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Nutraceuticals
• The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition"
and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice,
MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for
Innovation in Medicine (FIM), Cranford, NJ.
[Nutr (ition) + (pharm) aceutical]
• "Nutraceutical" is creating the concept that extracts
from food can be used as drugs, i.e. food
supplements.
Nutraceuticals are products purified from foods that
are generally sold in medicinal forms, such as
powders, tablets or capsules, to provide protection
against chronic disease.
Nutraceuticals can be derived from plants, from
animals and microorganisms (e.g. essential fatty
acids, enzymes, etc.) and from marine sources (e.g.
glucosamine, chitosan, fish oils, etc.).
The purpose of Nutraceuticals is to maintain or improve
key functional aspects of the human body, such as:
Digestive systems
Immune system
Cardiovascular system
Dental health
Bone strength
 Carbohydrates & Fiber
 Fat & Essential fatty acids
 Protein
 Minerals like Macrominerals & Trace minerals
 Vitamins
 Water
 Other nutrients like Antioxidants, Phytochemicals &
Intestinal bacterial flora
• Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy.
Your body uses minerals for many different jobs,
including building bones, making hormones and
regulating your heartbeat.
• Macrominerals- Elements with recommended
dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day
• Trace minerals- Some trace mineral elements with
recommended dietary allowance (RDA) less than
200 mg/day
Macrominerals Function
Calcium
Essential for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, neutralize acidity, help
clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions
Chlorine Very common electrolyte
Magnesium Builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity
Phosphorus Required component of bones; essential for energy processing
Potassium Very common electrolyte for heart and nerve health
Sodium Very common electrolyte
Sulfur
For three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins like skin, hair, nails, liver, and
pancreas
Trace minerals Function
Cobalt Required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes.
Copper Required component of many redox enzymes
Chromium Required for sugar metabolism
Iodine
Required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, for other important organs as breast, stomach,
salivary glands, thymus etc
Iron Required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
Manganese Processing of oxygen
Molybdenum Required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
Nickel Present in urease
Selenium Required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
Vanadium No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans
Zinc
Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and
carbonic anhydrase
• We have more calcium in our body than any other
mineral.
• The body stores more than 99 percent of its
calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and
keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body
in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells.
• Our body needs calcium to help muscles and blood
vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones
and enzymes and to send messages through the
nervous system.
• Calcium helps our body with:
Building strong bones and teeth
Clotting blood
Sending and receiving nerve signals
Squeezing and relaxing muscles
Releasing hormones and other chemicals
Keeping a normal heartbeat
• Types of calcium supplements
• The two main forms of calcium dietary supplements are
calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Calcium phosphate is
less common.
• Calcium Carbonate: Over-the-counter products contain
calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do
not cost very much.
• Calcium Citrate: This is a more expensive form of the
supplement. It is absorbed well on an empty or full stomach.
People with low levels of stomach acid (a condition that is
more common in people over age 50) absorb calcium citrate
more easily than calcium carbonate.
Infants (Adequate Intake)
0 - 6 months: 200 milligrams per day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 260 mg/day
Children and Adolescents
1 - 3 years: 700 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 1,000 mg/day
9 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day
Adults
19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day
50 - 70 years:
Men - 1,000 mg/day
Women - 1,200 mg/day
Over 71 years - 1,200 mg/day
Pregnancy and Breast-feeding
14 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day
19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day
Up to 2,500 - 3,000 mg a day of calcium from dietary sources and supplements appears
to be safe for children
• Magnesium is an essential element in biological
systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion.
• It is an essential mineral nutrient for life and is present in
every cell type in every organism.
• For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source
of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in
order to be biologically active.
• Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions
for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or
synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to
synthesize DNA and RNA.
• Magnesium in the body serves several important
functions:
Contraction and relaxation of muscles
Function of certain enzymes in the body
Production and transport of energy
Production of protein
• Nerve conduction
• Magnesium can affect muscle relaxation
through direct action on cell membranes.
• Mg++ ions close certain types of calcium
channels, which conduct a positively
charged calcium ion into neurons.
• With an excess of magnesium, more
channels will be blocked and nerve cells
will have less activity
• Hypertension
• Magnesium-containing salts are especially used in treating the
hypertension of eclampsia.
