"Siri, did I leave the oven on?" UX for the connected home (updated for IA Summit 2013)
“Siri, did I leave the oven on?”Mundane UX for the connected home@clurr #connectedhomeTuesday, 4 June 2013Weʼve become accustomed to using technology like the web and mobiles to keep us in touch with the people and activitiesthat are important in our lives. Still one thing thatʼs relatively unconnected - home - big dumb box of mostly dumb things thatdonʼt talk to us, or each other. But thatʼs changing.This talk is about the challenge of making new technologies make sense to the mass market.
Wiredʼs number 1London startup 2012@alertmesaysTuesday, 4 June 2013You probably havenʼt heard of AlertMe. Last year we were nominated Wiredʼs number 1 startup in London.
Tuesday, 4 June 2013One reason you might not have heard of us because we are mostly B2B: we create hardware and services that othercompanies sell on to their end customers. Currently, you can get our products and services from British Gas, Loweʼs andEssent. We cover areas like heating, energy monitoring, home controls and monitoring, and data analytics. Weʼll ﬁnd out a bitmore about some of this later.
Opinions are entirely my own :)Tuesday, 4 June 2013And I canʼt take credit for many of interfaces I will be able to show today.
Embedded computing in everyday objects......connected up to the internetTuesday, 4 June 2013Sensors and controllers around the home, embedded computing in everyday objects, and connecting it all up to the internetso you can access and control it via web and phone. Lots of things you can do here...
Understand energyuse...Energy clampIn-home displaySmart plugWeb and mobile interfacesTuesday, 4 June 2013For sake of time, Iʼll show some AlertMe examples to give you a ﬂavour of the kind of thing I do.This is AlertMeʼs current energy service. Itʼs made up of sensors, displays, smartphone and web apps.(We make apps because they are a better experience for a control system right now.)
Control yourheating...ThermostatWeb and mobile interfacesTuesday, 4 June 2013This is AlertMeʼs current remote heating controller. Stuff magazine gadget of the year.
CameraContact sensorKey fobsMotion sensor...secure your home...Tuesday, 4 June 2013AlertMe home security.Thereʼs more... lighting, switches, locks, appliances, catﬂaps...
...on a combined platformTuesday, 4 June 2013This is the web UI for the Iris system we make for Loweʼs. I canʼt take any credit for this UI, which is a custom version forLoweʼs and was well developed before I joined AlertMe.
This homeautomation stuffhas been around forages though, hasnʼtit?Tuesday, 4 June 2013
Connectedhometechnology hasexisted since atleast as farback as 1975...This is X10 Powerhouse for theCommodore 64, from 1986.Tuesday, 4 June 2013It let you schedule lights and appliances to turn on and off, control a burglar alarm and thermostat, and could be operatedremotely by telephone. Those are pretty much the things Iʼm working on right now. Except the telephoneʼs got a bit smallerand now we have the internet.
...but you had to be rich...Tuesday, 4 June 2013
...and/or a geekTuesday, 4 June 2013For most people, the beneﬁts just didnʼt outweigh the cost
“Little bits of smartness”Tuesday, 4 June 2013Things are changing... getting cheaper, wireless... better designed...Big smart home concept isnʼt with us yet but you can already buy a range of everyday things like bathroom scales, babymonitors and electrical sockets with connectivity and even intelligence built in.
We have a metaphor for the“remote control for your life”Tuesday, 4 June 2013Donʼt underestimate how powerful this is. Mobile is central control platform: whether youʼre out and about, or on the sofa.whatʼs the point of embedding connectivity and smartness around your home only to have to sit down at a desk to use iton your Commodore 64?
Interconnectivity is still a challenge...but so is understanding anddelivering what the massmarket actually needsTuesday, 4 June 2013NB: big UXopportunity.
4 key UX challengesTuesday, 4 June 2013There are many, here are 4 of the big, general ones for designing interoperable systems for the massmarket.
UX challenge 1:Make it feel like homeTuesday, 4 June 2013Home is a very personal context.
•System has users and peripheral devices•Users have access permissions and are IN or OUT•Their goal is to program the home for optimalefﬁciencyTuesday, 4 June 2013Um, yeah.
ʻRomantikʼ modean engineering solution to a human non-problemTuesday, 4 June 2013Modes are a common smart home feature. But they require a lot of planning and advance conﬁguration. Which isnʼt verysexy.
