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NUTRIENTS AND NUTRITIONAL
REQUIREMENTS OF CHILDREN
PRESENTED BY,
MISS . JAYS GEORGE
1ST YEAR MSC(N)
D Y P S O N
INTRODUCTION
•Nutrition is the science that interprets the
interaction of nutrients and other substances in
food in relation to maintenance , growth ,
reproduction , health and illness of an organism
.A poor diet may have an injurious impact on
health causing deficiency diseases
DEFINITION
•Nutrition is defined as the process of
providing or obtaining the food
necessary for health and growth
_ OXFORD DICTIONARY
NUTRIENTS
Nutrients are of two types :
• MACRONUTRIENTS , which are needed in larger
amounts ( CHO , Fats , protein and water).
• MICRONUTRIENTS , which are needed in smaller
amounts ( minerals and vitamins )
NUTRIENTS PRIMARY FUNCTION
WATER Dissolves and carry nutrients , removes waste and
regulates body temperature
PROTEIN Builds new tissue , antibodies , enzymes hormones and
other compounds
CHO Provides energy
FAT Provides long term energy insulation and protection
VITAMINS Facilitate use of other nutrients involved in regulating
growth and manufacturing hormones
MINERALS Helps in growth of bones and teeth , aid in muscle
function and nervous system activity
NUTRITIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
IN CHILDREN
WATER AND CALORIES
AGE RANGE WATER REQUIREMENT CALORIE REQUIREMENT
FIRST 3 DAYS 80 – 100 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg
3 – 10 DAYS 125 – 150 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg
15 DAYS – 3 MONTHS 140 – 160 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg
3 – 12 MONTHS 150 ml/Kg 105-110 cal/kg
1 – 3 YEARS 125 ml/Kg 100 cal/kg
4 – 6 YEARS 100 ml/Kg 90 cal/kg
7 – 9 YEARS 75 ml/Kg 80 cal/kg
10 – 12 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 70 cal/kg
13 – 15 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 60 cal/kg
16 – 19 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 50 cal/kg
ADULT 50 ml/Kg 40 cal/kg
PROTEINS
GROUP AGE PROTEIN
ALLOWANCE
(gm/kg/day)
Gm/day
INFANTS 0 – 3 MONTHS
3 – 6 MONTHS
6 --9 MONTHS
9 – 12 MONTHS
2.3 (MILK PROTEIN)
1.8 (MILK PROTEIN)
1.65 (MIXED PROTEIN)
1.5 (MIXED PROTEIN)
-
-
-
-
CHILDREN 1 – 3 YEARS
4 – 6 YEARS
7 – 9 YEARS
1.83
1.52
1.48
22.0
30.0
41.0
ADOLESCENTS MALES
10 – 12 YEARS
13 – 15 YEARS
16 – 18 YEARS
FEMALES
10 – 12 YEARS
13 – 15 YEARS
16 – 18 YEARS
1.46 gm /kg/day
1.40
1.31
1.45
1.33
1.21
54.0 gm/day
70.0
78.0
57.0
65.0
63.0
CARBOHYDRATES
• CHO are main source of energy and supply bulk in the diet.
• They contribute taste and are essential for digestion and
absorption of other foods.
• Carbohydrates play an important part , in infant nutrition as they
spare proteins to be fully utilized for growth and various repair
process.
• All CHO are ultimately oxidized and converts to glucose.
• Glucose is used as fuel by brain and muscle or converted to
glycogen and stored in liver and muscle.
• Sources of carbohydrate in infants diet is found in the form of
lactose in both human and cows milk that should be provided
up to 6 months.
• Lack of adequate CHO may produces symptoms of starvation
, undernutrition ,constipation , loss of body protein
FATS
•Fat supplies 40 - 50% energy needed for the infant.
•It provides protection and support for organs and
insulation of the body as adipose tissue.
•It as carrier of fat soluble vitamins.
•Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy and
make the foods palatable.
•Fats and oils are termed as lipids.
• SATURATED FATS :animal sources such as meat ,eggs, milk and dairy
products.