• Even if the case is not eclampsia, there may
be antihypertensive effects of having a substantial portion of
the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) exchanged for e.g.
magnesium chloride; NaCl is an osmolite and
increases arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, which
increases extracellular volume and thus results in increased
blood pressure.
• However, not all osmolites have this effect on AVP release, so
with magnesium chloride, the increase in osmolarity may not
cause such a hypertensive response.
Symptoms due to a lack of magnesium have three
categories.
Early symptoms:
Anorexia
Apathy
Confusion
Fatigue
Insomnia
Irritability
Muscle twitching
Poor memory
Reduced ability to learn
Moderate deficiency symptoms:
Heart (cardiovascular) changes
Rapid heartbeat
Severe deficiency:
Continued muscle contraction
Delirium
Numbness
Hallucinations
Tingling
These are the recommended daily requirements of magnesium:
Children
1 - 3 years old: 80 milligrams
4 - 8 years old: 130 milligrams
9 - 13 years old: 240 milligrams
14 - 18 years old (boys): 410 milligrams
14 - 18 years old (girls): 360 milligrams
Adult females: 310 - 320 milligrams
Pregnancy: 350 - 400 milligrams
Breastfeeding women: 310 - 360 milligrams
Adult males: 400 - 420 milligrams
• Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work
normally.
• It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also
helps move nutrients into cells and waste products
out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset
some of sodium's harmful effects on blood
pressure.
• Potassium is a mineral involved in electrical and
cellular body functions. In the body, potassium is
classified as an electrolyte.
• Function
• Potassium is a very important mineral to the human body. It has
various roles in metabolism and body functions and is essential for
the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs:
• It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance.
• It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and
in carbohydrate metabolism.
• It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth.
• It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart.
The Food and Nutrition Center of the Institute of Medicine has
established the following recommended dietary intakes for potassium:
Infants
0 - 6 months: 0.4 grams a day (g/day)
7 - 12 months: 0.7 g/day
Children and Adolescents
1 - 3 years: 3 g/day
4 - 8 years: 3.8 g/day
9 - 13 years: 4.5 g/day
14 - 18 years: 4.7 g/day
Adults
Age 19 and older: 4.7 g/day
Women who are producing breast milk need slightly higher amounts
(5.1 g/day). Ask your doctor what amount is best for you.
• Zinc is found in cells throughout the body.
• It is needed for the body's defensive (immune)
system to properly work. It plays a role in cell
division, cell growth, wound healing, and the
breakdown of carbohydrates.
• Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and
taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the
body needs zinc to grow and develop properly.
Symptoms of zinc deficiency include:
Frequent infections
Hypogonadism in males
Loss of hair
Poor appetite
Problems with the sense of taste
Problems with the sense of smell
Skin sores
Slow growth
Trouble seeing in the dark
Wounds that take a long time to heal
Dietary Reference Intakes for zinc:
Infants
0 - 6 months: 2* milligrams per day (mg/day)
7 - 12 months: 3* mg/day
*Adequate Intake (AI)
Children
1 - 3 years: 3 mg/day
4 - 8 years: 5 mg/day
9 - 13 years: 8 mg/day
Adolescents and Adults
Males age 14 and over: 11 mg/day
Females age 14 to 18 years: 9 mg/day
Females age 19 and over: 8 mg/day
• Vitamins are substances that our body needs to
grow and develop normally.
• There are 13 vitamins our body needs.
• They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins
(thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin,
vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate).
• We can usually get all our vitamins from the foods
we eat. Our body can also make vitamins D and K.
People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take
a vitamin B12 supplement.
Water Soluble
Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Absorption Directly into blood
Along with lipids through
lymphatic system
Storage
Circulate freely in water
filled parts of body
Stored with fat
Excretion Excesses through urine
Not as easily excreted; stored in
body
Toxicity Possible from supplements
More easily reaches toxic levels
- from supplements
Vitamins
Fat Soluble
A D E K
Water Soluble
C B
Complex
Vitami
n
Sci. Name Source Function
Symptoms of
deficiency
Vitamin
A
Retinol
meat, eggs, oily
fish, liver, milk,
cheese, kidney
For healthy bones, teeth, mucous
membranes and skin. Aids vision,
especially in the dark. Carotenoids,
which are other forms of vitamin A are
powerful antioxidants.