Real life is toomessy to program•People are generally a bit disorganised and bad atpredicting their future needs•Life is full of contradictions and exceptions•Devices are shared, and lent•Whoʼs allowed to do what is negotiated and ﬂexible,not completely codiﬁedTuesday, 4 June 2013e.g. Little Jack isnʼt normally allowed to watch that much TV, but today heʼs ill so youʼre feeling sorry for hime.g. The sheets ought to be washed but everyoneʼs busy so theyʼll do for a bit longer
“My teenagers skulk in theirbedrooms. Theyʼre not out, buttheyʼre not really in either...”Tuesday, 4 June 2013
We already have a perfectlygood metaphor for thehome:Itʼs thehomeThis one happens to be my home. I donʼtwant to log into it, become a super user, orworry that itʼs going to crash or needdebugging.sudo open-windowTuesday, 4 June 2013Last place in the world I want to feel out of control... and we all know how people often feel out of control of computerswhen they are too hard to use or do things we donʼt understand.
This is not a massmarket solutionNew systems like WeMo are neat butbasically better-designed early adopterkitTuesday, 4 June 2013You deﬁne your own problem and conﬁgure the algorithms to execute it.Iʼm prepared to be proven wrong, but I donʼt think this is the mass market solution
UX challenge 2:Making data visiblehas socialconsequencesTuesday, 4 June 2013
•There is often more thanone person in a house•They have interpersonaldynamics•They may want differentthings•Relationships aresmoothed by notnecessarily knowingeverything about eachotherTuesday, 4 June 2013The home is a complex social context
Connected home technology surfaces informationabout what is happening in the homeTuesday, 4 June 2013These are the unknown measures from my Withings scales: the ones it wasnʼt able to recognise as a known user.This data is anonymous but based on time of use and estimates of mass I can infer two things from this
My cleaner is watching her weightTuesday, 4 June 2013and neither of them have any idea that I know this.
•Itʼs often possible to work outwho is in, out, turning theheating up all the time, or onthe Xbox at 4am•When parties have differentideas about how things shouldbe, that surfaces tensions21 °C 19 °CTuesday, 4 June 2013Thatʼs all pretty innocuous, but add in other simple data like when the burglar alarm was set, and energy monitoring, and youcan ﬁgure out...Itʼs a healthy and necessary part of most relationships to have the right to some private space, and to ignore or pretend notto notice some of the other personʼs behaviours. Technology makes this harder.
Tension between the personwho uses the energy monitorand the people who use theappliances is commonTuesday, 4 June 2013Tumble dryers are a particular source of angst.
Who came in at what time?(Did they look drunk? Was anyone withthem??!)How long did the cleanerreally stay?If this information is up onthe internet, who might getaccess to it?Presence surfaces trust and privacyissuesTuesday, 4 June 2013
•A lot of what goes on in thehome is actually prettyunremarkable andmundane•We develop routines tohelp us stay on top of theboring stuff without toomuch conscious effort•This allows us to save ourattention for important orinteresting thingsTuesday, 4 June 2013
My washing machine isas needy as a burglar alarmTuesday, 4 June 2013It thinks washing is most important and interesting thing in my life. It beeps when itʼs ﬁnished a load. Itʼs a bit aggressive, but Icould let that go. But it doesnʼt stop beeping until you empty it. It expects you to drop everything and come running, right now,because the washing must come out IMMEDIATELY. This is appropriate behaviour from a burglar alarm, but not a washingmachine.
What if you had a whole home fullof attention seeking devices?...Tuesday, 4 June 2013one device, irritating, but we accept it.a whole home full of devices with no manners.... developing some new and interesting ways to break down?
This is attention seekingTuesday, 4 June 2013Too much work for most people.
User instructions:1) Ignore itTuesday, 4 June 2013We need to design things that need less attention, not more.Wattbox - intelligent heating controller (prototype hardware shown).Nest: works off motion, light, and settings you choose in ﬁrst week or two. If you donʼt bother to turn the heat down when yougo to bed, or your heating controller sits somewhere people donʼt pass by, it might not learn correctly. Wattbox uses electricalactivity to infer whether anyone is in, and whether they are up and about. When were in and awake were usually usingelectricity above baseload, itʼs a good proxy for occupancy and activity.“Donʼt make me think” harder about my heating... HEATING IS BORING!!!
