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Neonatal resuscitation
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Umbilical Cord
Management
for longer than 30 seconds is
reasonable for both term and
preterm infants who do not require
resuscitation at birth
Class IIa
LOE C-LD
There is insufficient evidence to
recommend an approach to cord
clamping for infants who require
resuscitation at birth
we suggest against the routine use of
cord milking for infants born at less
than 29 weeks of gestation
Class IIb,
LOE C-LD
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Importance of
Maintaining
Normal
Temperature
in the Delivery
Room
Hypothermia is also associated with
serious morbidities, such as
increased respiratory issues,
hypoglycemia, and late-onset sepsis.
Temperature should be recorded as a
predictor of outcomes as well as a
quality indicator
Class I,
LOE B-NR
temperature of newly born
nonasphyxiated infants be
maintained between 36.5°C and
37.5°C after birth through admission
and stabilization
Class I,
LOE C-LD
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Interventions
to Maintain
Newborn
Temperature
in the Delivery
Room
The use of radiant warmers and
plastic wrap with a cap has improved
but not eliminated the risk of
hypothermia in preterms in the
delivery room.
Class IIb,
LOE B-R,
B-NR, C-LD
warmed humidified gases and
increased room temperature plus
cap plus thermal mattress were all
effective in reducing hypothermia.
For all the studies, hyperthermia was
a concern, but harm was not shown.
Hyperthermia (greater than 38.0°C)
should be avoided due to the
potential associated risks
Class III:
Harm, LOE
C-EO
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Warming
Hypothermic
Newborns to
Restore
Normal
Temperature
The traditional recommendation for
the method of rewarming neonates
who are hypothermic after
resuscitation has been that slower is
preferable to faster rewarming to
avoid complications such as apnea
and arrhythmias. However, there is
insufficient current evidence to
recommend a preference for either
rapid (0.5°C/h or greater) or slow
rewarming (less than 0.5°C/h) of
unintentionally hypothermic
newborns (temperature less than
36°C) at hospital admission. Either
approach to rewarming may be
reasonable (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Maintaining
Normothermia
in Resource-
Limited
Settings
In resource-limited settings, to
maintain body temperature or
prevent hypothermia during
transition (birth until 1 to 2 hours of
life) in well newborn infants, it may
be reasonable to put them in a clean
food-grade plastic bag up to the level
of the neck and swaddle them after
drying (Class IIb, LOE C-LD)
Another option that may be
reasonable is to nurse such
newborns with skin-to-skin contact
or kangaroo mother care (Class IIb,
LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Clearing the
Airway When
Meconium Is
Present
However, if the infant born through
meconium-stained amniotic fluid
presents with poor muscle tone and
inadequate breathing efforts, the
initial steps of resuscitation should
be completed under the radiant
warmer. PPV should be initiated if
the infant is not breathing or the
heart rate is less than 100/min after
the initial steps are completed.
Routine intubation for tracheal
suction in this setting is not
suggested, because there is
insufficient evidence to continue
recommending this practice (Class
IIb, LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Assessment of
Heart Rate
During resuscitation of
term and preterm
newborns, the use of 3-
lead ECG for the rapid and
accurate measurement of
the newborn’s heart rate
may be reasonable (Class
IIb, LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Administration
of Oxygen in
Preterm
Infants
In all studies, irrespective of whether
air or high oxygen (including 100%)
was used to initiate resuscitation,
most infants were in approximately
30% oxygen by the time of
stabilization. Resuscitation of
preterm newborns of less than 35
weeks of gestation should be
initiated with low oxygen (21% to
30%), and the oxygen concentration
should be titrated to achieve
preductal oxygen saturation
approximating the interquartile
range measured in healthy term
infants after vaginal birth at sea level
(Class I, LOE B-R).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Positive
Pressure
Ventilation
(PPV)
There is insufficient data regarding
short and long-term safety and the
most appropriate duration and
pressure of inflation to support
routine application of sustained
inflation of greater than 5 seconds’
duration to the transitioning
newborn (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
In 2015, the Neonatal Resuscitation
ILCOR and Guidelines Task Forces
repeated their 2010
recommendation that, when PPV is
administered to preterm newborns,
approximately 5 cm H2 O PEEP is
suggested (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
PPV can be delivered effectively with
a flow-inflating bag, self-inflating
bag, or T-piece resuscitator (Class IIa,
LOE B-R).