Poor night vision, eye
problems, weakened
immune system and more
prone to infection.
Vitamin
D2
Ergocalciferol dairy product, oily
fish and fish oils,
eggs, and fortified
cereals.
Vitamin D is needed to absorb
calcium and strengthen bones and
teeth and can prevent the onset of
osteoporosis.
Softening and weakening of
the bones, insomnia,
nervousness and muscle
weakness.
Vitamin
D3
Cholecalciferol
Vitamin
E
Tocopherol
vegetable oils
such as mustard,
palm, sunflower,
olive and
soybean.
Acts as an antioxidant. Helps body
form new red blood cells and
improves the functioning of immune
system. Using vitamin E for leg
cramps offers many benefits.
Anemia
Muscle Weakness
Leg Cramps
Neurological Disorders
Vitamin
K1
Phytomenadion
e
spinach,
cauliflower, green
leafy vegetables,
soya beans,
spring onions and
nuts.
Essential for blood clotting, also helps
to maintain strong bones and could
prevent osteoporosis.
Easy bruising and bleeding.
Vitamin
K2
Menaquinone
Vitami
n
Sci. Name Source Function
Symptoms of
deficiency
Vitamin
C
Ascorbic
acid
Citrus fruits, melon,
strawberries,
blackcurrants, green
peppers, tomatoes,
broccoli, kiwi fruit,
potatoes, dark green leafy
vegetables,
Maintain skin, teeth, gums,
tendons and ligaments, aids to
heal wounds quicker,
strengthen the immune system
and fight cancerous cells.
Required to form
neurotransmitters
Prone to infections, slower
healing of wounds, dental
and gum problems, fatigue,
loss of appetite, dry skin,
painful joints, anaemia and
a slower metabolism.
Vitamin
B5
Pantothenic
acid
Eggs, meat, liver, dried
fruit, fish, whole grain
cereals, pulses
Needed for the metabolism and
synthesis of all foods
Tiredness and a loss of
feeling in the toes.
Vitamin
B6
Pyridoxine
lean meat, eggs, chicken,
liver, fish, beans, nuts,
whole grains and cereals,
bananas.
Formation of red blood cells
and various neurotransmitters
and a healthy immune system
and healthy antibodies.
Managing blood sugar and
preventing heart disease.
protein Metabolism and can
improve cognitive function.
Skin disorders, mouth
sores, confusion,
depression and anemia.
Vitamin
B9
Folic Acid
leafy green vegetables,
citrus fruits, pulses,
wheatgerm, fortified
cereals, liver, pork, poultry,
broccoli, yeast.
Production of red blood cells,
DNA and proteins. growth and
repair of cells and tissues and is
especially important during
pregnancy to prevent babies
being born with spina bifida.
Anemia, incorrect
absorption of essential
nutrients and neural tube
defects in babies.
• Dextrose, commonly called glucose, d-glucose, or blood
sugar, occurs naturally in food, and is moderately sweet.
• It is a monosaccharide (basic unit of carbohydrates,
C6H1206) and has a high glycemic index (digested
carbohydrates ability to raise blood glucose levels, also
called Gl).
• Sucrose, the technical name for table sugar, cane
sugar, or white sugar, is made of one glucose
molecule and one fructose molecule bound
together. Comes in powdered and granulated
forms, sugar is made from highly processed form of
sugar beet or sugar cane plant extracts.
Introducing
For the First time in India
Spasm
Dextrose 7.5gm + Magnesium Sulphate 250mg + Calcium Citrate Maleate 500mg +
Methylcobalamine 1500mcg + Vitamin D3 1000IU + Vitamin E 400IU + Vitamin B6 10mg
Powder
Spasm-SF
Magnesium Sulphate 250mg + Calcium Citrate Maleate 500mg + Methylcobalamine 1500mcg +
Vitamin D3 1000IU + Vitamin E 400IU + Vitamin B6 10mg + Potassium Citrate 100mg Powder
• A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted
muscle that does not relax.
• When we use the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily,
such as those of our arms and legs, they alternately contract
and relax as we move our limbs.
• Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract
similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture.
• A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily
(without consciously willing it) contracts is in a "spasm." If the
spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp.
• Muscle cramps often cause a visible or palpable hardening of
the involved muscle.
 Almost everyone experiences a muscle cramp at some
time in their life.
 There are a variety of types and causes of muscle
cramps.
 Numerous medicines can cause muscle cramps.
 Most muscle cramps can be stopped if the muscle can be
stretched.
 Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such
as adequate nutrition and hydration, attention to safety
when exercising, and attention to ergonomic factors.
• Low blood calcium, magnesium: Low blood levels of either
calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of both
the nerve endings and the muscles they stimulate. These are
commonly noted during pregnancy.
• Low levels of calcium and magnesium are common in pregnant
women.
• Cramps are seen in any circumstance that decreases the
availability of calcium or magnesium in body fluids, such as
taking diuretics, hyperventilation (overbreathing),
excessive vomiting, inadequate calcium and/or magnesium in
the diet, inadequate calcium absorption due to vitamin D
deficiency, poor function of the parathyroid glands (tiny glands
in the neck that regulate calcium balance), and other
conditions.
• Low potassium: Low potassium blood levels
occasionally cause muscle cramps, although it is more
common for low potassium to be associated with
muscle weakness.
• Low Magnesium (Hypomagnesemia) triggers following
condition:
Anxiety & Panic Attacks – Mg normally keeps adrenal stress
hormone under control.
Asthma – Both histamine production & bronchial spasm
increase with magnesium deficiency.
Depression – Serotonin, which elevates mood, is dependent on
Mg. A Mg-deficient brain is also more susceptible to allergens,
foreign substances that can cause symptoms similar to mental
illness.
Detoxification – Mg is crucial for the removal of toxic
substances & heavy metals such as aluminum & lead.
Nerve Problems : Magnesium alleviates peripheral
disturbances throughout the whole body, such as
migraines, muscle contraction, gastrointestinal spasm &
calf, foot & toe cramps.
Musculoskeletal Conditions – Fibrositis, fibromyalgia,
muscle spasms, eye twitches, cramp & chronic neck &
back pain may caused by magnesium deficiency.
Osteoporosis – Use of calcium with Vitamin D to enhance
calcium absorption without a balancing amount of Mg
causes further Mg deficiency, which triggers a cascade of
events leading to bone loss.
• Obstetrics & Gynacology – Mg prevents Pre-menstrual
Syndrome (PMS), prevents dysmenorrhea (cramping pain
during menses). Mg alleviates premature contractions,
pre-eclampsia & eclampsia in pregnancy. Intravenous Mg
is given in obstetrical wards for pregnancy-induced
hypertension & to lessen the risk of cerebral palsy &
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
Thank You

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Nutraceuticals

  • 2. • The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice, MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM), Cranford, NJ. [Nutr (ition) + (pharm) aceutical] • "Nutraceutical" is creating the concept that extracts from food can be used as drugs, i.e. food supplements.
  • 3. Nutraceuticals are products purified from foods that are generally sold in medicinal forms, such as powders, tablets or capsules, to provide protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals can be derived from plants, from animals and microorganisms (e.g. essential fatty acids, enzymes, etc.) and from marine sources (e.g. glucosamine, chitosan, fish oils, etc.).
  • 4. The purpose of Nutraceuticals is to maintain or improve key functional aspects of the human body, such as: Digestive systems Immune system Cardiovascular system Dental health Bone strength
  • 5.  Carbohydrates & Fiber  Fat & Essential fatty acids  Protein  Minerals like Macrominerals & Trace minerals  Vitamins  Water  Other nutrients like Antioxidants, Phytochemicals & Intestinal bacterial flora
  • 6. • Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making hormones and regulating your heartbeat. • Macrominerals- Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day • Trace minerals- Some trace mineral elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) less than 200 mg/day
  • 7. Macrominerals Function Calcium Essential for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, neutralize acidity, help clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions Chlorine Very common electrolyte Magnesium Builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity Phosphorus Required component of bones; essential for energy processing Potassium Very common electrolyte for heart and nerve health Sodium Very common electrolyte Sulfur For three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins like skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas Trace minerals Function Cobalt Required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes. Copper Required component of many redox enzymes Chromium Required for sugar metabolism Iodine Required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc Iron Required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins Manganese Processing of oxygen Molybdenum Required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases Nickel Present in urease Selenium Required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) Vanadium No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans Zinc Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase
  • 8. • We have more calcium in our body than any other mineral. • The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. The rest is throughout the body in blood, muscle and the fluid between cells. • Our body needs calcium to help muscles and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system.
