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Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encryption and decryption. It has five components: plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, ciphertext, and decryption algorithm. The security depends on keeping the key secret. Symmetric encryption is classified by the type of operations used, number of keys, and how plaintext is processed. Common symmetric algorithms like DES and AES encrypt plaintext in blocks using a substitution-permutation network structure.

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RSA ALGORITHM

The document summarizes the RSA encryption algorithm. It begins by explaining that RSA was developed in 1977 by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. It then provides an example to demonstrate how RSA works step-by-step, generating keys, encrypting a message and decrypting the ciphertext. Finally, it discusses some challenges with breaking RSA encryption, including brute force attacks and mathematical attacks based on factoring the encryption keys, as well as timing attacks that aim to deduce keys based on variations in processing time.

Cryptography.ppt

This document provides an overview of cryptography. It defines cryptography as the science of securing messages from attacks. It discusses basic cryptography terms like plain text, cipher text, encryption, decryption, and keys. It describes symmetric key cryptography, where the same key is used for encryption and decryption, and asymmetric key cryptography, which uses different public and private keys. It also covers traditional cipher techniques like substitution and transposition ciphers. The document concludes by listing some applications of cryptography like e-commerce, secure data, and access control.

Public Key Cryptosystem

Introduction to Public key Cryptosystems with block diagrams
Reference : Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice , Sixth Edition , William Stalling

Cs8792 cns - unit i

This document is to guide in the basic topics of cryptographic and network security. The detail insight of classical encryption algorithm is given here. The step by step process is clearly explained in this document.

Symmetric Cipher Model, Substitution techniques, Transposition techniques, St...

1) The document discusses symmetric encryption techniques including the symmetric cipher model, substitution techniques like the Caesar cipher and transposition techniques like the rail fence cipher.
2) It also covers the one-time pad cipher and its requirements for security as well as steganography techniques for hiding messages.
3) Cryptanalysis methods like brute force attacks and cryptanalytic attacks are explained for analyzing encryption algorithms.

Topic1 substitution transposition-techniques

This document discusses substitution and transposition encryption techniques. Substitution techniques replace plaintext characters with other characters, numbers, or symbols, changing character identity but not position. Transposition techniques rearrange the character positions in the plaintext, changing character position but not identity. Examples of substitution techniques include the Caesar cipher, monoalphabetic ciphers, Playfair cipher, and Vigenère cipher. Transposition techniques examples are the rail fence cipher and row transposition cipher.

Rsa

Public Key Cryptography uses two keys - a public key that can encrypt messages and verify signatures, and a private key that can decrypt messages and create signatures. The RSA algorithm, the most widely used public key algorithm, is based on the mathematical difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. It works by having users generate a public/private key pair using two large prime numbers and performing modular exponentiation. The security of RSA relies on the fact that it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key from the public key and modulus.

RSA algorithm

RSA is a public-key cryptosystem that uses both public and private keys for encryption and decryption. It was the first practical implementation of such a cryptosystem. The algorithm involves four main steps: 1) generation of the public and private keys, 2) encryption of messages using the public key, 3) decryption of encrypted messages using the private key, and 4) potential cracking of the encrypted message. It works by using two large prime numbers to generate the keys and performs exponentiation and modulo operations on messages to encrypt and decrypt them. There were some drawbacks to the original RSA algorithm related to redundant calculations and representing letters numerically that opened it up to easier hacking. Enhancements to RSA improved it by choosing

RSA ALGORITHM

The document summarizes the RSA encryption algorithm. It begins by explaining that RSA was developed in 1977 by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. It then provides an example to demonstrate how RSA works step-by-step, generating keys, encrypting a message and decrypting the ciphertext. Finally, it discusses some challenges with breaking RSA encryption, including brute force attacks and mathematical attacks based on factoring the encryption keys, as well as timing attacks that aim to deduce keys based on variations in processing time.

Cryptography.ppt

This document provides an overview of cryptography. It defines cryptography as the science of securing messages from attacks. It discusses basic cryptography terms like plain text, cipher text, encryption, decryption, and keys. It describes symmetric key cryptography, where the same key is used for encryption and decryption, and asymmetric key cryptography, which uses different public and private keys. It also covers traditional cipher techniques like substitution and transposition ciphers. The document concludes by listing some applications of cryptography like e-commerce, secure data, and access control.

Public Key Cryptosystem

Introduction to Public key Cryptosystems with block diagrams
Reference : Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice , Sixth Edition , William Stalling

Cs8792 cns - unit i

This document is to guide in the basic topics of cryptographic and network security. The detail insight of classical encryption algorithm is given here. The step by step process is clearly explained in this document.

Symmetric Cipher Model, Substitution techniques, Transposition techniques, St...

1) The document discusses symmetric encryption techniques including the symmetric cipher model, substitution techniques like the Caesar cipher and transposition techniques like the rail fence cipher.
2) It also covers the one-time pad cipher and its requirements for security as well as steganography techniques for hiding messages.
3) Cryptanalysis methods like brute force attacks and cryptanalytic attacks are explained for analyzing encryption algorithms.

Topic1 substitution transposition-techniques

This document discusses substitution and transposition encryption techniques. Substitution techniques replace plaintext characters with other characters, numbers, or symbols, changing character identity but not position. Transposition techniques rearrange the character positions in the plaintext, changing character position but not identity. Examples of substitution techniques include the Caesar cipher, monoalphabetic ciphers, Playfair cipher, and Vigenère cipher. Transposition techniques examples are the rail fence cipher and row transposition cipher.

Rsa

Public Key Cryptography uses two keys - a public key that can encrypt messages and verify signatures, and a private key that can decrypt messages and create signatures. The RSA algorithm, the most widely used public key algorithm, is based on the mathematical difficulty of factoring large prime numbers. It works by having users generate a public/private key pair using two large prime numbers and performing modular exponentiation. The security of RSA relies on the fact that it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key from the public key and modulus.