• UNSATURATED FATS : commonly found in plant and fish(poly
unsaturated), peas ,beans , whole cereals , nuts , cooking oil.
• More fat intake in diet can cause indigestion as it remains longer in
the stomach.
• Deficiency of all fatty acids may result in growth retardation , skin
disorders, susceptibility to infections ,neurological and visual
problems.
• ICMR has recommended a daily fat intake of 25 gm/ day in young
children and 22 gm/day in older children.
VITAMINS
• Vitamins are organic substances and essential micro nutrients for
maintenance of normal health.
• Vitamins enables the body to use other nutrients and help in maintenance
and protection of good health.
• Vitamins are classified into two groups :
1) FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
2) WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
• Vitamin requirement of individual child may vary with activity , age ,body
weight.
• Vitamin requirement is more in preterm babies , infant get adequate
vitamins from mother during lactation.
MINERALS
Minerals are inorganic element a, required by human body for
growth , repair and regulations of vital body functions.
A well balanced diet is a sufficient quality of minerals.
Minerals are required for maintenance of osmotic pressure , supply
of necessary electrolytes.
Minerals are classified into macrominerals when the daily
requirement is 100mg or and micro minerals when the daily
requirement is less than 100mg.
MINERAL AGE GROUP MINERAL ALLOWANCE
IRON INFANT
1 – 3 YEARS
4 – 6 YEARS
7 – 9 YEARS
10 – 12 YEARS
13 – 15 YEARS
16 – 18 YEARS
1 MG/KG
12 MG/KG
18 MG/KG
26 MG
BOYS 34 MG
GIRLS 19 MG
BOYS 41 MG
GIRLS 28 MG
BOYS 50 MG
GIRLS 30 MG
CALCIUM INFANT
1 – 9 YEARS
10 – 15 YEARS
16 – 18 YEARS
500 MG
400 MG
600 MG
500 MG
IODINE 0.2 MG
SODIUM 2 MEQ/KG
POTASSIUM 1.5 MEQ/KG
ZINC 0.3 MG/KG
COPPER 0.5 -1 MG/KG
FLOURINE 0.5 – 1 MG/KG
IMPORTANCE
OF NUTRITION
GUIDELINES FOR
PAEDIATRIC
NUTRITION
Infant should be exclusively breastfed for first 6 months.
After 6 months provide nutrients which are easily digestible.
Contains various antibodies which help to build immune
systems.
Never overfeed or force the child to eat.
Introduce new foods at regular intervals to increase
acceptance of few foods.
Provide small frequent meals.
Provide food in colourful and appealing way.
Balance food with physical activity.
Provide plenty of grains , fruits and vegetables , low fat dairy
products
Never stop breakfast.
Involve the child in making food choices.
NUTRITIONAL
COUNSELLING FOR
CHILDREN
The important responsibility of the pediatric nurse is to provide
nutritional counselling and guidance to the parents and also to
the children, with the goal of achieving optimum nutrition
through out the year of growth and development.
 AT 6 MONTHS :
complementary feeding to be initiated with fruit juices and
then new foods to be introduced with vegetable soup, mashed
banana, mashed and boiled potato ect.
Each food should be given with one or two teaspoons at first for
3 to 6 times per day.
• 6 TO 9 MONTHS
Food items given in this period include soft mixture of rice and dal , khichadi,
pulses, mashed and boiled potato, bread or roti soaked in milk or dal, mashed
fruits like banana ,mango, papaya, stewed apple etc.
Egg yolk can be given from 6 to 7 months onwards
Curd or khir can be introduced from 7 to 8 months onwards .
• 9 TO 12 MONTHS
New food items like fish, meat , chicken can be introduced during this period.
Feeds should be soft and well cooked
Spices and condiments to be avoided
Breastfeeding to be continued
• 12 TO 18 MONTHS
The child can take all food cooked in family and needs half amount of
mothers diet.
Number of feeds can be 4 to 5 times or according to the childs need.
Breastfeeding to be continued , especially at night.