UX challenge 4:We donʼt understandhow to use half thestuff in our homesanywayTuesday, 4 June 2013
Most of usunderstand ourheating systemsabout as well asthis guy doesTuesday, 4 June 2013This is a ring tailed lemur. Itʼs a native of Madagascar, and it knows about as much about domestic heating as the averagehuman. I am not being ﬂippant here.
Ring-tailed lemurs in azoo in south westEngland learned to turnup the temperature ontheir heating thermostatwhen it got coldTuesday, 4 June 2013http://www.thisissomerset.co.uk/Smart-lemurs-learn-turn-thermostat-cold-snap/story-17929368-detail/story.html#axzz2Nod8uQoU
“When itʼs coldyou need to turnthe thermostatup.”This mental model iscompletely wrongThis is what many humansdo too:Tuesday, 4 June 2013A thermostat is an automatic switch.Most people treat it like a valve: turn up dial, get more.
“My thermostat istoo confusing touse so when Iwant to turn theheating up I put itin the fridge.”NB: this might sound silly butitʼs far more logical:Tuesday, 4 June 2013
Sometimes people justhave illogical habits orbeliefs that challenge ourassumptions about whatto design:“I donʼt set myburglar alarmwhen Iʼm onlygoing out for a fewhours.”Tuesday, 4 June 2013People are sometimes going to use it in the ways you may consider irrational. Engineers ﬁnd this bafﬂing, but you have todeal with it.
So how do we ﬁxthis mess?Tuesday, 4 June 2013Iʼve given this talk in the past and had the response ʻyeah, what are you actually doing about this?ʼ.I am working on design concepts for a more humanistic connected home experience.I canʼt show you most of that, but I can talk about some of the practical design experience Iʼve gained along the way.Some of this is applicable to more general internet of things/ubicomp type UX design.
UI/visual designscreen layout, look and feelPlatform designconceptual architecture spanning multipleservices, devices, common designprinciplesCX designcustomer lifecycle, customer services,integration with non digital touchpointsProductisationaudience, proposition, objectives,functionality of a speciﬁc serviceIndustrial designphysical hardware: capabilities andform factorUX/interaction designarchitecture and behaviours perservice, per deviceInterusabilityinteractions spanning multipledevices with different capabilitiesMany layers ofconnected home UXTuesday, 4 June 2013[talk through]I tend to use term ʻservice designʼ to encompass the lot.A lot of my work is centred on the web and mobile UIs because these are the touchpoints users will interact directly with themost. But if you just think of it as doing web and mobile UI design, you miss a lot and risk creating a lot of problems.Hence why Iʼm called a service design manager.Iʼm going to talk about 3 of these, reﬂecting speciﬁc challenges I deal with...
“People have tounderstand itbefore they canwant it”Denise Wilton, BERGUI/visual designscreen layout, look and feelPlatform designconceptual architecture spanning multipleservices, devices, common designprinciplesCX designcustomer lifecycle, customer services,integration with non digital touchpointsProductisationaudience, proposition, objectives,functionality of a speciﬁc serviceIndustrial designphysical hardware: capabilities andform factorUX/interaction designarchitecture and behaviours perservice, per deviceInterusabilityinteractions spanning multipledevices with different capabilitiesTuesday, 4 June 2013this is about making it make sense to end users.
Productisation is the extent to whichthe supplier makes the user valueexplicitTuesday, 4 June 2013for some speciﬁc bits of hardware, like an energy monitor, thereʼs a close mapping between functionand value. it does one thing, hopefully well. itʼs easy for people to understand what they do.
This is not a contact sensorthis is a thing that tells you:•when an intruder has forced your front door open•when your child has opened her window in the middle of the night•when someone is trying to steal your gunsThis is hard to do for general purpose devicesTuesday, 4 June 2013
In areas where they donʼt have expert knowledgeconsumers tend to buy products, nottoolsProduct ToolTuesday, 4 June 2013A product says ʻHere is the valueʼ, and comes preconﬁgured to deliver it.A tool provides functionality. You ﬁgure out the value, and how to get it. (Weʼre back to the computermetaphor.)Nothing wrong with making tools but they are less likely to go mass market
You can productise the box...but you also need to productise theservice• 1 SmartThings Hub• 2 SmartSense Multi (Open/Closed, Temperature, Vibration)• 2 SmartSense Presence• 1 SmartPower Outlet• 1 SmartSense Motion Detector• 1 SmartThings Hub• 2 SmartSense MoistureDetectors• 1 SmartSense Motion• 1 SmartSense Presence• 3 SmartSense Multi (Open/Closed, Temperature, Vibration)• 1 SmartThings Hub• 2 SmartSense Multi (Open/Closed, Temperature,Vibration)• 4 SmartSense Presence• 1 SmartSense Motion DetectorTuesday, 4 June 2013Smart Things are trying to do this.Most of the contents of these kits are pretty similar:hub, open-closed/vibration/temperature multi-sensors, presence, motion.Productising the box is a start. Iʼm very interested to see what the service UIs are like when youconnect this all up. Is it a generic UI for all 3? Or does it have customised functionality for eachservice: so for home security you get speciﬁc instructions on setting up an alarm, for home watch youget a ﬂood alarm, temperature warnings, an earthquake alarm; and for family life you get the “oh crapthe dogʼs escaped” alarm?