RSA algorithm

RSA is a public-key cryptosystem that uses both public and private keys for encryption and decryption. It was the first practical implementation of such a cryptosystem. The algorithm involves four main steps: 1) generation of the public and private keys, 2) encryption of messages using the public key, 3) decryption of encrypted messages using the private key, and 4) potential cracking of the encrypted message. It works by using two large prime numbers to generate the keys and performs exponentiation and modulo operations on messages to encrypt and decrypt them. There were some drawbacks to the original RSA algorithm related to redundant calculations and representing letters numerically that opened it up to easier hacking. Enhancements to RSA improved it by choosing

Presentation about RSA

This presentation is based on the paper :
"A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems" by R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman

CS6701 CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

HASH FUNCTIONS AND DIGITAL SIGNATURES
Authentication requirement – Authentication function – MAC – Hash function – Security of hash function and MAC –MD5 – SHA – HMAC – CMAC – Digital signature and authentication protocols – DSS – EI Gamal – Schnorr.

ADA complete notes

1. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions to solve a problem within a finite amount of time. It takes an input, processes it, and produces an output.
2. Designing an algorithm involves understanding the problem, choosing a computational model and problem-solving approach, designing and proving the algorithm's correctness, analyzing its efficiency, coding it, and testing it.
3. Important algorithm design techniques include brute force, divide and conquer, decrease and conquer, transform and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms.

Classification using back propagation algorithm

The backpropagation is a machine learning algorithm using for training the neural network for various problem-solving.

Message authentication

1. MESSAGE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
2. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION
3. MESSAGE ENCRYPTION
4. HASH FUNCTIONS
5. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE (MAC)
6. HMAC

Block Cipher and its Design Principles

This document discusses block ciphers, including their definition, structure, design principles, and avalanche effect. A block cipher operates on fixed-length blocks of bits and uses a symmetric key. It encrypts bits in blocks rather than one by one. Block ciphers have advantages like high diffusion but are slower than stream ciphers. They are built using the Feistel cipher structure with a number of rounds and keys. Important design principles for block ciphers include the number of rounds, design of the round function, and key schedule algorithm. The avalanche effect causes a small input change to result in a significant output change.

Digital signature algorithm (de la cruz, genelyn).ppt 2

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a United States federal standard for digital signatures proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1991. DSA uses asymmetric cryptography, with separate private and public keys, to digitally sign and verify messages. The signing process involves generating a random number and performing calculations using the private key to produce a signature. Verification involves performing calculations using the public key to verify the signature is valid for the message. DSA signatures provide authentication and integrity for electronic documents and communications.

Trible data encryption standard (3DES)

This document provides an overview of the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). It first briefly describes the original Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its key components including the initial and final permutations, substitution boxes, and key schedule. It then explains that 3DES applies DES three times with three different keys to strengthen security by effectively doubling the key size to 112 bits. Simulations are included showing encryption and decryption using 3DES with equal and different keys.

Rsa and diffie hellman algorithms

The document provides an overview of RSA and Diffie-Hellman algorithms. It defines key terms in cryptography like plain text, cipher text, and key. It then describes how RSA works by choosing prime numbers, computing keys, and encrypting/decrypting messages. Diffie-Hellman allows two parties to establish a shared secret key over an insecure channel by agreeing on a modulus and base, and exchanging values while keeping their secret integers private.

symmetric key encryption algorithms

Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms can be categorized as stream ciphers or block ciphers. Block ciphers like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) operate on fixed-length blocks of bits, while stream ciphers process messages bit-by-bit. DES is an example of a block cipher that encrypts 64-bit blocks using a 56-bit key. International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is another block cipher that uses a 128-bit key and 64-bit blocks, employing addition and multiplication instead of XOR like DES. IDEA consists of 8 encryption rounds followed by an output transformation to generate the ciphertext from the plaintext and key.

Elgamal digital signature

The ElGamal digital signature scheme was described by Tahir Elgamal in 1985. It uses a key pair consisting of a public key and private key, where the private key is used to generate signatures and the public key is used to verify signatures. Signatures provide message authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation by proving the message was signed by the private key holder. The document then proceeds to describe the technical process of generating keys, signing messages, and verifying signatures using ElGamal signatures with an example.

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

Authentication applications – Kerberos, X.509, PKI – Electronic Mail security – PGP, S/MIME – IP security – Web Security – SSL, TLS, SET.

Cryptography and Information Security

The presentation describes basics of cryptography and information security. It covers goals of cryptography, history of cipher symmetric and public key cryptography

RSA Algorithm

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is an algorithm used by modern computers to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm.

Key Management and Distribution

The document discusses key management and distribution in cryptography. It covers topics such as key generation, the different types of keys including symmetric and asymmetric keys, how symmetric and asymmetric encryption works, different methods of key distribution including public key distribution and private key distribution, and an overview of public key infrastructure. The goal of key management is to support the establishment and maintenance of secure key relationships between authorized parties.

Ch08

The document discusses several topics in cryptography including prime numbers, primality testing algorithms, factorization algorithms, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, and modular exponentiation. It defines prime numbers and describes algorithms for determining if a number is prime like the trial division method and Miller-Rabin primality test. Factorization algorithms are used to break encryption. The Chinese Remainder Theorem can be used to solve simultaneous congruences and speed up computations performed modulo composite numbers. Euler's theorem and its generalization are also covered.

Cryptography

Cryptography is the practice and study of securing communication through techniques like encryption. It has evolved through manual, mechanical, and modern eras using computers. Cryptography aims to achieve goals like authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Common attacks include brute force, chosen plaintext, and differential power analysis. Symmetric cryptography uses a shared key while asymmetric uses public/private key pairs. Digital signatures and watermarks can authenticate documents. DRM and watermarks control digital content distribution.

Timestamp protocols

This document provides an overview of timestamp protocols in database management systems. It discusses how timestamps are generated and used to order transactions. The basic timestamp ordering protocol checks timestamps on read and write operations to ensure serializability. Strict timestamp ordering delays some transactions to ensure schedules are both serializable and strict. Multiversion timestamp ordering uses multiple versions of data items to allow reads to always succeed while maintaining serializability.

Cryptography

This document provides an overview of cryptography. It defines cryptography as the science of secret writing and discusses its use in applications like ATM cards and passwords. It describes the basic components of cryptography including plaintext, ciphertext, ciphers, keys, and algorithms. It differentiates between symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography. It provides examples of traditional and modern ciphers, including DES, AES, and RSA algorithms. In conclusion, it states that cryptography techniques help maintain data security, privacy, and integrity.

Information Security Cryptography ( L02- Types Cryptography)

talk about types of cryptography based of types of key , text cryptography and Strength encryption system.