  • 9. • Calcium helps our body with: Building strong bones and teeth Clotting blood Sending and receiving nerve signals Squeezing and relaxing muscles Releasing hormones and other chemicals Keeping a normal heartbeat
  • 10. • Types of calcium supplements • The two main forms of calcium dietary supplements are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Calcium phosphate is less common. • Calcium Carbonate: Over-the-counter products contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost very much. • Calcium Citrate: This is a more expensive form of the supplement. It is absorbed well on an empty or full stomach. People with low levels of stomach acid (a condition that is more common in people over age 50) absorb calcium citrate more easily than calcium carbonate.
  • 11. Infants (Adequate Intake) 0 - 6 months: 200 milligrams per day (mg/day) 7 - 12 months: 260 mg/day Children and Adolescents 1 - 3 years: 700 mg/day 4 - 8 years: 1,000 mg/day 9 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day Adults 19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day 50 - 70 years: Men - 1,000 mg/day Women - 1,200 mg/day Over 71 years - 1,200 mg/day Pregnancy and Breast-feeding 14 - 18 years: 1,300 mg/day 19 - 50 years: 1,000 mg/day Up to 2,500 - 3,000 mg a day of calcium from dietary sources and supplements appears to be safe for children
  • 12. • Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. • It is an essential mineral nutrient for life and is present in every cell type in every organism. • For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. • Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those that use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA.
  • 13. • Magnesium in the body serves several important functions: Contraction and relaxation of muscles Function of certain enzymes in the body Production and transport of energy Production of protein
  • 14. • Nerve conduction • Magnesium can affect muscle relaxation through direct action on cell membranes. • Mg++ ions close certain types of calcium channels, which conduct a positively charged calcium ion into neurons. • With an excess of magnesium, more channels will be blocked and nerve cells will have less activity
  • 15. • Hypertension • Magnesium-containing salts are especially used in treating the hypertension of eclampsia. • Even if the case is not eclampsia, there may be antihypertensive effects of having a substantial portion of the intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) exchanged for e.g. magnesium chloride; NaCl is an osmolite and increases arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, which increases extracellular volume and thus results in increased blood pressure. • However, not all osmolites have this effect on AVP release, so with magnesium chloride, the increase in osmolarity may not cause such a hypertensive response.
  • 16. Symptoms due to a lack of magnesium have three categories. Early symptoms: Anorexia Apathy Confusion Fatigue Insomnia Irritability Muscle twitching Poor memory Reduced ability to learn Moderate deficiency symptoms: Heart (cardiovascular) changes Rapid heartbeat Severe deficiency: Continued muscle contraction Delirium Numbness Hallucinations Tingling
  • 17. These are the recommended daily requirements of magnesium: Children 1 - 3 years old: 80 milligrams 4 - 8 years old: 130 milligrams 9 - 13 years old: 240 milligrams 14 - 18 years old (boys): 410 milligrams 14 - 18 years old (girls): 360 milligrams Adult females: 310 - 320 milligrams Pregnancy: 350 - 400 milligrams Breastfeeding women: 310 - 360 milligrams Adult males: 400 - 420 milligrams
  • 18. • Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. • It helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects on blood pressure. • Potassium is a mineral involved in electrical and cellular body functions. In the body, potassium is classified as an electrolyte.
  • 19. • Function • Potassium is a very important mineral to the human body. It has various roles in metabolism and body functions and is essential for the proper function of all cells, tissues, and organs: • It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance. • It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism. • It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth. • It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart.
