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PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES
OF SUPERVISION
PREPARED BY:
MRS.MAMTA TOPPO
ASST.PROFESSOR,
COLLEGE OF NURSING ,
R.I.M.S,RANCHI.
INTRODUCTION
 There is an old saying that “which is not
inspected is not done”. Hence, inspection ,
overseeing ,and supervision arise in response to
need inherent in the functioning of an
organization.
MEANING
 The term “supervision” has its origin in two Latin
words : super meaning “above” ; video, meaning
“I see”. In a hierarchical organization no one can
claim to work without proper supervision . For
proper functioning of an organization , it is very
essential that there should be proper
coordination and link among different parts and
organs of an organization.
DEFINITION
 Supervision is defined as a two way dynamic and
social process undertaken for a specific purpose
of fulfillment of organizational goals by striving
to maintain the required quality of performance
through constantly supporting and assisting the
worker to perform the best .
 Supervision has been defined as a cooperative
relationship between the leader and one or more
person to accomplish a particular job.
DEFINITION CONT…..
 Supervision has been defined as a cooperative
relationship between the leader and one or more
person to accomplish a particular job.

According to Jean Barret , supervision is kind of
teaching which involves advising , helping ,
inspiring , leading and liberating.
DEFINITION CONT…..
 Terry and Franklin meant supervision as
“guiding and directing efforts of the employees
and other resources to accomplish stated work
outputs”.
DEFINITION CONT…..
 According to Margaret Williamson –
Supervision is process by which workers are
helped by designated staff member to learn
according to the needs to make the best use of
their knowledge and skills and to improve their
abilities so that they do their job more effectively
and increase satisfaction to themselves and to
the agency.
DEFINITION CONT…..
 John D. Millett rightly observed –Supervision is
more than a process , it is a spirit which
animates relationship between levels of
organization and which includes maximum
accomplishment , or when unsuccessful generates
administrative paralysis. Effective management
is concerned to realize the first and to avoid the
second.
GOALS OF SUPERVISION
• To bring personal and professional growth of
employees (nurses) in order to achieve quality in
health care system.
• It is the key to maintain standards.
• To persist in the delivery of high quality of health care
services.
• To assist and to help in the development of staff to
their highest potential.
• To interpret policies , objectives & need etc. of the
organization.
• To plan services cooperatively and to develop
coordination to avoid overlapping .
GOALS OF SUPERVISION
• To assist in the problem solving of the matters
concerning personal , administrative and
operation of services.
• To develop standards of service and methods of
evaluation of a personnel and services.
• To evaluate the services given , personal
performance , progress made and to suggest
changes for improving the work effectively and
outcome of the personnel.
BASIC TENETS OF SUPERVISION
• Supervision is ongoing process invariably interwoven with
motivation , performance appraisal , staff development and
leadership
• Supervisors are always accountable for the performance of their
subordinates working under them / his span of control.
• Supervisors are to help the workers to improve , develop and
reinforce knowledge and skill according to their individual needs.
• Supervisors are required to help their workers to develop right
attitude.
• Another essential tenet of supervision includes assisting the
worker to perform in the best possible way to yield the best
results in terms of realization of the organizational goals .
PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION
• Supervision should encourage self expression so as to
draw out potential abilities of a worker
• Supervision should provide initiative to individual to
take more responsibility.
• Supervision should provide full opportunity to do work
in cooperation to develop the team spirit . And develop
good interpersonal relationship.
• Supervision should give autonomy to the workers
depending from personality, competence and
characteristics .
• Supervision interprets policies and give
creative instructions
PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION
• Supervision should meet the individual needs.
• Supervisor should always think herself as a leader so
as to give guidance help and encouragement .
• Supervision should be democratic .
• Supervision should be well planned and adopted to
good planning . It calls for good planning and
organization .
• Good supervision respects the personality of an
individual (employee).
FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISION
 Administrative
 Teaching
 Helping
 Linking.
 Evaluation
TECHNIQUES OF SUPERVISION :
Techniques are based on three stages
 Stage one Preparation for supervision
 Stage two Supervision
 Stage three Follow up of supervision
STAGE ONE : PREPARATION FOR
SUPERVISION
 Study of documents
 Identification of priority for supervision
 Preparation of supervision schedule
 
