SlideShare a Scribd company logo
PRAGMATICS




                             http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJER
              By:
                             http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com
      Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar



                                                                     1
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar
Deixis
   Definition
        The word ‘deixis’ is a technical
        term (from Greek) for one of
        the most basic things we do
        with utterances, which means
        ‘pointing’ via language.'
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                       2
1: any linguistic form used to
 accomplish ‘pointing’ is called a
 deictic expression.
2: deictic expressions are also
 known as indexicals.
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar             3
Deictic expressions
     Deictic expressions are meaningful in a given
     context.
     They are among the first words acquired by
     children.
     In order to be interpreted correctly, the speaker
     and listener have to share the same context.
     They are particularly useful in face-to-face
     communication.

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                 4
PERSON DEIXIS : Any expression used
to point to a person ( me, you, him, them) is an
example of PERSON DEIXIS.
    SPACE/SPATIAL/PLACE DEIXIS :
Words used to point to a location ( here, there)
are examples of PLACE DEIXIS.
  TIME/TEMPORAL DEIXIS : The
expression used to point to a time ( now, then,
tonight, last week, yesterday) are examples of
TIME DEIXIS.

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                           5
: DISCOURSE DEIXIS: any expression used
to refer to earlier or forthcoming segments
of the discourse: in the previous/next
paragraph, or Have you heard this joke?
  SOCIAL DEIXIS: honorifics (forms to show
respect such as Professor Li).




DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                     6
Person Deixis
      a speech event includes at least two persons:
        – first person = speaker
        – second person = addressee
      If the two persons do not only refer to themselves while talking, there is a
      third person ( = the person they are talking about), that does not have to
      take part in the conversation.
      Usually the third person is not grammatically marked, because the only
      two persons of importance are the first person (speaker = most important)
      and the second person (addressee = less important).
      only in English: the suffix (-s) for the third person.
      The traditional category of plural is not symmetrically applied to first
      person (we) in the way it is to the third (they)
        – In addition there are two first person `plural` pronouns, corresponding
           to `we-inclusive-of-addressee` and `we-exclusive-of-addressee`:
               Let`s go to the cinema.
               = `we-inclusive-of-addressee`
               Let`s go to see you tomorrow.
               =`we-exclusive-of-addressee`
                                             (Levinson :1983)
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                            7
Person Deixis
Pronouns:
  grammatical category for a person: personal pronouns
   – All languages have personal pronouns or at least
     words, that refer to the participants of the speech
     act.
  The pronouns of the first (I-my-mine) and second
  person (you- your-yours) are deictic:
   – reference to the speaking person.
  It is also possible to have deictic pronouns for the third person.
  Definite and specific pronouns: this, that, those, or these.
  Indefinite and specific pronouns: somebody , something , who,
  what.
  Indefinite and non-specific pronouns: someone , something ,
  nobody, nothing.
 DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                  8
Place Deixis
concerns the locations relative to anchorage points in the speech event (speaker
= centre),
two basic ways of referring to objects: by describing or naming them and by
locating them,
locations can be specified relative to other objects:
  – The station is two hundred yards from the college.
locations can be specified relative to the location of participants;
  – It's two hundred yards away.
some pure place-deictic words: here and there (adverbs); this and that
(demonstrative pronouns);
=> symbolic usage of here = pragmatically given unit of space that includes the
location of the speaker;
  – I'm writing to say I'm having a marvellous time here.
Adverbs: here and there = contrast on a proximal/distal dimension;
 – here = proximal (near); there = distal ( more distant)
             Bring that here and take this there.
Demonstrative pronouns are more clearly organized in a proximal/distal
dimension.
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                         9
Place Deixis


     this = the object in a pragmatically given area close to the
     speaker's location,
     that = the object beyond the pragmatically given area close to
     the speaker's location,
     some languages have demonstratives with 3 and 4 way
     distinctions on the proximal-distal dimension;
     ( North West American language Tlingit) – demonstratives
     distinguish between
      – this one right here
      – this on nearby
      – that one over there
      – that one way over there
     Directions: to the left from; to the right from

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                              10
Place Deixis

                       motion verbs = signs of place deixis
                       – come vs. go makes distinction between the direction
                         of motion
                            He's coming = he is moving towards the speaker's
                            location.
                            He's going = he is moving away from the speaker's
                            location.
                            I'm coming = the speaker is moving towards the
                            location of the addressee.
                       – come = movement towards either the location of the
                         speaker, or towards the location of the addressee.




DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                      11
Time Deixis
   makes ultimate reference to participant-role
   => ex.: now = the time at which the speaker is producing the utterance
   containing “now”.
   distinguish the moment of utterance (= coding time (CT)) and the moment of
   reception (= receiving time (RT)).
   in the canonical situation of utterance (deictic simultaneity)
   => CT =RT
                         .
    – It is cold outside. (normal speech act)
   complexities in the usage of tense, time adverbs and other time-deictic
   morphemes (letter writing, or pre- recording of media programmes)
   => deictic centre remains on the speaker and CT:
    – This programme, is being recorded today, Wednesday April 1st, to be
       relayed next Thursday.
   => deictic centre is projected on the addressee and RT:
    – This programme was recorded last Wednesday, April 1st, to be relayed
       today. (deictic centre was projected into the future)
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                         12
Time Deixis

Tenses:
   Tenses = time relations in connection to a given point in time
    – present = an event/action simultaneously to the speech act (work)
    – past = an event/action before the speech act (worked)
    – future = an event/action after the speech act (you will work)
   there are language systems with more than 3 possibilities
    – they distinguish between levels of past, dependent on their distance
       from the speaker's utterance
    – tense of immediate past
       => ex.: frz. Jean vient de resoudre le problème.
       John has just been able to solve the problem.
   difference between absolute tense
    – absolute tense refers immediately to the time of the speaker's
       utterance: simple past, simple present
   Relative tenses refer to other tenses:
    – past perfect: event refers to another event, that happens afterwards


DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                         13
Time Deixis

 tenseless eternal sentences:
  – Two and two is four.
 languages without true tenses:
  – Chinese
 time deixis is relevant to various other deictic elements
 in language:
  – ex.: greetings
     => Good morning.
     can only be used in the morning
  – expressions:
     => the former president, my ex-husband

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                    14
Deictic center: the time of the utterance’s time; the place of the
         utterance’s place, the person just giving the utterance.


 “Near speaker” —“away from speaker”
        ︱             ︱
    Proximal        distal
        ︱             ︱
 This, here, now   that, there, then


 DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                               15
Discourse Deixis

             also called text deixis.
             concerns the use of expressions referring to apart of the
             discourse.
             while within time deixis: next week, last week,discourse
             deixis: in the next chapter, in the last paragraph.
             in discourse deixis, there are many words and phrases in
             English that indicate the relationship between utterance
             and the prior discourse:
              – but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still,
                 however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so,
                 after all
              – all these words make reference to a statement,
                 sentence etc. that was said before
             some languages have morphemes that mark such
             discourse notions

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                         16
Social Deixis

        concerns those aspects of language structure that
        encode the social identities of participants, or the
        social relationship between them,
        but these usages are only relevant to the topic of social
        deixis in so far as they are grammaticalized:
         – polite pronouns e.g.“Vous”, address titles.
        social relations concern in all those examples the
        relation between the speaker and the addressee,
        especially the countries.
        in East Asia are known for having several levels of
        politeness, based on the social difference between the
        persons concerned.



DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                17
Using Deixis
• Certain words like here there, this, that , now , then,
  yesterday as well as most pronouns such as I , you,
  him, her , them can only be understood if we know
  about the context in which they are used.
• For example, the sentence, “ you’ll have to bring that
  back tomorrow, because they aren’t here”, out of
  context will be quite unintelligible.
• Because this sentence contain large number of
  certain expressions ( Deixis) which depend for their
  interpretation on the immediate physical context in
  which they are uttered.


DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                    18
All these expressions have to be interpreted in
terms of what person , place or time the speaker
has in mind. There is a broad distinction between
what is marked as distant( that ,there, then). It is
also possible to mark whether the movement is
happening towards the speaker’s location( come)
or away from speaker’s location (go) If you are
looking for someone and he or she appears
moving towards you, you tend to say “ Here she
Comes! If , however, she/he is moving away from
you in the distance, you are more like to say
There she goes!
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                              19
People can actually use Deixis to have fun.
The coffee shop owner who puts up a big sign
that reads “ Free snacks Tomorrow” ( to get
you to return to his shop) can always claim
that you are one day too early for the meal.




DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                           20
Deixis and Grammar
Grammar :
    • the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language,
    and, as such, is a field of linguistics.
    •Traditionally, grammar included morphology and syntax.
    •In modern linguistics these subfields are complemented by phonology,
    semantics, and pragmatics.
Pragmatics:
    •how do people use sentences in communication,
    •Characterize acceptable/unacceptable use.
    •It is no longer possible to consider sentences in isolation: we need to
    take the context into account.
    •We look beyond truth-conditional meanings.
Deixis:
    • those words in a language that entirely depend on context (Fromkin, et.
    al., 1991). The meaning of deixis is 'pointing to' something. In verbal
    communication however, deixis in its narrow sense refers to the
    contextual meaning of pronouns, and in its broad sense, what the
    speaker means by a particular utterance in a given speech context.
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                                        21
Deixis and Grammar

 The basic distinctions for person, spatial, and
 temporal deixis can be seen in English grammar
 are presented in direct and indirect speech.




 Are you planning to be here this evening?
                ( DIRECT SPEECH)
 I asked her if she was planning to be there that
evening.
               ( INDIRECT SPEECH)
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                               22
When reporting a previous utterance, the utterance is
  marked deictically as relative to the original circumstances.
    the proximal forms will be shifted to the corresponding
  distal forms.
    The proximal deictic forms of a direct speech give the sense
  of being in the same context as the utterance.
    The distal deictic forms of an indirect speech give the sense
  of being remote as the original speech event.
    The regular difference in English reported discourse marks a
  distinction between the ‘near speaker’ meaning of direct
  speech and the ‘away from speaker’ meaning of indirect
  speech.

DR. Shadia Y. Banjar                                            23
DR. Shadia Y. Banjar   24

More Related Content

What's hot

Presentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distancePresentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distance
Taiba Arooj
 
Conversation and preference structure
Conversation and preference structureConversation and preference structure
Conversation and preference structure
Universitas Negeri Jakarta
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
Shanze Toor
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
Radia Ali
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Speech acts and events
Speech acts and eventsSpeech acts and events
Speech acts and events
Yophi Gimbal
 
Presupposition
PresuppositionPresupposition
Presupposition
Azhar Bhatti
 
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. ShadiaPragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.PptxSpeech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and InferencePragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Febri Shandy
 
Pragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George YulePragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George Yule
Anthony Salinas
 
Presentation of deixis
Presentation of deixisPresentation of deixis
Presentation of deixis
MASUD RANA
 
Politeness
PolitenessPoliteness
Politeness
Azam Almubarki
 
Deixis and distance
Deixis and distanceDeixis and distance
Deixis and distance
Barozh
 
Lexical relations
Lexical relationsLexical relations
Lexical relations
Hina Honey
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
Asif Usman
 
Pragmatics presentation
Pragmatics presentationPragmatics presentation
Pragmatics presentation
Mehwish Nazar
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Reference and sense
Reference and senseReference and sense
Reference and sense
Dhedeww Aruan
 
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditionspragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
Sajid Ali
 

What's hot (20)

Presentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distancePresentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distance
 
Conversation and preference structure
Conversation and preference structureConversation and preference structure
Conversation and preference structure
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
 
Speech acts and events
Speech acts and eventsSpeech acts and events
Speech acts and events
 
Presupposition
PresuppositionPresupposition
Presupposition
 
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. ShadiaPragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
 
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.PptxSpeech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
Speech Acts And Speech Events, By Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar.Pptx
 
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and InferencePragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
 
Pragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George YulePragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George Yule
 
Presentation of deixis
Presentation of deixisPresentation of deixis
Presentation of deixis
 
Politeness
PolitenessPoliteness
Politeness
 
Deixis and distance
Deixis and distanceDeixis and distance
Deixis and distance
 
Lexical relations
Lexical relationsLexical relations
Lexical relations
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
 
Pragmatics presentation
Pragmatics presentationPragmatics presentation
Pragmatics presentation
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
 