  • 20. The Food and Nutrition Center of the Institute of Medicine has established the following recommended dietary intakes for potassium: Infants 0 - 6 months: 0.4 grams a day (g/day) 7 - 12 months: 0.7 g/day Children and Adolescents 1 - 3 years: 3 g/day 4 - 8 years: 3.8 g/day 9 - 13 years: 4.5 g/day 14 - 18 years: 4.7 g/day Adults Age 19 and older: 4.7 g/day Women who are producing breast milk need slightly higher amounts (5.1 g/day). Ask your doctor what amount is best for you.
  • 21. • Zinc is found in cells throughout the body. • It is needed for the body's defensive (immune) system to properly work. It plays a role in cell division, cell growth, wound healing, and the breakdown of carbohydrates. • Zinc is also needed for the senses of smell and taste. During pregnancy, infancy, and childhood the body needs zinc to grow and develop properly.
  • 22. Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the sense of taste Problems with the sense of smell Skin sores Slow growth Trouble seeing in the dark Wounds that take a long time to heal
  • 23. Dietary Reference Intakes for zinc: Infants 0 - 6 months: 2* milligrams per day (mg/day) 7 - 12 months: 3* mg/day *Adequate Intake (AI) Children 1 - 3 years: 3 mg/day 4 - 8 years: 5 mg/day 9 - 13 years: 8 mg/day Adolescents and Adults Males age 14 and over: 11 mg/day Females age 14 to 18 years: 9 mg/day Females age 19 and over: 8 mg/day
  • 24. • Vitamins are substances that our body needs to grow and develop normally. • There are 13 vitamins our body needs. • They are vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). • We can usually get all our vitamins from the foods we eat. Our body can also make vitamins D and K. People who eat a vegetarian diet may need to take a vitamin B12 supplement.
  • 25. Water Soluble Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Absorption Directly into blood Along with lipids through lymphatic system Storage Circulate freely in water filled parts of body Stored with fat Excretion Excesses through urine Not as easily excreted; stored in body Toxicity Possible from supplements More easily reaches toxic levels - from supplements
  • 26. Vitamins Fat Soluble A D E K Water Soluble C B Complex
  • 27. Vitami n Sci. Name Source Function Symptoms of deficiency Vitamin A Retinol meat, eggs, oily fish, liver, milk, cheese, kidney For healthy bones, teeth, mucous membranes and skin. Aids vision, especially in the dark. Carotenoids, which are other forms of vitamin A are powerful antioxidants. Poor night vision, eye problems, weakened immune system and more prone to infection. Vitamin D2 Ergocalciferol dairy product, oily fish and fish oils, eggs, and fortified cereals. Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium and strengthen bones and teeth and can prevent the onset of osteoporosis. Softening and weakening of the bones, insomnia, nervousness and muscle weakness. Vitamin D3 Cholecalciferol Vitamin E Tocopherol vegetable oils such as mustard, palm, sunflower, olive and soybean. Acts as an antioxidant. Helps body form new red blood cells and improves the functioning of immune system. Using vitamin E for leg cramps offers many benefits. Anemia Muscle Weakness Leg Cramps Neurological Disorders Vitamin K1 Phytomenadion e spinach, cauliflower, green leafy vegetables, soya beans, spring onions and nuts. Essential for blood clotting, also helps to maintain strong bones and could prevent osteoporosis. Easy bruising and bleeding. Vitamin K2 Menaquinone
  • 28. Vitami n Sci. Name Source Function Symptoms of deficiency Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Citrus fruits, melon, strawberries, blackcurrants, green peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, kiwi fruit, potatoes, dark green leafy vegetables, Maintain skin, teeth, gums, tendons and ligaments, aids to heal wounds quicker, strengthen the immune system and fight cancerous cells. Required to form neurotransmitters Prone to infections, slower healing of wounds, dental and gum problems, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry skin, painful joints, anaemia and a slower metabolism. Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Eggs, meat, liver, dried fruit, fish, whole grain cereals, pulses Needed for the metabolism and synthesis of all foods Tiredness and a loss of feeling in the toes. Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine lean meat, eggs, chicken, liver, fish, beans, nuts, whole grains and cereals, bananas. Formation of red blood cells and various neurotransmitters and a healthy immune system and healthy antibodies. Managing blood sugar and preventing heart disease. protein Metabolism and can improve cognitive function. Skin disorders, mouth sores, confusion, depression and anemia. Vitamin B9 Folic Acid leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, pulses, wheatgerm, fortified cereals, liver, pork, poultry, broccoli, yeast. Production of red blood cells, DNA and proteins. growth and repair of cells and tissues and is especially important during pregnancy to prevent babies being born with spina bifida. Anemia, incorrect absorption of essential nutrients and neural tube defects in babies.