STAGE TWO : SUPERVISION
i. Establishing Contacts
ii. Review of the objectives , targets and
norms
iii. Review the job description
iv. Observe the nursing staff’s motivation
v. Observe for any actual or potential
conflicts
STAGE THREE : FOLLOW UP OF
SUPERVISION
• Reorganization of time –table/workplan/duty
roster
• Organizing in-service training programmes
/continuing education programmes for nursing
personnel
• Initiating changes in logistic support or supply
system
• Initiating actions for organizing staff welfare
activities
• Counseling and guidance regarding career
development and professional growth.
FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE
SUPERVISION
 Human Relation Skill
 Technical and managerial knowledge
 Leadership position 
 Improved upward relations
 Relief from Non-supervisory duties
 General and loose supervision
METHODS OF SUPERVISION
 Technical versus creative supervision
 Co-operative versus authoritative
supervision
 Scientific versus intuitive supervision
STYLES OF SUPERVISION
 Task centered
 Employee centered supervisor
 An autocratic or critical supervisor
 A Benevolent supervisor
 A Democratic supervisor
 
QUALITIES OF A GOOD
SUPERVISOR
• Thoroughness
• Fairness
• Initiative
• Tact
• Enthusiasm
• Emotional control
• General outlook
• Personal qualifications
• Teaching ability
TRAINING OF SUPERVISOR:
• Perrodin states that what is needed is “a reassessment
, a reorganization ,and the establishment of a program
of supervision that functions throughout a 24-hour
day, that operates on a vertical as well as on a
horizontal basis , that reaches all personnel , and that
brings them together into a unified body, and all are
determined to accomplish the same overall aim”.
• Hagen and Wolff’s study pointed out the need for
further development in many areas where nurses are
responsible for planning and supervising nursing care
to patients. The greatest deficiencies noted were in
• The ability to participate in policy development
• The ability to make sound administrative decisions
• The ability to set goals and formulate long-range plans
• The abilities to develop and maintain positive morale
in the group.
 
CONCLUSION
 Supervision is more than inspection and
investigation .It is a key to successful
administration and is most important functions
in an organization. So, today we have discussed
about principles and techniques of supervision.
THANK YOU

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Principles and techniques of supervision