CONCLUSION
• Adequate knowledge , attitude and practices of application of
nutritional requirements must be the basis of infant feeding. The health
and nutritional status of an infant and subsequent growth and
development through childhood depends upon successful feeding
practices. Nutritional counselling is the important responsibility of the
nurse to promote the nutritional status of the children and to prevent
nutritional deficiency diseases
Nutrients and nutritional requirements of children

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Nutrients and nutritional requirements of children

  • 1.
  • 2. NUTRIENTS AND NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF CHILDREN PRESENTED BY, MISS . JAYS GEORGE 1ST YEAR MSC(N) D Y P S O N
  • 3. INTRODUCTION •Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance , growth , reproduction , health and illness of an organism .A poor diet may have an injurious impact on health causing deficiency diseases
  • 4. DEFINITION •Nutrition is defined as the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth _ OXFORD DICTIONARY
  • 5. NUTRIENTS Nutrients are of two types : • MACRONUTRIENTS , which are needed in larger amounts ( CHO , Fats , protein and water). • MICRONUTRIENTS , which are needed in smaller amounts ( minerals and vitamins )
  • 6. NUTRIENTS PRIMARY FUNCTION WATER Dissolves and carry nutrients , removes waste and regulates body temperature PROTEIN Builds new tissue , antibodies , enzymes hormones and other compounds CHO Provides energy FAT Provides long term energy insulation and protection VITAMINS Facilitate use of other nutrients involved in regulating growth and manufacturing hormones MINERALS Helps in growth of bones and teeth , aid in muscle function and nervous system activity
  • 9. AGE RANGE WATER REQUIREMENT CALORIE REQUIREMENT FIRST 3 DAYS 80 – 100 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg 3 – 10 DAYS 125 – 150 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg 15 DAYS – 3 MONTHS 140 – 160 ml/Kg 120 cal/kg 3 – 12 MONTHS 150 ml/Kg 105-110 cal/kg 1 – 3 YEARS 125 ml/Kg 100 cal/kg 4 – 6 YEARS 100 ml/Kg 90 cal/kg 7 – 9 YEARS 75 ml/Kg 80 cal/kg 10 – 12 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 70 cal/kg 13 – 15 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 60 cal/kg 16 – 19 YEARS 50 ml/Kg 50 cal/kg ADULT 50 ml/Kg 40 cal/kg
  • 11. GROUP AGE PROTEIN ALLOWANCE (gm/kg/day) Gm/day INFANTS 0 – 3 MONTHS 3 – 6 MONTHS 6 --9 MONTHS 9 – 12 MONTHS 2.3 (MILK PROTEIN) 1.8 (MILK PROTEIN) 1.65 (MIXED PROTEIN) 1.5 (MIXED PROTEIN) - - - - CHILDREN 1 – 3 YEARS 4 – 6 YEARS 7 – 9 YEARS 1.83 1.52 1.48 22.0 30.0 41.0 ADOLESCENTS MALES 10 – 12 YEARS 13 – 15 YEARS 16 – 18 YEARS FEMALES 10 – 12 YEARS 13 – 15 YEARS 16 – 18 YEARS 1.46 gm /kg/day 1.40 1.31 1.45 1.33 1.21 54.0 gm/day 70.0 78.0 57.0 65.0 63.0
  • 13. • CHO are main source of energy and supply bulk in the diet. • They contribute taste and are essential for digestion and absorption of other foods. • Carbohydrates play an important part , in infant nutrition as they spare proteins to be fully utilized for growth and various repair process. • All CHO are ultimately oxidized and converts to glucose.
  • 14. • Glucose is used as fuel by brain and muscle or converted to glycogen and stored in liver and muscle. • Sources of carbohydrate in infants diet is found in the form of lactose in both human and cows milk that should be provided up to 6 months. • Lack of adequate CHO may produces symptoms of starvation , undernutrition ,constipation , loss of body protein
  • 15. FATS
  • 16. •Fat supplies 40 - 50% energy needed for the infant. •It provides protection and support for organs and insulation of the body as adipose tissue. •It as carrier of fat soluble vitamins. •Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy and make the foods palatable. •Fats and oils are termed as lipids.