Unit 2

1. The document discusses the principles of symmetric encryption, including the use of a secret key, plaintext, ciphertext, encryption and decryption algorithms.
2. It describes the Feistel cipher structure, which uses rounds of processing and subkeys to encrypt plaintext blocks. Parameters like block size, key size, and number of rounds determine the security level.
3. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm is discussed as the most widely used conventional encryption scheme. It uses a 56-bit key to encrypt 64-bit blocks via initial permutation, multiple rounds of processing, and final permutation.

Chapter 2 part 1.ppt

This document discusses encryption and encryption algorithms. It defines encryption as using an algorithm to transform plaintext data into ciphertext. The key components of encryption are the plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, and ciphertext. There are two main types of encryption - conventional/symmetric which uses a single secret key for encryption and decryption, and public-key/asymmetric which uses different keys. Symmetric algorithms like DES and AES encrypt data in blocks. Security relies on keeping the secret key secure rather than the algorithm itself. Cryptanalysis aims to discover the plaintext or key by analyzing encrypted ciphertext.

Presentation about RSA

This presentation is based on the paper :
"A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public-Key Cryptosystems" by R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman

CS6701 CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

HASH FUNCTIONS AND DIGITAL SIGNATURES
Authentication requirement – Authentication function – MAC – Hash function – Security of hash function and MAC –MD5 – SHA – HMAC – CMAC – Digital signature and authentication protocols – DSS – EI Gamal – Schnorr.

ADA complete notes

1. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions to solve a problem within a finite amount of time. It takes an input, processes it, and produces an output.
2. Designing an algorithm involves understanding the problem, choosing a computational model and problem-solving approach, designing and proving the algorithm's correctness, analyzing its efficiency, coding it, and testing it.
3. Important algorithm design techniques include brute force, divide and conquer, decrease and conquer, transform and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms.

Classification using back propagation algorithm

The backpropagation is a machine learning algorithm using for training the neural network for various problem-solving.

Message authentication

1. MESSAGE SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
2. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION
3. MESSAGE ENCRYPTION
4. HASH FUNCTIONS
5. MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE (MAC)
6. HMAC

Block Cipher and its Design Principles

This document discusses block ciphers, including their definition, structure, design principles, and avalanche effect. A block cipher operates on fixed-length blocks of bits and uses a symmetric key. It encrypts bits in blocks rather than one by one. Block ciphers have advantages like high diffusion but are slower than stream ciphers. They are built using the Feistel cipher structure with a number of rounds and keys. Important design principles for block ciphers include the number of rounds, design of the round function, and key schedule algorithm. The avalanche effect causes a small input change to result in a significant output change.

Digital signature algorithm (de la cruz, genelyn).ppt 2

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a United States federal standard for digital signatures proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 1991. DSA uses asymmetric cryptography, with separate private and public keys, to digitally sign and verify messages. The signing process involves generating a random number and performing calculations using the private key to produce a signature. Verification involves performing calculations using the public key to verify the signature is valid for the message. DSA signatures provide authentication and integrity for electronic documents and communications.

Trible data encryption standard (3DES)

This document provides an overview of the Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES). It first briefly describes the original Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its key components including the initial and final permutations, substitution boxes, and key schedule. It then explains that 3DES applies DES three times with three different keys to strengthen security by effectively doubling the key size to 112 bits. Simulations are included showing encryption and decryption using 3DES with equal and different keys.

Rsa and diffie hellman algorithms

The document provides an overview of RSA and Diffie-Hellman algorithms. It defines key terms in cryptography like plain text, cipher text, and key. It then describes how RSA works by choosing prime numbers, computing keys, and encrypting/decrypting messages. Diffie-Hellman allows two parties to establish a shared secret key over an insecure channel by agreeing on a modulus and base, and exchanging values while keeping their secret integers private.

symmetric key encryption algorithms

Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithms can be categorized as stream ciphers or block ciphers. Block ciphers like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) operate on fixed-length blocks of bits, while stream ciphers process messages bit-by-bit. DES is an example of a block cipher that encrypts 64-bit blocks using a 56-bit key. International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is another block cipher that uses a 128-bit key and 64-bit blocks, employing addition and multiplication instead of XOR like DES. IDEA consists of 8 encryption rounds followed by an output transformation to generate the ciphertext from the plaintext and key.

Elgamal digital signature

The ElGamal digital signature scheme was described by Tahir Elgamal in 1985. It uses a key pair consisting of a public key and private key, where the private key is used to generate signatures and the public key is used to verify signatures. Signatures provide message authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation by proving the message was signed by the private key holder. The document then proceeds to describe the technical process of generating keys, signing messages, and verifying signatures using ElGamal signatures with an example.

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

Authentication applications – Kerberos, X.509, PKI – Electronic Mail security – PGP, S/MIME – IP security – Web Security – SSL, TLS, SET.

Cryptography and Information Security

The presentation describes basics of cryptography and information security. It covers goals of cryptography, history of cipher symmetric and public key cryptography

RSA Algorithm

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is an algorithm used by modern computers to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm.

Key Management and Distribution

The document discusses key management and distribution in cryptography. It covers topics such as key generation, the different types of keys including symmetric and asymmetric keys, how symmetric and asymmetric encryption works, different methods of key distribution including public key distribution and private key distribution, and an overview of public key infrastructure. The goal of key management is to support the establishment and maintenance of secure key relationships between authorized parties.

Ch08

The document discusses several topics in cryptography including prime numbers, primality testing algorithms, factorization algorithms, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, and modular exponentiation. It defines prime numbers and describes algorithms for determining if a number is prime like the trial division method and Miller-Rabin primality test. Factorization algorithms are used to break encryption. The Chinese Remainder Theorem can be used to solve simultaneous congruences and speed up computations performed modulo composite numbers. Euler's theorem and its generalization are also covered.

Cryptography

Cryptography is the practice and study of securing communication through techniques like encryption. It has evolved through manual, mechanical, and modern eras using computers. Cryptography aims to achieve goals like authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation. Common attacks include brute force, chosen plaintext, and differential power analysis. Symmetric cryptography uses a shared key while asymmetric uses public/private key pairs. Digital signatures and watermarks can authenticate documents. DRM and watermarks control digital content distribution.