  • 1. PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF SUPERVISION PREPARED BY: MRS.MAMTA TOPPO ASST.PROFESSOR, COLLEGE OF NURSING , R.I.M.S,RANCHI.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION  There is an old saying that “which is not inspected is not done”. Hence, inspection , overseeing ,and supervision arise in response to need inherent in the functioning of an organization.
  • 3. MEANING  The term “supervision” has its origin in two Latin words : super meaning “above” ; video, meaning “I see”. In a hierarchical organization no one can claim to work without proper supervision . For proper functioning of an organization , it is very essential that there should be proper coordination and link among different parts and organs of an organization.
  • 4. DEFINITION  Supervision is defined as a two way dynamic and social process undertaken for a specific purpose of fulfillment of organizational goals by striving to maintain the required quality of performance through constantly supporting and assisting the worker to perform the best .  Supervision has been defined as a cooperative relationship between the leader and one or more person to accomplish a particular job.
  • 5. DEFINITION CONT…..  Supervision has been defined as a cooperative relationship between the leader and one or more person to accomplish a particular job.  According to Jean Barret , supervision is kind of teaching which involves advising , helping , inspiring , leading and liberating.
  • 6. DEFINITION CONT…..  Terry and Franklin meant supervision as “guiding and directing efforts of the employees and other resources to accomplish stated work outputs”.
  • 7. DEFINITION CONT…..  According to Margaret Williamson – Supervision is process by which workers are helped by designated staff member to learn according to the needs to make the best use of their knowledge and skills and to improve their abilities so that they do their job more effectively and increase satisfaction to themselves and to the agency.
  • 8. DEFINITION CONT…..  John D. Millett rightly observed –Supervision is more than a process , it is a spirit which animates relationship between levels of organization and which includes maximum accomplishment , or when unsuccessful generates administrative paralysis. Effective management is concerned to realize the first and to avoid the second.
  • 9. GOALS OF SUPERVISION • To bring personal and professional growth of employees (nurses) in order to achieve quality in health care system. • It is the key to maintain standards. • To persist in the delivery of high quality of health care services. • To assist and to help in the development of staff to their highest potential. • To interpret policies , objectives & need etc. of the organization. • To plan services cooperatively and to develop coordination to avoid overlapping .
  • 10. GOALS OF SUPERVISION • To assist in the problem solving of the matters concerning personal , administrative and operation of services. • To develop standards of service and methods of evaluation of a personnel and services. • To evaluate the services given , personal performance , progress made and to suggest changes for improving the work effectively and outcome of the personnel.
  • 11. BASIC TENETS OF SUPERVISION • Supervision is ongoing process invariably interwoven with motivation , performance appraisal , staff development and leadership • Supervisors are always accountable for the performance of their subordinates working under them / his span of control. • Supervisors are to help the workers to improve , develop and reinforce knowledge and skill according to their individual needs. • Supervisors are required to help their workers to develop right attitude. • Another essential tenet of supervision includes assisting the worker to perform in the best possible way to yield the best results in terms of realization of the organizational goals .
  • 12. PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION • Supervision should encourage self expression so as to draw out potential abilities of a worker • Supervision should provide initiative to individual to take more responsibility. • Supervision should provide full opportunity to do work in cooperation to develop the team spirit . And develop good interpersonal relationship. • Supervision should give autonomy to the workers depending from personality, competence and characteristics . • Supervision interprets policies and give creative instructions
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION • Supervision should meet the individual needs. • Supervisor should always think herself as a leader so as to give guidance help and encouragement . • Supervision should be democratic . • Supervision should be well planned and adopted to good planning . It calls for good planning and organization . • Good supervision respects the personality of an individual (employee).
  • 14. FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISION  Administrative  Teaching  Helping  Linking.  Evaluation
  • 15. TECHNIQUES OF SUPERVISION : Techniques are based on three stages  Stage one Preparation for supervision  Stage two Supervision  Stage three Follow up of supervision
  • 16. STAGE ONE : PREPARATION FOR SUPERVISION  Study of documents  Identification of priority for supervision  Preparation of supervision schedule  
  • 17. STAGE TWO : SUPERVISION i. Establishing Contacts ii. Review of the objectives , targets and norms iii. Review the job description iv. Observe the nursing staff’s motivation v. Observe for any actual or potential conflicts
  • 18. STAGE THREE : FOLLOW UP OF SUPERVISION • Reorganization of time –table/workplan/duty roster • Organizing in-service training programmes /continuing education programmes for nursing personnel • Initiating changes in logistic support or supply system • Initiating actions for organizing staff welfare activities • Counseling and guidance regarding career development and professional growth.
  • 19. FACTORS OF EFFECTIVE SUPERVISION  Human Relation Skill  Technical and managerial knowledge  Leadership position   Improved upward relations  Relief from Non-supervisory duties  General and loose supervision
  • 20. METHODS OF SUPERVISION  Technical versus creative supervision  Co-operative versus authoritative supervision  Scientific versus intuitive supervision
  • 21. STYLES OF SUPERVISION  Task centered  Employee centered supervisor  An autocratic or critical supervisor  A Benevolent supervisor  A Democratic supervisor  
  • 22. QUALITIES OF A GOOD SUPERVISOR • Thoroughness • Fairness • Initiative • Tact • Enthusiasm • Emotional control • General outlook • Personal qualifications • Teaching ability
  • 23. TRAINING OF SUPERVISOR: • Perrodin states that what is needed is “a reassessment , a reorganization ,and the establishment of a program of supervision that functions throughout a 24-hour day, that operates on a vertical as well as on a horizontal basis , that reaches all personnel , and that brings them together into a unified body, and all are determined to accomplish the same overall aim”. • Hagen and Wolff’s study pointed out the need for further development in many areas where nurses are responsible for planning and supervising nursing care to patients. The greatest deficiencies noted were in • The ability to participate in policy development • The ability to make sound administrative decisions • The ability to set goals and formulate long-range plans • The abilities to develop and maintain positive morale in the group.  
  • 24. CONCLUSION  Supervision is more than inspection and investigation .It is a key to successful administration and is most important functions in an organization. So, today we have discussed about principles and techniques of supervision.