  • 17. • SATURATED FATS :animal sources such as meat ,eggs, milk and dairy products. • UNSATURATED FATS : commonly found in plant and fish(poly unsaturated), peas ,beans , whole cereals , nuts , cooking oil. • More fat intake in diet can cause indigestion as it remains longer in the stomach. • Deficiency of all fatty acids may result in growth retardation , skin disorders, susceptibility to infections ,neurological and visual problems. • ICMR has recommended a daily fat intake of 25 gm/ day in young children and 22 gm/day in older children.
  • 19. • Vitamins are organic substances and essential micro nutrients for maintenance of normal health. • Vitamins enables the body to use other nutrients and help in maintenance and protection of good health. • Vitamins are classified into two groups : 1) FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS 2) WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS • Vitamin requirement of individual child may vary with activity , age ,body weight. • Vitamin requirement is more in preterm babies , infant get adequate vitamins from mother during lactation.
  • 21. Minerals are inorganic element a, required by human body for growth , repair and regulations of vital body functions. A well balanced diet is a sufficient quality of minerals. Minerals are required for maintenance of osmotic pressure , supply of necessary electrolytes. Minerals are classified into macrominerals when the daily requirement is 100mg or and micro minerals when the daily requirement is less than 100mg.
  • 22. MINERAL AGE GROUP MINERAL ALLOWANCE IRON INFANT 1 – 3 YEARS 4 – 6 YEARS 7 – 9 YEARS 10 – 12 YEARS 13 – 15 YEARS 16 – 18 YEARS 1 MG/KG 12 MG/KG 18 MG/KG 26 MG BOYS 34 MG GIRLS 19 MG BOYS 41 MG GIRLS 28 MG BOYS 50 MG GIRLS 30 MG CALCIUM INFANT 1 – 9 YEARS 10 – 15 YEARS 16 – 18 YEARS 500 MG 400 MG 600 MG 500 MG
  • 23. IODINE 0.2 MG SODIUM 2 MEQ/KG POTASSIUM 1.5 MEQ/KG ZINC 0.3 MG/KG COPPER 0.5 -1 MG/KG FLOURINE 0.5 – 1 MG/KG
  • 26. Infant should be exclusively breastfed for first 6 months. After 6 months provide nutrients which are easily digestible. Contains various antibodies which help to build immune systems. Never overfeed or force the child to eat. Introduce new foods at regular intervals to increase acceptance of few foods. Provide small frequent meals.
  • 27. Provide food in colourful and appealing way. Balance food with physical activity. Provide plenty of grains , fruits and vegetables , low fat dairy products Never stop breakfast. Involve the child in making food choices.
  • 29. The important responsibility of the pediatric nurse is to provide nutritional counselling and guidance to the parents and also to the children, with the goal of achieving optimum nutrition through out the year of growth and development.  AT 6 MONTHS : complementary feeding to be initiated with fruit juices and then new foods to be introduced with vegetable soup, mashed banana, mashed and boiled potato ect. Each food should be given with one or two teaspoons at first for 3 to 6 times per day.
  • 30. • 6 TO 9 MONTHS Food items given in this period include soft mixture of rice and dal , khichadi, pulses, mashed and boiled potato, bread or roti soaked in milk or dal, mashed fruits like banana ,mango, papaya, stewed apple etc. Egg yolk can be given from 6 to 7 months onwards Curd or khir can be introduced from 7 to 8 months onwards . • 9 TO 12 MONTHS New food items like fish, meat , chicken can be introduced during this period. Feeds should be soft and well cooked Spices and condiments to be avoided Breastfeeding to be continued
  • 31. • 12 TO 18 MONTHS The child can take all food cooked in family and needs half amount of mothers diet. Number of feeds can be 4 to 5 times or according to the childs need. Breastfeeding to be continued , especially at night.
  • 32. CONCLUSION • Adequate knowledge , attitude and practices of application of nutritional requirements must be the basis of infant feeding. The health and nutritional status of an infant and subsequent growth and development through childhood depends upon successful feeding practices. Nutritional counselling is the important responsibility of the nurse to promote the nutritional status of the children and to prevent nutritional deficiency diseases