UI/visual designscreen layout, look and feelPlatform designconceptual architecture spanning multipleservices, devices, common designprinciplesCX designcustomer lifecycle, customer services,integration with non digital touchpointsProductisationaudience, proposition, objectives,functionality of a speciﬁc serviceIndustrial designphysical hardware: capabilities andform factorUX/interaction designarchitecture and behaviours perservice, per deviceInterusabilityinteractions spanning multipledevices with different capabilitiesTuesday, 4 June 2013
Interusability:• composition• consistency• continuityCross-Platform Service User Experience: A Field Study and an InitialFramework. Minna Wäljas, Katarina Segerståhl, Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen MobileHCI10Tuesday, 4 June 2013Model I want to draw on here which I have found incredibly useful: interusability.I know we like to kind of put usability in a box now and not use it as a catchall for broad UX, but bear with me and donʼt be putoff. I use the word “interusability” because the people who came up with it called it interusability. I like to think of it as reallytalking about a type of cross-device digital service design.Anyone who works in cross platform design should read the paper cited here, if you havenʼt already. The examples are a bitout of date now but the principles are still highly valid.Talks about 3 components: composition, consistency, continuity
Composition• Figuring out which devices your service needs• Figuring out what each device doesvsTuesday, 4 June 2013As a designer of smart services, one of your ﬁrst tasks is to think about composition: what devices will you have, and whichones will do what.Your decision will be inﬂuenced by whether any parts of the system need to have particular form factors/be used in certaincontexts, cost, whether any parts of the system need to work if they are ofﬂine, user expectations.Displays and controls usually add to the cost, so itʼs often cheaper to handle user inputs and outputs on a remote mobile orweb UI.http://www.tado.com/en/example: tado thermostat has no UI, itʼs all on the phone. probable reasons: itʼs expensive to make a good thermostat UI,(and no-one understands the bad ones), so just make a good phone UI, which is relatively cheap to do (and gets you roundsome of the UI consistency challenges Iʼll talk about in a minute). Thereʼs a certain purist elegance to this decision but tiʼs abrave move: if you donʼt have your phone to hand, or itʼs not working, or youʼre a guest in the house without access to thephone UI, you canʼt adjust the heating.AlertMe chose differently: we have a fairly standard thermostat with a conventionally bad UI but also the phone and web apps,which offer a much better experience (the one you see here looks rather plain as itʼs our unbranded version). This means thatyou, and your guests or other residents without smartphones, can still use it as a conventional thermostat. Itʼs less elegant(you will at some point encounter a UI that has been compromised by the need to keep the thermostat price down), but itʼspragmatic.
ConsistencyAdapting interfaces for different types ofdevice, but still making them feel like a familyTuesday, 4 June 2013Nest wall stat: twiddly knob on the wall that clicks. Touchscreen: up and down arrow. (Twiddly knobs are inefﬁcient andinaccurate on touchscreens). BUT it still makes the same click :)
ContinuityUp to date data andcontent across allplatforms. Fluentcross platforminteractions.Battery limitationsimpose possible 2minute delay!Tuesday, 4 June 2013Perhaps the biggest challenge is continuity.If I interact with the service on one device, all other devices reﬂect that change in state. e.g. if I turn the target heating temperature up onmy wall thermostat, youʼd expect the new temperature to be immediately reﬂected on the smartphone too.But sometimes this isnʼt technically possible.In the case of the AlertMe heating system, there can be a delay of up to two minutes before the smartphone app is updated. This isbecause the wall thermostat runs off a battery (as is normal in the UK), and sending data to the network uses a lot of power so it onlydoes it every two minutes. If it sent it more frequently than that, it would run the battery down very fast. We could make mains poweredcontrollers, but engineers donʼt like those in the UK as they are more complicated to install. So for the time being, the UX is acompromise, albeit a small one as the main use of the smartphone app is when you are not standing in front of the wall thermostat, and2 minutes isnʼt a long delay in turning the heating on.The important thing is to ensure that users are as informed as possible about whatʼs going on.
