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Pragmatics
Presupposition & Entailment
Presupposition

      Definition

Types of Presupposition

    Some common
Presupposition triggers
Entailment

        Definition

      Characteristic

Background vs. Foreground
       entailment

  Subtypes of entailment
Presupposition
Context


Definition



                 Types
1.Definition:


- Presuppositions are implications that are often
  felt to be in the background — to be assumed
  by the speaker to be already known to the
  addressee
Presupposition
• For example:
     a. The king of France is bald.
       b. The king of France is not bald.
       c. Is the king of France bald?
      d. If the king of France is bald, he should wear a
 hat in the winter .


      There is a king of France.
Example : Mary’s brother bought three horses

• Presupposition:           • Entailment:
Mary exists, Mary has a     Mary’s brother buy
  brother, Mary has only       something, bought three
  one brother, Mary’s          animal, two horses, one
  brother is rich.             horse etc.
= speaker’s subjective      = the speaker’s beliefs are
  presupposition, all can      right or wrong
  be wrong.
2.Types

   Existential
   Factive
   Lexical
   Structural
   Non-Factive
   Counterfactual
2.1 Existential presupposition
• - Speaker is committed to the existence of the
  entities named
 The King of France
 the cat
 the girl next door
 your car
2.2 Factive presupposition
• Certain verbs/construction indicate that
  something is a fact.
• Example
- We REGRET telling him >>> we told him
- She didn’t REALIZE he was ill >> he was ill
- I’m GLAD it’s over >> it’s over
2.3. Lexical presupposition


is the assumption that, in using one
word, the speaker can act as if
another meaning (word) will be
understood.
Examples
     She pretended that he had understood what she
     Andrew stopped running.
     meant.

4   He used to run.


     You are late again.


4   You were late before.
2.4. Structural presupposition


is the assumption associated with
the use of certain words and
phrases.
Examples

• Wh-question in English are conventionally
 interpreted with the presupposition that the
 information after the wh-form (e.g. when and
 where) is already known to be the case.
Examples
     She pretended that he had understood what she
     When did she travel to the USA?
     meant.

4   >> she traveled


     Where did you buy the book?


4   >> you bought the book
A non – factive presupposition


    Is one that is assumed not
    to be true.
Examples
     She pretended that he had understood
     what she meant.

4   He did not understand what she meant.



     I imagined that Kelly was ill.


4   Kelly was not ill
A counter – factual presupposition



 Meaning that what is presupposed is not
only not true, but is the opposite of what is
true, or “ contrary to facts.”
Counterfactual conditional
       1     An If clause → a complete
           statement
Ex :
If I had enough money, I would buy that house.
→ I do not have enough money

If he hadn’t made such a terrible mistake, we
   would be very happy now.
→ He did make/made a terrible mistake.
2      An embedded clause after wish ⇒
              a complete statement


Ex :
They wish they could go on vacation now.
→ They cannot go on vacation now.

I wish I had studied medicine.
→ I did not study medicine.
3
     A clause with a modal perfect verb form ⇒
               a complete statement


Ex:
You shouldn’t have seen such a horror film.
→ You did see/saw a horror film.

You could have talked to the dean.
→ You did not talk to the dean.
Some common Presupposition
            triggers
Presupposition       Examples
triggers
Definite descriptions my son, the boss, Mike


Factive predicates   count, make sense, matter,
                     know, regret, realise, resent,
                     find out, discover, see, notice,
                     be aware that, be proud that,…

Counter-factual      If, unless, without,…
conditionals
Change of state verbs   begin, start, stop, finish,
                        cease, continue, carry
                        on, cease, take, leave,
                        enter, come, go, arrive
Temporal clauses        before, while, since,
                        after, during, whenever..

Cleft sentences         It is/was …. which/
                        whom/ that…

Questions               Who, what, when, …
Definition of Entailment


   a relationship that applies
    between two sentences/
propositions, where the truth of
one implies the truth of the other
 because of the meaning of the
         words involved
Characteristic
• logical consequences following from what is
  asserted in the utterance
• Sentences, not speakers, have entailments

e.g.   a) John beats Tom.
    => b) John beats someone.
        c) Tom was beaten by someone.
  a) true => b) & c) true
1.2 Characteristic
• Entailments depend on sentence meaning, not
  the context in which the sentence is used.
• Entailment also happens when one set of
  objects is included in another. It may be seen as
  a kind of hyponymic relation.
e.g.  Mary loves her dog very much.
     => Mary loves an animal very much.
dog: hyponymy
animal: superordinate
Characteristic
• Entailments can also involves the use of
  determiners. This is simply the relation of
  inclusion.

e.g. Every student loves learning English.
    => Most students love learning English.
Characteristic
• logical consequences following from what is
  asserted in the utterance
• Sentences, not speakers, have entailments

e.g.   a) John beats Tom.
    => b) John beats someone.
        c) Tom was beaten by someone.
  a) true => b) & c) true
Background vs. Foreground entailment


• In one occasion, one sentence can has a
  number of background entailments but one
  foreground entailment.
• Foreground entailments which is defined by
  stress, is more important for interpreting
  intended meaning.
• e.g.

• Rover chased three squirrels.
=>Rover chased a certain number of squirrels.

• Rover chased three squirrels.
=>Someone chased three squirrels.