Use of respiratory mechanics
monitors have been reported to
prevent excessive pressures and tidal
volumes and exhaled CO2 monitors
may help assess that actual gas
exchange is occurring during face-
mask PPV attempts. Although use of
such devices is feasible, thus far their
effectiveness, particularly in
changing important outcomes, has
not been established (Class IIb, LOE
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Laryngeal masks, which fit over the
laryngeal inlet, can achieve effective
ventilation in term and preterm
newborns at 34 weeks or more of
gestation. Data are limited for their
use in preterm infants delivered at
less than 34 weeks of gestation or
who weigh less than 2000 g. A
laryngeal mask may be considered as
an alternative to tracheal intubation
if face-mask ventilation is
unsuccessful in achieving effective
ventilation (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
A laryngeal mask is recommended
during resuscitation of term and
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
CPAP Based on this evidence,
spontaneously breathing preterm
infants with respiratory distress may
be supported with CPAP initially
rather than routine intubation for
administering PPV (Class IIb, LOE B-
R).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Compressions are delivered on the
lower third of the sternum to a
depth of approximately one third of
the anterior-posterior diameter of
the chest (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
Because the 2-thumb technique
generates higher blood pressures
and coronary perfusion pressure
with less rescuer fatigue, the 2
thumb–encircling hands technique is
suggested as the preferred method
(Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
It is still suggested that compressions
and ventilations be coordinated to
avoid simultaneous delivery. The
chest should be allowed to re-
expand fully during relaxation, but
the rescuer’s thumbs should not
leave the chest. The Neonatal
Resuscitation ILCOR and Guidelines
Task Forces continue to support use
of a 3:1 ratio of compressions to
ventilation, with 90 compressions
and 30 breaths to achieve
approximately 120 events per
minute to maximize ventilation at an
achievable rate (Class IIa, LOE C-LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
The Neonatal Guidelines Writing
Group endorses increasing the
oxygen concentration to 100%
whenever chest compressions are
provided (Class IIa, LOE C-EO).
To reduce the risks of complications
associated with hyperoxia the
supplementary oxygen concentration
should be weaned as soon as the
heart rate recovers (Class I, LOE C-
LD).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
The current measure for
determining successful
progress in neonatal
resuscitation is to assess
the heart rate response.
Other devices, such as
end-tidal CO2 monitoring
and pulse oximetry, may
be useful techniques to
determine when return of
spontaneous circulation
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Evidence suggests that use of
therapeutic hypothermia in
resource-limited settings (ie, lack of
qualified staff, inadequate
equipment, etc) may be considered
and offered under clearly defined
protocols similar to those used in
published clinical trials and in
facilities with the capabilities for
multidisciplinary care and
longitudinal follow-up (Class IIb, LOE-
B-R).
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
However, in individual cases, when
counseling a family and constructing
a prognosis for survival at gestations
below 25 weeks, it is reasonable to
consider variables such as perceived
accuracy of gestational age
assignment, the presence or absence
of chorioamnionitis, and the level of
care available for location of delivery.
It is also recognized that decisions
about appropriateness of
resuscitation below 25 weeks of
gestation will be influenced by
region-specific guidelines. In making
this statement, a higher value was
placed on the lack of evidence for a
2015 guideline update
recommendation
Topic Recommendation LOE comments
Until more research is available to
clarify the optimal instructor training
methodology, it is suggested that
neonatal resuscitation instructors be
trained using timely, objective,
structured, and individually targeted
verbal and/or written feedback
(Class IIb, LOE C-EO).
Studies that explored how frequently
healthcare providers or healthcare
students should train showed no
differences in patient outcomes (LOE
C-EO) but were able to show some
advantages in psychomotor
performance (LOE B-R) and

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Neonatal resuscitation 2015

  • 2.