Thermostat > hub >service > phone UIbut can be separate API callsBoiler (furnace) >thermostat > hub >service > phone UI3rd party weatherservice > phone UIA complexservice canhave manypotentialpoints offailureTuesday, 4 June 2013many points of potential connectivity failure: hub ofﬂine, thermostat ofﬂine, thermostat lost connection to boiler;also individual API calls can fail like target temperature, current temp. and sometimes some are slower to load than othersand that can be outside our control.so there are times when you effectively have missing parts of the service, or are waiting for things to respond, and you have todeal with this in the UI.itʼs not like many of the apps many of us work with, where cached data may still be useful. out of date data can be a bigproblem. it can lead you to believe something is on when itʼs off, or ok when itʼs not ok. its perhaps not a disaster if its 5 minsout of date for a heating app, but what if its your burglar alarm,or an emergency alarm for an old person?rule of thumb: donʼt show old data as this can be misleading, donʼt imply that a change has been made before it iscompleted,ﬁgure out which data can be missing without rendering the service useless (like weather)previous app loaded screen and then ﬁlled it with data. [screenshot]i think this feels mainframey, and wanted the screen not to load until the data was there. my interaction is with the service, notinterface plus data. but sometimes that would mean that it didnʼt load at all for ages and that would be really frustrating. decided what we couldlive with (E.g. weather not updated) and what was essential to service experiencethen what happens if you change one setting, e.g. turn from off to auto? more than one thing may update (e.g. mode, and .interface needs to update to reﬂect status change but dontʼ want to show this change until you know itʼs been applied. butsome data not available, so end up with some blank data. its not great (see loading on RHC homescreen when changingthermostat setting).hardware constraints can be limiting...nest is mains powered so can use wiﬁ and connect more instantaneously (ﬁle under
UI/visual designscreen layout, look and feelPlatform designconceptual architecture spanning multipleservices, devices, common designprinciplesCX designcustomer lifecycle, customer services,integration with non digital touchpointsProductisationaudience, proposition, objectives,functionality of a speciﬁc serviceIndustrial designphysical hardware: capabilities andform factorUX/interaction designarchitecture and behaviours perservice, per deviceInterusabilityinteractions spanning multipledevices with different capabilitiesaka the really bigIA challengeTuesday, 4 June 2013
If you’re just making a single service that supportsa limited set of devices, your platform can consistof device control/data APIs available via web/mobile interfaceTuesday, 4 June 2013
But remember, this can get complexTuesday, 4 June 2013look at this again for a minute...If you want to offer multiple, overlapping services, in which devices can do different things as part of different services andusers can have different sets of services, then you start to need some kind of underlying logic to tie it all together.
Empty space = more future devices?Tuesday, 4 June 2013Nest looks like it may be the beginnings of a platform.
• services: intruder alarm, lighting, garden sprinkler, heating/cooling, gun cabinet,smoke alarm, energy usage, window blinds, Grannyʼs alarm...• devices: motion sensors, lighting, sprinkler, thermostat, cabinet sensor, smokedetector, energy monitor, blind controls, panic button...• controls:on/off, up/down, less/more, timer/schedule, hot/cold, set/unset• notiﬁcations: alarm, message, status...• presence: whoʼs in/out, nearby/far away, available/unavailable, authorised/notauthorised• contacts: people who live in the house, have access permissions to the physicalproperty or the service UIAcross a range of home servicesyou will have constructs like:Tuesday, 4 June 2013Within a service like this we have... [these things]They are interrelated in potentially complex ways.
Add to: lighting controls?security system?both?Tuesday, 4 June 2013If you want to be smart in the ways that you offer services up...... the more this conceptual model needs to be codiﬁed somewhere.