Reference and sense
Reference and senseReference and sense
Reference and sense
 
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditionspragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
pragmatics speech act theory promises, felicity conditions
 

Similar to Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx

Pragmatics deixisan1
Pragmatics deixisan1Pragmatics deixisan1
Pragmatics deixisan1
Jahanzeb Jahan
 
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
Md. Rakibul Hasan
 
Deixis
Deixis Deixis
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdfchapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
GitNng2
 
deixis-and-distance
deixis-and-distancedeixis-and-distance
deixis-and-distance
Seemab Abbas
 
Lecture 2
Lecture 2Lecture 2
Makalah pragmatic
Makalah pragmaticMakalah pragmatic
Makalah pragmatic
echan_vega
 
Deixis.pptx
Deixis.pptxDeixis.pptx
Deixis.pptx
KuroSentai
 
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptxGROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
Lester Magbanua
 
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
Afzi Jutt
 
Deixis lecture
Deixis  lectureDeixis  lecture
Deixis lecture
Nadia Fareed
 
Deixis and distence
Deixis and distenceDeixis and distence
Deixis and distence
Mamoona Shahzadi
 
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
GhazanfarAli131
 
Final deixis
Final deixisFinal deixis
Final deixis
Khubaib Hussain
 
Pragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: DeixisPragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: Deixis
A. Tenry Lawangen Aspat Colle
 
Deixis and Distance
Deixis and DistanceDeixis and Distance
Deixis and Distance
syerencs
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
MianAbdulRahman1
 
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdfDeixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
honestytrila
 
Jessica meagan fullerton 64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
Jessica meagan fullerton  64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and referenceJessica meagan fullerton  64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
Jessica meagan fullerton 64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
Jairo Castañeda
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis

Similar to Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx (20)

Pragmatics deixisan1
Pragmatics deixisan1Pragmatics deixisan1
Pragmatics deixisan1
 
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
Deixis & Distance in Bangladesh Context
 
Deixis
Deixis Deixis
Deixis
 
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdfchapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
chapter-2-150531111554-lva1-app6891 (1).pdf
 
deixis-and-distance
deixis-and-distancedeixis-and-distance
deixis-and-distance
 
Lecture 2
Lecture 2Lecture 2
Lecture 2
 
Makalah pragmatic
Makalah pragmaticMakalah pragmatic
Makalah pragmatic
 
Deixis.pptx
Deixis.pptxDeixis.pptx
Deixis.pptx
 
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptxGROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
GROUP 4 - DEIXIS.pptx
 
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
 
Deixis lecture
Deixis  lectureDeixis  lecture
Deixis lecture
 
Deixis and distence
Deixis and distenceDeixis and distence
Deixis and distence
 
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
 
Final deixis
Final deixisFinal deixis
Final deixis
 
Pragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: DeixisPragmatics: Deixis
Pragmatics: Deixis
 
Deixis and Distance
Deixis and DistanceDeixis and Distance
Deixis and Distance
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
 
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdfDeixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
Deixis and Distance in Pragmatics group 4.pdf
 
Jessica meagan fullerton 64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
Jessica meagan fullerton  64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and referenceJessica meagan fullerton  64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
Jessica meagan fullerton 64159 assignsubmission_file_deixis and reference
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 

More from Dr. Shadia Banjar

Terms of colours
Terms of coloursTerms of colours
Terms of colours
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Terms of colours pitchford-mullen-2002
Terms of colours  pitchford-mullen-2002Terms of colours  pitchford-mullen-2002
Terms of colours pitchford-mullen-2002
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Color categories
Color categoriesColor categories
Color categories
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Psycholinguistics
PsycholinguisticsPsycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424 Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Parts of Speech - Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
Parts of Speech -  Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptxParts of Speech -  Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
Parts of Speech - Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarParts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Inflectional Paradigms -  morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarInflectional Paradigms -  morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Acronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdfAcronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdf
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Studying Arabic Dialects
Studying Arabic DialectsStudying Arabic Dialects
Studying Arabic Dialects
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
Processes of Word Formation -  Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadiaProcesses of Word Formation -  Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Words - Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Words -  Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. BanjarWords -  Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Words - Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarPhonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Homophones LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
Homophones  LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef BanjarHomophones  LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
Homophones LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Immediate Constituents - Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
Immediate Constituents -  Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentationImmediate Constituents -  Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
Immediate Constituents - Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. BanjarNoun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Noun Feminine Forms - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Noun Feminine Forms -  Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarNoun Feminine Forms -  Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Noun Feminine Forms - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarSuffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarLane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 