Timestamp protocols

This document provides an overview of timestamp protocols in database management systems. It discusses how timestamps are generated and used to order transactions. The basic timestamp ordering protocol checks timestamps on read and write operations to ensure serializability. Strict timestamp ordering delays some transactions to ensure schedules are both serializable and strict. Multiversion timestamp ordering uses multiple versions of data items to allow reads to always succeed while maintaining serializability.

Cryptography

This document provides an overview of cryptography. It defines cryptography as the science of secret writing and discusses its use in applications like ATM cards and passwords. It describes the basic components of cryptography including plaintext, ciphertext, ciphers, keys, and algorithms. It differentiates between symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography. It provides examples of traditional and modern ciphers, including DES, AES, and RSA algorithms. In conclusion, it states that cryptography techniques help maintain data security, privacy, and integrity.

Information Security Cryptography ( L02- Types Cryptography)

talk about types of cryptography based of types of key , text cryptography and Strength encryption system.

Presentation about RSA

Presentation about RSA

CS6701 CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

CS6701 CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

ADA complete notes

ADA complete notes

Classification using back propagation algorithm

Classification using back propagation algorithm

Message authentication

Message authentication

Block Cipher and its Design Principles

Block Cipher and its Design Principles

Digital signature algorithm (de la cruz, genelyn).ppt 2

Digital signature algorithm (de la cruz, genelyn).ppt 2

Trible data encryption standard (3DES)

Trible data encryption standard (3DES)

Rsa and diffie hellman algorithms

Rsa and diffie hellman algorithms

symmetric key encryption algorithms

symmetric key encryption algorithms

Elgamal digital signature

Elgamal digital signature

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY

Cryptography and Information Security

Cryptography and Information Security

RSA Algorithm

RSA Algorithm

Key Management and Distribution

Key Management and Distribution

Ch08

Ch08

Cryptography

Cryptography

Timestamp protocols

Timestamp protocols

Cryptography

Cryptography

Information Security Cryptography ( L02- Types Cryptography)

Information Security Cryptography ( L02- Types Cryptography)

Unit 2

1. The document discusses the principles of symmetric encryption, including the use of a secret key, plaintext, ciphertext, encryption and decryption algorithms.
2. It describes the Feistel cipher structure, which uses rounds of processing and subkeys to encrypt plaintext blocks. Parameters like block size, key size, and number of rounds determine the security level.
3. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm is discussed as the most widely used conventional encryption scheme. It uses a 56-bit key to encrypt 64-bit blocks via initial permutation, multiple rounds of processing, and final permutation.

Chapter 2 part 1.ppt

This document discusses encryption and encryption algorithms. It defines encryption as using an algorithm to transform plaintext data into ciphertext. The key components of encryption are the plaintext, encryption algorithm, secret key, and ciphertext. There are two main types of encryption - conventional/symmetric which uses a single secret key for encryption and decryption, and public-key/asymmetric which uses different keys. Symmetric algorithms like DES and AES encrypt data in blocks. Security relies on keeping the secret key secure rather than the algorithm itself. Cryptanalysis aims to discover the plaintext or key by analyzing encrypted ciphertext.

Computer Security (Cryptography) Ch01

This document discusses computer security and network cryptography. It begins by explaining how organizations can use cryptosystems like symmetric and asymmetric encryption to protect data. Symmetric encryption is faster but requires secure key exchange, while asymmetric encryption uses public and private key pairs. The document then defines cryptography terminology and components like plaintext, ciphertext, encryption, decryption, and cryptanalysis. It describes techniques like substitution and transposition ciphers. The rest of the document discusses encryption models, algorithms, and cryptanalysis methods like ciphertext-only and known-plaintext attacks.

Symmetric ciphermodel

Symmetric Cipher Model,BruteForce attack, Cryptanalysis,Advantages of Symmetric cryptosystem,Model of conventional Encryption, model of conventional cryptosystem,Cryptography,Ciphertext,Plaintext,Decryption algorithm,Diadvantages of Symmetric Cryptosystem,Types of attacks on encrypted messages,Average time required for exhaustive key search

Lesson 04 - Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Encryptions (1).pptx

1. Symmetric key cryptography uses a single secret key for both encryption and decryption, while asymmetric key cryptography uses two different but mathematically related keys, a public key and a private key.
2. In asymmetric encryption, the public key is used to encrypt messages and its companion private key is used to decrypt messages. Only the recipient who possesses the private key can decrypt messages encrypted with their public key.
3. The essential steps of asymmetric encryption are that each user generates a public-private key pair, places their public key in a register for others, and encrypts messages sent to recipients with their public key which can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key.

CISSP Certification Security Engineering-Part2

Training and Tips that are very helpful to gain knowledge in the field of information Security and passing your CISSP Certification Exam.
To be CISSP Certified Please Check out the link below:
http://asmed.com/cissp-isc2/

symmetric cipher model.pptx

This document discusses symmetric encryption, also known as conventional or single-key encryption. Symmetric encryption uses a single key that is known to both the sender and receiver to encrypt plaintext into ciphertext and decrypt ciphertext back to plaintext. The document defines basic terminology related to symmetric encryption like plaintext, ciphertext, cipher, key, encryption, and decryption. It also discusses the principles of cryptography used in symmetric encryption like substitution and transposition ciphers. The document outlines advantages of symmetric encryption like speed but also disadvantages related to securely distributing the shared secret key between communicating parties.

Day5

This document discusses network security and honeypot techniques. It provides an overview of honeypots, including their value in learning about blackhat hacking tools and techniques. It describes different types of honeypots, including first and second generation honeypots, and how they aim to gather information while being difficult to detect. The document also briefly mentions honeynets and the Honeynet Project, an organization dedicated to honeypot research.