  • 29. • Dextrose, commonly called glucose, d-glucose, or blood sugar, occurs naturally in food, and is moderately sweet. • It is a monosaccharide (basic unit of carbohydrates, C6H1206) and has a high glycemic index (digested carbohydrates ability to raise blood glucose levels, also called Gl).
  • 30. • Sucrose, the technical name for table sugar, cane sugar, or white sugar, is made of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule bound together. Comes in powdered and granulated forms, sugar is made from highly processed form of sugar beet or sugar cane plant extracts.
  • 31. Introducing For the First time in India Spasm Dextrose 7.5gm + Magnesium Sulphate 250mg + Calcium Citrate Maleate 500mg + Methylcobalamine 1500mcg + Vitamin D3 1000IU + Vitamin E 400IU + Vitamin B6 10mg Powder Spasm-SF Magnesium Sulphate 250mg + Calcium Citrate Maleate 500mg + Methylcobalamine 1500mcg + Vitamin D3 1000IU + Vitamin E 400IU + Vitamin B6 10mg + Potassium Citrate 100mg Powder
  • 32. • A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. • When we use the muscles that can be controlled voluntarily, such as those of our arms and legs, they alternately contract and relax as we move our limbs. • Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture. • A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily (without consciously willing it) contracts is in a "spasm." If the spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp. • Muscle cramps often cause a visible or palpable hardening of the involved muscle.
  • 33.  Almost everyone experiences a muscle cramp at some time in their life.  There are a variety of types and causes of muscle cramps.  Numerous medicines can cause muscle cramps.  Most muscle cramps can be stopped if the muscle can be stretched.  Muscle cramps can often be prevented by measures such as adequate nutrition and hydration, attention to safety when exercising, and attention to ergonomic factors.
  • 34. • Low blood calcium, magnesium: Low blood levels of either calcium or magnesium directly increase the excitability of both the nerve endings and the muscles they stimulate. These are commonly noted during pregnancy. • Low levels of calcium and magnesium are common in pregnant women. • Cramps are seen in any circumstance that decreases the availability of calcium or magnesium in body fluids, such as taking diuretics, hyperventilation (overbreathing), excessive vomiting, inadequate calcium and/or magnesium in the diet, inadequate calcium absorption due to vitamin D deficiency, poor function of the parathyroid glands (tiny glands in the neck that regulate calcium balance), and other conditions.
  • 35. • Low potassium: Low potassium blood levels occasionally cause muscle cramps, although it is more common for low potassium to be associated with muscle weakness.
  • 36. • Low Magnesium (Hypomagnesemia) triggers following condition: Anxiety & Panic Attacks – Mg normally keeps adrenal stress hormone under control. Asthma – Both histamine production & bronchial spasm increase with magnesium deficiency. Depression – Serotonin, which elevates mood, is dependent on Mg. A Mg-deficient brain is also more susceptible to allergens, foreign substances that can cause symptoms similar to mental illness. Detoxification – Mg is crucial for the removal of toxic substances & heavy metals such as aluminum & lead.
  • 37. Nerve Problems : Magnesium alleviates peripheral disturbances throughout the whole body, such as migraines, muscle contraction, gastrointestinal spasm & calf, foot & toe cramps. Musculoskeletal Conditions – Fibrositis, fibromyalgia, muscle spasms, eye twitches, cramp & chronic neck & back pain may caused by magnesium deficiency. Osteoporosis – Use of calcium with Vitamin D to enhance calcium absorption without a balancing amount of Mg causes further Mg deficiency, which triggers a cascade of events leading to bone loss.
  • 38. • Obstetrics & Gynacology – Mg prevents Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS), prevents dysmenorrhea (cramping pain during menses). Mg alleviates premature contractions, pre-eclampsia & eclampsia in pregnancy. Intravenous Mg is given in obstetrical wards for pregnancy-induced hypertension & to lessen the risk of cerebral palsy & Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).