User tasks are heterogeneous andoverlapping• device/device group based: turn up the TV, turn off allthe lights• location based: set alarm downstairs, turn off outside lights,lower blinds on west side of the house in afternoon• time/state based: activate security lights when iʼm away• optimisation: keep the house temperature comfortable, useenergy efﬁciently• authorisation/presence based: lock the gun cabinetwhen the adults are not at home• person based: tell me if Granny hasnʼt got out of bed, tell mewhen Jake gets home from schoolTuesday, 4 June 2013There is no one hierarchy that supports all of this. You either force people to think in terms of your hierarchy... or you designsomething that supports the way they think... without overloading them with options.
notiﬁcationsservicescontrolsdevices presencecontactsuser needsThe big IA challenge:creating the UX logicthat bridges the twoTuesday, 4 June 2013Creating the UX logic that allows you to support all these things, and create great UXes, for services that you have already andthose you donʼt have yet, is the big IA challengeItʼs not stretching it too much to call it the ontology/domain model of the homeUntil we make some headway here, most people wonʼt consider it worth the pain of buying wholesale into the technology.
Interoperability beyond the walled gardenmakes this an even bigger challengeTuesday, 4 June 2013Right now all these things are walled gardens... realistically, who wants their entire house to come from Samsung, AlertMe,even Apple?There isnʼt an open platform: there are some open network protocols for connecting devices, but Iʼm not aware of anything thathelps ﬁgure out how they work together.But even with open services, something is going to have to happen to ensure you donʼt end up in a mess of different UIs andmetadata and control structures from different providers.Thatʼs a really hard problem.
“People donʼt want morecontrol of their homes.“They want more control oftheir lives.”Scott Davidoff, Min Kyung Lee, Charles Yiu, John Zimmerman, Anind K. Dey: Principles of Smart HomeControl (Ubicomp 2006)Tuesday, 4 June 2013
Burnt pie by Jet LimX10 Powerhouse from commodore.caInternet fridge from fuckyeahinternetfridge.tumblr.comMessy House by Elizabeth Table4FiveTrapped by MerinaComputer by Phil GoldCrying child by eggonstiltsArmy from hdwallpapers.comTea cosy by Brixton MakerhoodTeeth by ktpuppSleeping by StanFrustration by dieselbug2007Washing machine ﬁrmware error by Adam CrickettHouses by Peter O, Clive Darr, hollandhistory.netUsabilty lab by Leanne WaldalBurglar by homesecurityfocus.comMongkok advertising by Slices of LightPosh house by Savant TorontoTeenage bedroom by WendizzleHAL smarthome by james.lipsit.comJack Black from bradley.chattablogs.comHoliday home: geograph.co.ukOlder woman: soylentgreen23Ringtailed lemur by digidaveRingtailed lemur 2 by Tropiquaria ZooThanksforthephotosTuesday, 4 June 2013
S Intille, The goal: Smart people not smart homes (2006)http://web.media.mit.edu/~intille/papers-ﬁles/IntilleICOST06.pdfMinna Wäljas, Katarina Segerståhl, Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen: Cross-Platform Service User Experience: A Field Study and an InitialFramework (Nordichi 2010)http://bugi.oulu.ﬁ/~ksegerst/publications/p219-waljas.pdfColin Dixon, Ratul Mahajan, Sharad Agarwal, AJ Brush, Bongshin Lee, StefanSaroiu, and Victor Bahl, An Operating System for the Home (NSDI, USENIX, April2012)Pertti Huuskonen: Run to the Hills! Ubiquitous Computing Meltdown(Advances in Ambient Intelligence, 2007)Peter Tolmie, James Pycock, Tim Diggins. Allan Maclean, Alain Karsenty,Unremarkable Computing (Ubiquity, 2002).Genevieve Bell & Paul Dourish: Yesterdayʼs tomorrows: notes on ubiquitouscomputingʼs dominant vision (Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 2006)http://www.ics.uci.edu/~jpd/ubicomp/BellDourish-YesterdaysTomorrows.pdfScott Davidoff, Min Kyung Lee, Charles Yiu, John Zimmerman, and Anind K. Dey:Principles of Smart Home Control (Ubicomp 2006)T Saizmaa, A Holistic Understanding of HCI Perspectives on Smart Home,Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management, 2008. NCM 08ThanksfortheresearchTuesday, 4 June 2013
Thank you@firstname.lastname@example.orgThanks to: Alex von Feldmann, Fraser Hamilton, Martin Storey, Naintara Land and AnnaKuriakose who have contributed insights, thinking and research to this presentationTuesday, 4 June 2013