httpswww.youtube.comwatchtime_continue=8&v=rFV0aes0vYAN.docx

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=rFV0aes0vYA
Network Security Essentials: Applications and Standards
Sixth Edition
Chapter 2
Symmetric Encryption and
Message Confidentiality
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
If this PowerPoint presentation contains mathematical equations, you may need to check that your computer has the following installed:
1) MathType Plugin
2) Math Player (free versions available)
3) NVDA Reader (free versions available)
This chapter provides a general overview of the subject matter that structures the material in the remainder of the book. We begin with a general discussion of network security services and mechanisms and of the types of attacks they are designed for. Then we develop a general overall model within which the security services and mechanisms can be viewed.
1
Figure 2-1: Simplified Model of Symmetric Encryption
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
A symmetric encryption scheme has five ingredients (Figure 2.1):
• Plaintext: This is the original message or data that is fed into the algorithm
as input.
• Encryption algorithm: The encryption algorithm performs various substitutions
and transformations on the plaintext.
• Secret key: The secret key is also input to the algorithm. The exact substitutions
and transformations performed by the algorithm depend on the key.
• Ciphertext: This is the scrambled message produced as output. It depends on
the plaintext and the secret key. For a given message, two different keys will
produce two different ciphertexts.
• Decryption algorithm: This is essentially the encryption algorithm run in
reverse. It takes the ciphertext and the same secret key and produces the
original plaintext.
2
Requirements (1 of 2)
There are two requirements for secure use of symmetric encryption:
A strong encryption algorithm
Sender and receiver must have obtained copies of the secret key in a secure fashion and must keep the key secure
The security of symmetric encryption depends on the secrecy of the key, not the secrecy of the algorithm
This makes it feasible for widespread use
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
There are two requirements for secure use of symmetric encryption:
1. We need a strong encryption algorithm. At a minimum, we would like the
algorithm to be such that an opponent who knows the algorithm and has
access to one or more ciphertexts would be unable to decipher the ciphertext
or figure out the key. This requirement is usually stated in a stronger form:
The opponent should be unable to decrypt ciphertext or discover the key even
if he or she is in possession of a number of ciphertexts together with the plaintext
that produced each ciphertext.
2. Sender and receiver must have obtained copies of the secret key in a secure
fashion and must keep the key secure. If someone can discover the key and
knows the algorithm, all communication using this key is reada ...

Comparative Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms and Advanced Cryptographic A...

Comparative Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms and Advanced Cryptographic A...editor1knowledgecuddle

Today is the era of Internet and networks applications. So,Information security is a challenging issue in today’s technological world. There is a demand for a stronger encryption which is very hard to crack. The role of Cryptography is most important in the field of network security. There is a broad range of cryptographic algorithms that are used for securing networks and presently continuous researches on the new cryptographic algorithms are going on for evolving more advanced techniques for secures
communication. In this study is made for the cryptography algorithms, particularly algorithms- AES, DES, RSA, Blowfishare compared and performance is evaluated. Also some enhanced algorithms are described and compared with the enhanced algorithms.
Keywords - AES, DES, BLOWFISH, Decryption, Encryption, SecurityInformation and data security block cipher and the data encryption standard (...

Block ciphers like DES encrypt data in fixed-size blocks and use symmetric encryption keys. DES is a 64-bit block cipher that uses a 56-bit key. It employs a Feistel network structure with 16 rounds to provide diffusion and confusion of the plaintext block. Each round uses subkey-dependent substitution boxes and permutation functions. While DES was widely adopted, cryptanalysis techniques showed it could be broken with less than 256 tries, making the key size too short by modern standards.

Lecture 5 - Cryptography.pptx

This document provides an agenda and overview of topics related to cryptography. It discusses what cryptography is, the goals of cryptography including confidentiality, integrity, authentication and non-repudiation. It then covers terminologies used in cryptography and different types of cryptography including symmetric cryptography, asymmetric cryptography and digital signatures. It also mentions attacks on cryptography.

CH2 Stallings,_William_Computer_Security_Principles_and_Practice_Pearson [54-...

This document provides an overview of cryptographic algorithms and their uses. It begins with symmetric encryption, which uses a single secret key to encrypt and decrypt data, providing confidentiality. The most common symmetric algorithms are the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), which are block ciphers that encrypt data in fixed-size blocks. It also discusses stream ciphers, which encrypt data one element at a time. The document then covers secure hash functions, public-key encryption, digital signatures, and key management before concluding with an example application of encrypting stored data.

presentation based on data encryption standards

Block ciphers encrypt data in blocks, typically 64 or 128 bits, using cryptographic keys and algorithms. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm that encrypts data in 64-bit blocks using a 56-bit key. DES encryption uses a Feistel cipher structure involving multiple rounds of substitutions, permutations, and XOR operations to encrypt plaintext into ciphertext. The security of the algorithm increases with a larger block and key size, more complex round functions, and a greater number of rounds.

asymmetric encryption.pptx

Asymmetric encryption, also known as public-key cryptography, is a cryptographic system that uses a pair of keys for secure communication. Unlike symmetric encryption, where the same key is used for both encryption and decryption, asymmetric encryption employs two distinct keys: a public key and a private key.
Public Key:
The public key is widely shared and can be freely distributed. It is used to encrypt data or messages that are intended for the owner of the corresponding private key.
Public keys are typically used for encryption and verifying digital signatures.
Private Key:
The private key is kept secret and is known only to the key owner. It is used for decrypting messages that were encrypted with the corresponding public key.
Private keys are used for decryption and creating digital signatures.
How It Works:
If Alice wants to send a secure message to Bob, she uses Bob's public key to encrypt the message. Once encrypted, only Bob, with his private key, can decrypt and access the original message.
Digital signatures work in the opposite way. If Bob wants to sign a message to prove it comes from him, he uses his private key to create a unique digital signature. Others can verify the signature using Bob's public key, ensuring the message's authenticity and integrity.
Security:
Asymmetric encryption provides a higher level of security compared to symmetric encryption because compromising one key (either the public or private key) does not compromise the other.
The security of asymmetric encryption relies on the difficulty of certain mathematical problems, such as factoring large numbers, making it computationally infeasible to derive the private key from the public key.
Common Algorithms:
RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) are among the most widely used asymmetric encryption algorithms.
Applications:
Asymmetric encryption is used in various applications, including secure communication over the internet, digital signatures for authentication, and the establishment of secure channels in protocols like SSL/TLS.
In summary, asymmetric encryption is a crucial component of modern cryptographic systems, providing a secure means of communication and data protection in a digital world.

Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard

1. The document discusses network security and provides details about stream ciphers and block ciphers. It explains how each type of cipher works and provides examples of each.
2. Details are given about the Feistel cipher structure and how it provides diffusion and confusion through repeated rounds. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm is described as a prominent example of a Feistel cipher.
3. Principles of block cipher design are outlined, emphasizing the importance of number of rounds, design of the round function F, and the key schedule algorithm in providing security.

