but we can all cultivate it. And if you can’t find anything meaningful in it, you ought to be doing something else.
  • 36. the ‘conscious’ bits of the mind are serial - they can only process one thing at a time remind you of anything? Monday, 5 April 2010 Don’t rely on your conscious mind. If you even believe in consciousness. Some very clever people don’t, e.g. see Dennett: Dennett, Daniel (1991), Allen Lane, ed., Consciousness Explained, The Penguin Press. Unintentionally summed up nicely by Radiohead as “just cos you feel it, doesn’t mean it’s there.”
  • 37. the unconscious bits are massively parallel which would you rather rely on? Monday, 5 April 2010 NASA’s Pleiades supercomputer - an SGI® Altix® ICE system with 14,080 Intel® Xeon® quad-core processors (56,320 cores, 110 racks) running at 544 trillion floating point operations per second (teraflops). (see nasa.gov).
  • 38. the unconscious mind is a much more powerful information processor but it won’t get a word in edgeways until you distract the conscious mind engaging the conscious mind in something else, even just for a few minutes, results in much more creative outputs Monday, 5 April 2010 See the works of Ap Dijksterhuis at http://www.unconsciouslab.com/index.php?page=People&subpage=Ap%20Dijksterhuis, e.g. Dijksterhuis at al (2006) On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect Science 311, 1005
  • 39. the presence of green things increases creative output, perhaps because makes us feel calm and positive Monday, 5 April 2010 May sound like it’s from the department of the bleeding obvious, but no less valid for it. e.g. R. S. Ulrich (1993): "Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes." In S. Kellert and E. O. Wilson (Eds.), The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press
  • 40. photo by a r pratana balance group and individual work social loafing/diffusion of responsibility result in fewer ideas Monday, 5 April 2010 A meta analysis of 20 studies showed that in most cases, people working on their own produced more and better ideas than those working in groups. Brian Mullen ; Craig Johnson ;Eduardo Salas, (1991), Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Groups: A Meta-Analytic Integration, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 12, Issue 1 March 1991 , pages 3 - 23
  • 41. photo: dom dada switch some members of groups Monday, 5 April 2010 The most successful Broadway musicals are produced by teams comprised of a combination of people who have worked together before and those who have not. Guimerà, Roger, Brian Uzzi, Jarrett Spiro, and Luís A. Nunes Amaral (2005). “Team Assembly Mechanisms Determine Collaboration Network Structure and Team Performance.” Science 308(5722): 697-702. Summarised at http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/index.php/Kellogg/article/collaboration_and_creativity
  • 42. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X look at something X X X X X X X X unconventional X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Monday, 5 April 2010 Förster, J. (2009). Cognitive consequences of novelty and familiarity: How mere exposure influences level of construal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 444-447.
  • 43. lie down Monday, 5 April 2010 Perhaps because it makes you relaxed. Noradrenaline, of which you produce more when standing up, may inhibit creativity. Lipnicki, DM, and Byrne, DG,(2005), Thinking on your back: Solving anagrams faster when supine than when standing, Cognitive Brain Research,Volume 24, Issue 3, Pages 719-722
  • 44. and more, hot off the press from psyblog today: http://www.spring.org.uk/2010/03/boost-creativity-7-unusual-psychological- techniques.php? utm_campaign=twitter&utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitter Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 45. thank you @clurr Monday, 5 April 2010
  • 46. you may like: Robert J Sternberg, 1998, ‘Handbook of Creativity’ Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1988, ‘Creativity’ J C Kaufman, 2009, ‘Creativity 101’ Richard Wiseman, 2009, ‘59 Seconds’ (for quick fixes) Psyblog: http://www.spring.org.uk/ full academic references are in the notes Monday, 5 April 2010