More from Dr. Shadia Banjar (20)

Terms of colours
Terms of coloursTerms of colours
Terms of colours
 
Terms of colours pitchford-mullen-2002
Terms of colours  pitchford-mullen-2002Terms of colours  pitchford-mullen-2002
Terms of colours pitchford-mullen-2002
 
Color categories
Color categoriesColor categories
Color categories
 
Psycholinguistics
PsycholinguisticsPsycholinguistics
Psycholinguistics
 
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424 Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
Arabic Idioms - LANE 424
 
Parts of Speech - Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
Parts of Speech -  Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptxParts of Speech -  Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
Parts of Speech - Structure Classes, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar .pptx
 
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarParts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Parts of speech: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Inflectional Paradigms -  morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarInflectional Paradigms -  morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Inflectional Paradigms - morphology- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Acronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdfAcronyms & word fomation pdf
Acronyms & word fomation pdf
 
Studying Arabic Dialects
Studying Arabic DialectsStudying Arabic Dialects
Studying Arabic Dialects
 
Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
Processes of Word Formation -  Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadiaProcesses of Word Formation -  Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
Processes of Word Formation - Morphology-LANE 333-2012- dr. shadia
 
Words - Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Words -  Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. BanjarWords -  Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Words - Morphology Presentation- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
 
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarPhonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Phonesthemes- LANE 333- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Homophones LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
Homophones  LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef BanjarHomophones  LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
Homophones LANE 333 - Dr.Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Allomorphs - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Immediate Constituents - Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
Immediate Constituents -  Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentationImmediate Constituents -  Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
Immediate Constituents - Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar- presentation
 
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. BanjarNoun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
Noun Diminutive Forms- Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar
 
Noun Feminine Forms - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Noun Feminine Forms -  Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarNoun Feminine Forms -  Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Noun Feminine Forms - Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarSuffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Suffixal Homophones, Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef BanjarLane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
Lane 424 - IA-2012- Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar
 

Recently uploaded

2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
monicaaringo1
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
lakitawilson
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cátedra Banco Santander
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 DashboardYear-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Celine George
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Liyana Rozaini
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
artenzmartenkai
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
MJDuyan
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
 
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource BookNAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct Resource Book
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
Cómo crear video-tutoriales con ScreenPal (2 de julio de 2024)
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
How to Create Sequence Numbers in Odoo 17
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
 
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 DashboardYear-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
 
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Large Scrollbar in Odoo 17 POS
 
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
Bedok NEWater Photostory - COM322 Assessment (Story 2)
 
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptxKesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
Kesadaran_Berbangsa_dan_Bernegara_Nasion.pptx
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal HygieneEdukasyong Pantahanan at  Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan 1: Personal Hygiene
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
Genetics Teaching Plan: Dr.Kshirsagar R.V.
 

Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx

  • 1. PRAGMATICS http://www.kau.edu.sa/SBANJER By: http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar 1 DR. Shadia Y. Banjar
  • 2. Deixis Definition The word ‘deixis’ is a technical term (from Greek) for one of the most basic things we do with utterances, which means ‘pointing’ via language.' DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 2
  • 3. 1: any linguistic form used to accomplish ‘pointing’ is called a deictic expression. 2: deictic expressions are also known as indexicals. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 3
  • 4. Deictic expressions Deictic expressions are meaningful in a given context. They are among the first words acquired by children. In order to be interpreted correctly, the speaker and listener have to share the same context. They are particularly useful in face-to-face communication. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 4
  • 5. PERSON DEIXIS : Any expression used to point to a person ( me, you, him, them) is an example of PERSON DEIXIS. SPACE/SPATIAL/PLACE DEIXIS : Words used to point to a location ( here, there) are examples of PLACE DEIXIS. TIME/TEMPORAL DEIXIS : The expression used to point to a time ( now, then, tonight, last week, yesterday) are examples of TIME DEIXIS. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 5
  • 6. : DISCOURSE DEIXIS: any expression used to refer to earlier or forthcoming segments of the discourse: in the previous/next paragraph, or Have you heard this joke? SOCIAL DEIXIS: honorifics (forms to show respect such as Professor Li). DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 6
  • 7. Person Deixis a speech event includes at least two persons: – first person = speaker – second person = addressee If the two persons do not only refer to themselves while talking, there is a third person ( = the person they are talking about), that does not have to take part in the conversation. Usually the third person is not grammatically marked, because the only two persons of importance are the first person (speaker = most important) and the second person (addressee = less important). only in English: the suffix (-s) for the third person. The traditional category of plural is not symmetrically applied to first person (we) in the way it is to the third (they) – In addition there are two first person `plural` pronouns, corresponding to `we-inclusive-of-addressee` and `we-exclusive-of-addressee`: Let`s go to the cinema. = `we-inclusive-of-addressee` Let`s go to see you tomorrow. =`we-exclusive-of-addressee` (Levinson :1983) DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 7
  • 8. Person Deixis Pronouns: grammatical category for a person: personal pronouns – All languages have personal pronouns or at least words, that refer to the participants of the speech act. The pronouns of the first (I-my-mine) and second person (you- your-yours) are deictic: – reference to the speaking person. It is also possible to have deictic pronouns for the third person. Definite and specific pronouns: this, that, those, or these. Indefinite and specific pronouns: somebody , something , who, what. Indefinite and non-specific pronouns: someone , something , nobody, nothing. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 8
  • 9. Place Deixis concerns the locations relative to anchorage points in the speech event (speaker = centre), two basic ways of referring to objects: by describing or naming them and by locating them, locations can be specified relative to other objects: – The station is two hundred yards from the college. locations can be specified relative to the location of participants; – It's two hundred yards away. some pure place-deictic words: here and there (adverbs); this and that (demonstrative pronouns); => symbolic usage of here = pragmatically given unit of space that includes the location of the speaker; – I'm writing to say I'm having a marvellous time here. Adverbs: here and there = contrast on a proximal/distal dimension; – here = proximal (near); there = distal ( more distant) Bring that here and take this there. Demonstrative pronouns are more clearly organized in a proximal/distal dimension. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 9
  • 10. Place Deixis this = the object in a pragmatically given area close to the speaker's location, that = the object beyond the pragmatically given area close to the speaker's location, some languages have demonstratives with 3 and 4 way distinctions on the proximal-distal dimension; ( North West American language Tlingit) – demonstratives distinguish between – this one right here – this on nearby – that one over there – that one way over there Directions: to the left from; to the right from DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 10
  • 11. Place Deixis motion verbs = signs of place deixis – come vs. go makes distinction between the direction of motion He's coming = he is moving towards the speaker's location. He's going = he is moving away from the speaker's location. I'm coming = the speaker is moving towards the location of the addressee. – come = movement towards either the location of the speaker, or towards the location of the addressee. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 11
  • 12. Time Deixis makes ultimate reference to participant-role => ex.: now = the time at which the speaker is producing the utterance containing “now”. distinguish the moment of utterance (= coding time (CT)) and the moment of reception (= receiving time (RT)). in the canonical situation of utterance (deictic simultaneity) => CT =RT . – It is cold outside. (normal speech act) complexities in the usage of tense, time adverbs and other time-deictic morphemes (letter writing, or pre- recording of media programmes) => deictic centre remains on the speaker and CT: – This programme, is being recorded today, Wednesday April 1st, to be relayed next Thursday. => deictic centre is projected on the addressee and RT: – This programme was recorded last Wednesday, April 1st, to be relayed today. (deictic centre was projected into the future) DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 12