Information System Security.pptx

This document provides an introduction and overview of information system security. It covers topics such as security attacks, services, and mechanisms. The document is divided into multiple units that cover encryption techniques like the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and advanced topics such as public key cryptosystems, hash functions, and IP security. DES encryption is explained in detail, covering aspects like its history, design, encryption process, key generation, decryption, and strengths/limitations. Feistel ciphers and their design principles are also summarized.

Php text processing by softroniics

1. The document discusses encryption and decryption techniques for securing data transfer over networks. It proposes a method that uses mathematical and logical operations to encrypt data and check integrity.
2. Common encryption methods include asymmetric encryption using two keys, symmetric encryption using a single shared key, the one-time pad which is mathematically unbreakable, and XOR cipher which has no data leakage. Modular arithmetic is also used to wrap values within a defined range.
3. The proposed system aims to increase ciphertext randomness and securely transfer keys. It generates a key from a one-time pad based on input characters rather than directly transferring the key. The pad and checksum are sent to allow verification of integrity.

Cryptography- "A Black Art"

This document provides an introduction and table of contents to cryptography. It discusses the main goals of cryptography which are confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. It then defines key vocabulary terms used in cryptography such as plaintext, ciphertext, encryption, decryption, stream ciphers, block ciphers, and cryptosystems. Finally, it provides a brief high-level history of cryptography mentioning examples from 400 BC Spartan sky tale cipher to Julius Caesar's substitution cipher.

Unit 2

Block ciphers like DES encrypt data in blocks and use a symmetric key known to both the sender and receiver. The AES block cipher is commonly used today. It operates on 128-bit blocks and supports key sizes of 128, 192, or 256 bits. The AES algorithm consists of repeated rounds of substitutions, shifts, and XOR operations with a expanded key schedule. It was designed to improve upon DES by having stronger cryptography and being more computationally efficient.

Unit 2

Unit 2

Chapter 2 part 1.ppt

Chapter 2 part 1.ppt

Computer Security (Cryptography) Ch01

Computer Security (Cryptography) Ch01

Symmetric ciphermodel

Symmetric ciphermodel

Lesson 04 - Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Encryptions (1).pptx

Lesson 04 - Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Encryptions (1).pptx

CISSP Certification Security Engineering-Part2

CISSP Certification Security Engineering-Part2

symmetric cipher model.pptx

symmetric cipher model.pptx

Day5

Day5

httpswww.youtube.comwatchtime_continue=8&v=rFV0aes0vYAN.docx

httpswww.youtube.comwatchtime_continue=8&v=rFV0aes0vYAN.docx

Comparative Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms and Advanced Cryptographic A...

Comparative Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms and Advanced Cryptographic A...

Information and data security block cipher and the data encryption standard (...

Information and data security block cipher and the data encryption standard (...

Lecture 5 - Cryptography.pptx

Lecture 5 - Cryptography.pptx

CH2 Stallings,_William_Computer_Security_Principles_and_Practice_Pearson [54-...

CH2 Stallings,_William_Computer_Security_Principles_and_Practice_Pearson [54-...

presentation based on data encryption standards

presentation based on data encryption standards

asymmetric encryption.pptx

asymmetric encryption.pptx

Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard

Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard

Information System Security.pptx

Information System Security.pptx

Php text processing by softroniics

Php text processing by softroniics

Cryptography- "A Black Art"

Cryptography- "A Black Art"

Unit 2

Unit 2

Management Information Systems - Chapter 3

This chapter discusses the complex relationship between organizations and information systems. It defines an organization as a stable social structure that takes in resources and produces outputs. The chapter explores how organizations have standard operating procedures, politics, and cultures. It also examines how organizational environments provide resources and how organizations supply goods and services to their environments. Finally, it discusses how information technology can economically and behaviorally impact organizations by flattening structures, enabling post-industrial organizations, and causing resistance to change.

Management Information Systems - Chapter 2

Chapter 2 of Management Information Systems Part 1 - Organizations, Management and Networked Enterprise

Management Information Technology - Chapter 1

1) Information systems are transforming business by enabling wireless connectivity, online access, and social networking on a global scale.
2) As the world becomes more interconnected through technology, countries and businesses must now compete globally in a "flat world" for jobs, markets, and ideas.
3) A digital firm uses information technology to digitally enable relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees across organizational and national boundaries at all hours through time-shifting and space-shifting.

System analysis and design Part2

The document discusses various methods for determining requirements in the system analysis phase of the system development life cycle (SDLC). It describes traditional methods like interviews, observations, and document analysis to gather requirements information. It also discusses modern techniques like joint application design (JAD) sessions and prototyping to structure requirements. JAD involves key stakeholders collaboratively identifying and documenting requirements. Prototyping can be useful when requirements are unclear but has potential drawbacks like becoming too focused on initial user needs or bypassing other SDLC checks. The primary deliverables of requirements determination are the various documents and notes produced to capture what the new system should do.

System Analysis and Design

Information systems analysis and design is a method used by companies to create and maintain information systems that perform basic business functions. It involves developing or acquiring application software and training employees to use it, with the goal of improving organizational systems. Key components of information systems include application software designed to support specific functions, as well as other system components collectively called computer-based information systems. Methodologies, techniques, and tools help analysts develop information systems through a sequence of structured steps.

Web programming and development - Introduction

The document provides an overview of key concepts in web programming and Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE), including:
1) Java EE aims to provide developers with APIs to shorten development time and improve application performance. It is developed through the Java Community Process.
2) Java EE applications use a multitier architecture with client, web, business, and backend tiers. Components include web components, enterprise beans, and application clients.
3) Java EE containers manage the execution of components and include application servers, web containers, EJB containers, and application client containers.

Business software packages mkis

The document discusses marketing information systems and their components. It defines a marketing information system as a computer-based system that works with other functional systems to support problem solving for marketing managers. The key components are input subsystems like accounting, marketing research, and intelligence systems; and output subsystems that provide information about products, place, promotion, price, and integrated marketing mixes. The marketing information system aims to gather and process various types of internal, external, and competitor data to support marketing decisions.

XML - Data Modeling

This document discusses different methods for data modeling XML documents, including DTD, XDR schemas, and XML Schema (XSD). DTD is the oldest technology and is part of the XML specification. XDR schemas are proprietary to Microsoft. XSD is a W3C standard that allows specifying data types and has broader vendor support than XDR. The document provides examples of each and notes advantages and disadvantages of DTDs compared to the other methods.