• Rover chased three squirrels.
=>Rover chased something.
Subtypes of entailment


            Entailment




Assertion           Presupposition
Assertion

• A declarative sentence typically asserts
  that a state of affair exists.

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Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment

  • 2. Presupposition Definition Types of Presupposition Some common Presupposition triggers
  • 3. Entailment Definition Characteristic Background vs. Foreground entailment Subtypes of entailment
  • 6. 1.Definition: - Presuppositions are implications that are often felt to be in the background — to be assumed by the speaker to be already known to the addressee
  • 7. Presupposition • For example: a. The king of France is bald. b. The king of France is not bald. c. Is the king of France bald? d. If the king of France is bald, he should wear a hat in the winter . There is a king of France.
  • 8. Example : Mary’s brother bought three horses • Presupposition: • Entailment: Mary exists, Mary has a Mary’s brother buy brother, Mary has only something, bought three one brother, Mary’s animal, two horses, one brother is rich. horse etc. = speaker’s subjective = the speaker’s beliefs are presupposition, all can right or wrong be wrong.
  • 9. 2.Types  Existential  Factive  Lexical  Structural  Non-Factive  Counterfactual
  • 10. 2.1 Existential presupposition • - Speaker is committed to the existence of the entities named The King of France the cat the girl next door your car
  • 11. 2.2 Factive presupposition • Certain verbs/construction indicate that something is a fact. • Example - We REGRET telling him >>> we told him - She didn’t REALIZE he was ill >> he was ill - I’m GLAD it’s over >> it’s over
  • 12. 2.3. Lexical presupposition is the assumption that, in using one word, the speaker can act as if another meaning (word) will be understood.
  • 13. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she Andrew stopped running. meant. 4 He used to run. You are late again. 4 You were late before.
  • 14. 2.4. Structural presupposition is the assumption associated with the use of certain words and phrases.
  • 15. Examples • Wh-question in English are conventionally interpreted with the presupposition that the information after the wh-form (e.g. when and where) is already known to be the case.
  • 16. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she When did she travel to the USA? meant. 4 >> she traveled Where did you buy the book? 4 >> you bought the book
  • 17. A non – factive presupposition Is one that is assumed not to be true.
  • 18. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she meant. 4 He did not understand what she meant. I imagined that Kelly was ill. 4 Kelly was not ill
  • 19. A counter – factual presupposition Meaning that what is presupposed is not only not true, but is the opposite of what is true, or “ contrary to facts.”
  • 20. Counterfactual conditional 1 An If clause → a complete statement Ex : If I had enough money, I would buy that house. → I do not have enough money If he hadn’t made such a terrible mistake, we would be very happy now. → He did make/made a terrible mistake.
  • 21. 2 An embedded clause after wish ⇒ a complete statement Ex : They wish they could go on vacation now. → They cannot go on vacation now. I wish I had studied medicine. → I did not study medicine.
  • 22. 3 A clause with a modal perfect verb form ⇒ a complete statement Ex: You shouldn’t have seen such a horror film. → You did see/saw a horror film. You could have talked to the dean. → You did not talk to the dean.
  • 23. Some common Presupposition triggers Presupposition Examples triggers Definite descriptions my son, the boss, Mike Factive predicates count, make sense, matter, know, regret, realise, resent, find out, discover, see, notice, be aware that, be proud that,… Counter-factual If, unless, without,… conditionals
  • 24. Change of state verbs begin, start, stop, finish, cease, continue, carry on, cease, take, leave, enter, come, go, arrive Temporal clauses before, while, since, after, during, whenever.. Cleft sentences It is/was …. which/ whom/ that… Questions Who, what, when, …
  • 25. Definition of Entailment a relationship that applies between two sentences/ propositions, where the truth of one implies the truth of the other because of the meaning of the words involved
  • 26. Characteristic • logical consequences following from what is asserted in the utterance • Sentences, not speakers, have entailments e.g. a) John beats Tom. => b) John beats someone. c) Tom was beaten by someone. a) true => b) & c) true
  • 27. 1.2 Characteristic • Entailments depend on sentence meaning, not the context in which the sentence is used. • Entailment also happens when one set of objects is included in another. It may be seen as a kind of hyponymic relation. e.g. Mary loves her dog very much. => Mary loves an animal very much. dog: hyponymy animal: superordinate
  • 28. Characteristic • Entailments can also involves the use of determiners. This is simply the relation of inclusion. e.g. Every student loves learning English. => Most students love learning English.
  • 29. Characteristic • logical consequences following from what is asserted in the utterance • Sentences, not speakers, have entailments e.g. a) John beats Tom. => b) John beats someone. c) Tom was beaten by someone. a) true => b) & c) true
  • 30. Background vs. Foreground entailment • In one occasion, one sentence can has a number of background entailments but one foreground entailment. • Foreground entailments which is defined by stress, is more important for interpreting intended meaning.
  • 31. • e.g. • Rover chased three squirrels. =>Rover chased a certain number of squirrels. • Rover chased three squirrels. =>Someone chased three squirrels. • Rover chased three squirrels. =>Rover chased something.
  • 32. Subtypes of entailment Entailment Assertion Presupposition
  • 33. Assertion • A declarative sentence typically asserts that a state of affair exists.