  • 13. Time Deixis Tenses: Tenses = time relations in connection to a given point in time – present = an event/action simultaneously to the speech act (work) – past = an event/action before the speech act (worked) – future = an event/action after the speech act (you will work) there are language systems with more than 3 possibilities – they distinguish between levels of past, dependent on their distance from the speaker's utterance – tense of immediate past => ex.: frz. Jean vient de resoudre le problème. John has just been able to solve the problem. difference between absolute tense – absolute tense refers immediately to the time of the speaker's utterance: simple past, simple present Relative tenses refer to other tenses: – past perfect: event refers to another event, that happens afterwards DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 13
  • 14. Time Deixis tenseless eternal sentences: – Two and two is four. languages without true tenses: – Chinese time deixis is relevant to various other deictic elements in language: – ex.: greetings => Good morning. can only be used in the morning – expressions: => the former president, my ex-husband DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 14
  • 15. Deictic center: the time of the utterance’s time; the place of the utterance’s place, the person just giving the utterance. “Near speaker” —“away from speaker” ︱ ︱ Proximal distal ︱ ︱ This, here, now that, there, then DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 15
  • 16. Discourse Deixis also called text deixis. concerns the use of expressions referring to apart of the discourse. while within time deixis: next week, last week,discourse deixis: in the next chapter, in the last paragraph. in discourse deixis, there are many words and phrases in English that indicate the relationship between utterance and the prior discourse: – but, therefore, in conclusion, to the contrary, still, however, anyway, well, besides, actually, all in all, so, after all – all these words make reference to a statement, sentence etc. that was said before some languages have morphemes that mark such discourse notions DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 16
  • 17. Social Deixis concerns those aspects of language structure that encode the social identities of participants, or the social relationship between them, but these usages are only relevant to the topic of social deixis in so far as they are grammaticalized: – polite pronouns e.g.“Vous”, address titles. social relations concern in all those examples the relation between the speaker and the addressee, especially the countries. in East Asia are known for having several levels of politeness, based on the social difference between the persons concerned. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 17
  • 18. Using Deixis • Certain words like here there, this, that , now , then, yesterday as well as most pronouns such as I , you, him, her , them can only be understood if we know about the context in which they are used. • For example, the sentence, “ you’ll have to bring that back tomorrow, because they aren’t here”, out of context will be quite unintelligible. • Because this sentence contain large number of certain expressions ( Deixis) which depend for their interpretation on the immediate physical context in which they are uttered. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 18
  • 19. All these expressions have to be interpreted in terms of what person , place or time the speaker has in mind. There is a broad distinction between what is marked as distant( that ,there, then). It is also possible to mark whether the movement is happening towards the speaker’s location( come) or away from speaker’s location (go) If you are looking for someone and he or she appears moving towards you, you tend to say “ Here she Comes! If , however, she/he is moving away from you in the distance, you are more like to say There she goes! DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 19
  • 20. People can actually use Deixis to have fun. The coffee shop owner who puts up a big sign that reads “ Free snacks Tomorrow” ( to get you to return to his shop) can always claim that you are one day too early for the meal. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 20
  • 21. Deixis and Grammar Grammar : • the study of the rules governing the use of a given natural language, and, as such, is a field of linguistics. •Traditionally, grammar included morphology and syntax. •In modern linguistics these subfields are complemented by phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. Pragmatics: •how do people use sentences in communication, •Characterize acceptable/unacceptable use. •It is no longer possible to consider sentences in isolation: we need to take the context into account. •We look beyond truth-conditional meanings. Deixis: • those words in a language that entirely depend on context (Fromkin, et. al., 1991). The meaning of deixis is 'pointing to' something. In verbal communication however, deixis in its narrow sense refers to the contextual meaning of pronouns, and in its broad sense, what the speaker means by a particular utterance in a given speech context. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 21
  • 22. Deixis and Grammar The basic distinctions for person, spatial, and temporal deixis can be seen in English grammar are presented in direct and indirect speech. Are you planning to be here this evening? ( DIRECT SPEECH) I asked her if she was planning to be there that evening. ( INDIRECT SPEECH) DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 22
  • 23. When reporting a previous utterance, the utterance is marked deictically as relative to the original circumstances. the proximal forms will be shifted to the corresponding distal forms. The proximal deictic forms of a direct speech give the sense of being in the same context as the utterance. The distal deictic forms of an indirect speech give the sense of being remote as the original speech event. The regular difference in English reported discourse marks a distinction between the ‘near speaker’ meaning of direct speech and the ‘away from speaker’ meaning of indirect speech. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 23
  • 24. DR. Shadia Y. Banjar 24