Business software packages - Accounting Software Systems

The document discusses accounting information systems (AIS) and their core functions of data gathering, manipulation, storage, and document preparation. It provides examples of AIS for distribution firms that manage customer orders, replenishment stock from suppliers, and general ledger processes. The AIS is comprised of various subsystems that input data, update inventory and customer/supplier records, and generate reports for management.

Business software packages

1. The document discusses different types of software including system software like operating systems and utility programs, as well as application software that can be prewritten or custom.
2. It explains the basic functions of an accounting information system including gathering data from transactions, manipulating the data, storing it, and preparing documents.
3. A sample accounting information system described is a distribution system that processes data from customers, suppliers, and management to perform the core tasks of an AIS.

Database management systems

The document provides an introduction to database management systems and their components. It discusses that a database is a collection of related data representing some aspect of the real world. A database management system (DBMS) allows users to define, construct, manipulate and share databases. The key functions of a DBMS include data definition, data storage, data manipulation such as querying and updating, and sharing data among multiple users. The document also provides examples of database systems and their typical components such as utilities, tools, and centralized and client/server architectures.

Management Information Systems - Chapter 3

Management Information Systems - Chapter 3

Management Information Systems - Chapter 2

Management Information Systems - Chapter 2

Management Information Technology - Chapter 1

Management Information Technology - Chapter 1

System analysis and design Part2

System analysis and design Part2

System Analysis and Design

System Analysis and Design

Web programming and development - Introduction

Web programming and development - Introduction

Business software packages mkis

Business software packages mkis

XML - Data Modeling

XML - Data Modeling

Business software packages - Accounting Software Systems

Business software packages - Accounting Software Systems

Business software packages

Business software packages

Database management systems

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GreenCode-A-VSCode-Plugin--Dario-Jurisic

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Modelling Up - DDDEurope 2024 - Amsterdam

What to do when you have a perfect model for your software but you are constrained by an imperfect business model?
This talk explores the challenges of bringing modelling rigour to the business and strategy levels, and talking to your non-technical counterparts in the process.

一比一原版(UMN毕业证)明尼苏达大学毕业证如何办理

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Oracle Database 19c New Features for DBAs and Developers.pptx

Oracle Database 19c New Features for DBAs and Developers. This video you can watch from my youtube channel at https://youtu.be/m-F-mZA3MkU

Artificia Intellicence and XPath Extension Functions

The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of how you can use AI from XSLT, XQuery, Schematron, or XML Refactoring operations, the potential benefits of using AI, and some of the challenges we face.

E-commerce Development Services- Hornet Dynamics

For any business hoping to succeed in the digital age, having a strong online presence is crucial. We offer Ecommerce Development Services that are customized according to your business requirements and client preferences, enabling you to create a dynamic, safe, and user-friendly online store.

Unveiling the Advantages of Agile Software Development.pdf

Learn about Agile Software Development's advantages. Simplify your workflow to spur quicker innovation. Jump right in! We have also discussed the advantages.

What next after learning python programming basics

What next after learning python programming basics

UI5con 2024 - Keynote: Latest News about UI5 and it’s Ecosystem

Learn about the latest innovations in and around OpenUI5/SAPUI5: UI5 Tooling, UI5 linter, UI5 Web Components, Web Components Integration, UI5 2.x, UI5 GenAI.
Recording:
https://www.youtube.com/live/MSdGLG2zLy8?si=INxBHTqkwHhxV5Ta&t=0

Microservice Teams - How the cloud changes the way we work

A lot of technical challenges and complexity come with building a cloud-native and distributed architecture. The way we develop backend software has fundamentally changed in the last ten years. Managing a microservices architecture demands a lot of us to ensure observability and operational resiliency. But did you also change the way you run your development teams?
Sven will talk about Atlassian’s journey from a monolith to a multi-tenanted architecture and how it affected the way the engineering teams work. You will learn how we shifted to service ownership, moved to more autonomous teams (and its challenges), and established platform and enablement teams.

8 Best Automated Android App Testing Tool and Framework in 2024.pdf

Regarding mobile operating systems, two major players dominate our thoughts: Android and iPhone. With Android leading the market, software development companies are focused on delivering apps compatible with this OS. Ensuring an app's functionality across various Android devices, OS versions, and hardware specifications is critical, making Android app testing essential.

KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - Introducción a Argo CD

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Mobile app Development Services | Drona Infotech

Drona Infotech is one of the Best Mobile App Development Company In Noida Maintenance and ongoing support. mobile app development Services can help you maintain and support your app after it has been launched. This includes fixing bugs, adding new features, and keeping your app up-to-date with the latest
Visit Us For :

Transform Your Communication with Cloud-Based IVR Solutions

Discover the power of Cloud-Based IVR Solutions to streamline communication processes. Embrace scalability and cost-efficiency while enhancing customer experiences with features like automated call routing and voice recognition. Accessible from anywhere, these solutions integrate seamlessly with existing systems, providing real-time analytics for continuous improvement. Revolutionize your communication strategy today with Cloud-Based IVR Solutions. Learn more at: https://thesmspoint.com/channel/cloud-telephony

SQL Accounting Software Brochure Malaysia

SQL Accounting Software Brochure

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Document which explains the difference between Jes2 and Jes3

Requirement Traceability in Xen Functional Safety

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Measures in SQL (SIGMOD 2024, Santiago, Chile)

SQL has attained widespread adoption, but Business Intelligence tools still use their own higher level languages based upon a multidimensional paradigm. Composable calculations are what is missing from SQL, and we propose a new kind of column, called a measure, that attaches a calculation to a table. Like regular tables, tables with measures are composable and closed when used in queries.
SQL-with-measures has the power, conciseness and reusability of multidimensional languages but retains SQL semantics. Measure invocations can be expanded in place to simple, clear SQL.
To define the evaluation semantics for measures, we introduce context-sensitive expressions (a way to evaluate multidimensional expressions that is consistent with existing SQL semantics), a concept called evaluation context, and several operations for setting and modifying the evaluation context.
A talk at SIGMOD, June 9–15, 2024, Santiago, Chile
Authors: Julian Hyde (Google) and John Fremlin (Google)
https://doi.org/10.1145/3626246.3653374

Fundamentals of Programming and Language Processors

Fundamentals of Programming and Language Processors

GreenCode-A-VSCode-Plugin--Dario-Jurisic

GreenCode-A-VSCode-Plugin--Dario-Jurisic

Modelling Up - DDDEurope 2024 - Amsterdam

Modelling Up - DDDEurope 2024 - Amsterdam

一比一原版(UMN毕业证)明尼苏达大学毕业证如何办理

一比一原版(UMN毕业证)明尼苏达大学毕业证如何办理

Oracle Database 19c New Features for DBAs and Developers.pptx

Oracle Database 19c New Features for DBAs and Developers.pptx

Artificia Intellicence and XPath Extension Functions

Artificia Intellicence and XPath Extension Functions

E-commerce Development Services- Hornet Dynamics

E-commerce Development Services- Hornet Dynamics

Lecture 2 - software testing SE 412.pptx

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Unveiling the Advantages of Agile Software Development.pdf

Unveiling the Advantages of Agile Software Development.pdf

What next after learning python programming basics

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UI5con 2024 - Keynote: Latest News about UI5 and it’s Ecosystem

UI5con 2024 - Keynote: Latest News about UI5 and it’s Ecosystem

Microservice Teams - How the cloud changes the way we work

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8 Best Automated Android App Testing Tool and Framework in 2024.pdf

8 Best Automated Android App Testing Tool and Framework in 2024.pdf

KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - Introducción a Argo CD

KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - Introducción a Argo CD

Mobile app Development Services | Drona Infotech

Mobile app Development Services | Drona Infotech

Transform Your Communication with Cloud-Based IVR Solutions

Transform Your Communication with Cloud-Based IVR Solutions

SQL Accounting Software Brochure Malaysia

SQL Accounting Software Brochure Malaysia

zOS Mainframe JES2-JES3 JCL-JECL Differences

zOS Mainframe JES2-JES3 JCL-JECL Differences

Requirement Traceability in Xen Functional Safety

Requirement Traceability in Xen Functional Safety

Measures in SQL (SIGMOD 2024, Santiago, Chile)

Measures in SQL (SIGMOD 2024, Santiago, Chile)

Fundamentals of Programming and Language Processors

Fundamentals of Programming and Language Processors

- 3. Symmetric Encryption Also known as: “Conventional Encryption” “Secret-key” “Single-key encryption” It was the only encryption in use prior to the development of public-key encryption in the late 1970s. It remains by far the most widely used of the two types of encryption.
- 4. Symmetric Encryption Ingredients A symmetric encryption scheme has five ingredients: 1. Plaintext: This is the original message or data that is fed into the algorithm as input. 2. Encryption Algorithm: The encryption algorithm performs various substitutions on the plaintext. 3. Secret Key: The secret key is also an input to the algorithm. The exact substitutions and transformations performed by the algorithm depend on the key. 4. Ciphertext: This is the scrambled message produced as output. 5. Decryption Algrorithm: This is essentially the encryption algrithm run in reverse.
- 5. Security requirements There are two requirements for secure use of symmetric encryption: 1. We need a strong encryption algorithm. 2. Sender and receiver must have obtained copies of the secret key in a secure fashion and must keep the key secure. It is important to note that the security of the symmetric encryption depends on the secrecy of the key.
- 6. Cryptography Cryptographic systems are generically classified along three independent dimensions: 1. The type of operations used for transforming plaintext to ciphertext. 2. The number of keys used 3. The way in which the plaintext is processed.
- 7. The Type of Operations used for transforming plaintext to ciphertext All encryption algorithms are based on two general principles: a. Substitution – in which each element in the plaintext is mapped into another element b. Transposition – in which elements in the plaintext are rearranged.
- 8. The Number of Keys used Symmetric Encryption – if both the sender and receiver use the same key. Assymetric Encryption – Sender and receiver used different keys.
- 9. The Ways in which the plaintext is being processed. Block cipher – processes the input one block at a time, producing an output block for each input block Stream cipher – processes the input elements continuously, producing output one element at a time as it goes along.
- 10. Cryptanalysis The process of attempting to discover the plaintext or key. The next figure summarizes the various types of cryptanalytic attacks based on the amount of information known to the cryptanalyst.
- 12. Feistel Cipher Structure -Described by Horst Feistel of IBM in 1973 -The structure most Symmetric Block Encryption Algorithms use.
- 13. Feistel Encryption And Decryption1 (16 Rounds)
- 14. Symmetric Block Encryption Algorithms The most commonly used symmetric encryption algorithms are block ciphers. A block cipher processes the plaintext input in fixed-sized blocks and produces a block of ciphertext of equal size for each plaintext block.
- 15. Most Important Symmetric Block Ciphers - Data Encryption Standard (DES) -Triple DES (3DS) - Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
- 16. Data Encryption Standard (DES) -The most widely used encryption scheme issued in 1977 as Federal Information Processing Standard 46 (FIPS 46) by the National Bureau of Standards, now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). -The algorithm is known as the Data Encryption Algorithm
- 17. Description of the Algorithm The plaintext is 64 bits in length and the key is 56 bits in length; longer plaintext amounts are processed in 64 bits blocks. DES structure is a minor variation of the Feistel network The process of decryption with DES is essentially the same as the encryption process. The rule is as follows: Use the ciphertext as input to the DES Algorithm, but use the subkeys Ki in reverse order, That is use K16 on the first iteration, K15 on the second iteration and so on, until K1 is used at the 16th round.
- 18. Confusion and Diffusion According to Claude Shannon, there are two primitive operations with which strong encryption algorithms can be built: 1. Confusion is an encryption operation where the relationship between key and ciphertext is obscured. Ex: Substitution 2. Diffusion is an encryption operation where the influence of one plaintext symbol is spread over many ciphertext symbols with the goal of hiding statistical properties of the plaintext. Ex: bit permutation
- 19. DES Internals 1. IP and IP-1 Simple Bit Permutation 2. F function 4 steps 1. Expansion E 2. XOR Round Key 3. S-Box substitution 4. Permutation
- 20. Strength of DES Two concerns: 1. Algorithm itself -Most studied encryption algorithm 2. The use of 56-bit key. - Proven insecure by Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) by using a special purpose “DES-cracker” machine.