  • 3. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Umbilical Cord Management for longer than 30 seconds is reasonable for both term and preterm infants who do not require resuscitation at birth Class IIa LOE C-LD There is insufficient evidence to recommend an approach to cord clamping for infants who require resuscitation at birth we suggest against the routine use of cord milking for infants born at less than 29 weeks of gestation Class IIb, LOE C-LD
  • 4. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Importance of Maintaining Normal Temperature in the Delivery Room Hypothermia is also associated with serious morbidities, such as increased respiratory issues, hypoglycemia, and late-onset sepsis. Temperature should be recorded as a predictor of outcomes as well as a quality indicator Class I, LOE B-NR temperature of newly born nonasphyxiated infants be maintained between 36.5°C and 37.5°C after birth through admission and stabilization Class I, LOE C-LD
  • 5. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Interventions to Maintain Newborn Temperature in the Delivery Room The use of radiant warmers and plastic wrap with a cap has improved but not eliminated the risk of hypothermia in preterms in the delivery room. Class IIb, LOE B-R, B-NR, C-LD warmed humidified gases and increased room temperature plus cap plus thermal mattress were all effective in reducing hypothermia. For all the studies, hyperthermia was a concern, but harm was not shown. Hyperthermia (greater than 38.0°C) should be avoided due to the potential associated risks Class III: Harm, LOE C-EO
  • 6. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Warming Hypothermic Newborns to Restore Normal Temperature The traditional recommendation for the method of rewarming neonates who are hypothermic after resuscitation has been that slower is preferable to faster rewarming to avoid complications such as apnea and arrhythmias. However, there is insufficient current evidence to recommend a preference for either rapid (0.5°C/h or greater) or slow rewarming (less than 0.5°C/h) of unintentionally hypothermic newborns (temperature less than 36°C) at hospital admission. Either approach to rewarming may be reasonable (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  • 7. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Maintaining Normothermia in Resource- Limited Settings In resource-limited settings, to maintain body temperature or prevent hypothermia during transition (birth until 1 to 2 hours of life) in well newborn infants, it may be reasonable to put them in a clean food-grade plastic bag up to the level of the neck and swaddle them after drying (Class IIb, LOE C-LD) Another option that may be reasonable is to nurse such newborns with skin-to-skin contact or kangaroo mother care (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  • 8. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Clearing the Airway When Meconium Is Present However, if the infant born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid presents with poor muscle tone and inadequate breathing efforts, the initial steps of resuscitation should be completed under the radiant warmer. PPV should be initiated if the infant is not breathing or the heart rate is less than 100/min after the initial steps are completed. Routine intubation for tracheal suction in this setting is not suggested, because there is insufficient evidence to continue recommending this practice (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  • 9. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Assessment of Heart Rate During resuscitation of term and preterm newborns, the use of 3- lead ECG for the rapid and accurate measurement of the newborn’s heart rate may be reasonable (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  • 10. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Administration of Oxygen in Preterm Infants In all studies, irrespective of whether air or high oxygen (including 100%) was used to initiate resuscitation, most infants were in approximately 30% oxygen by the time of stabilization. Resuscitation of preterm newborns of less than 35 weeks of gestation should be initiated with low oxygen (21% to 30%), and the oxygen concentration should be titrated to achieve preductal oxygen saturation approximating the interquartile range measured in healthy term infants after vaginal birth at sea level (Class I, LOE B-R).
  • 11. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) There is insufficient data regarding short and long-term safety and the most appropriate duration and pressure of inflation to support routine application of sustained inflation of greater than 5 seconds’ duration to the transitioning newborn (Class IIb, LOE B-R). In 2015, the Neonatal Resuscitation ILCOR and Guidelines Task Forces repeated their 2010 recommendation that, when PPV is administered to preterm newborns, approximately 5 cm H2 O PEEP is suggested (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
  • 12. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments PPV can be delivered effectively with a flow-inflating bag, self-inflating bag, or T-piece resuscitator (Class IIa, LOE B-R). Use of respiratory mechanics monitors have been reported to prevent excessive pressures and tidal volumes and exhaled CO2 monitors may help assess that actual gas exchange is occurring during face- mask PPV attempts. Although use of such devices is feasible, thus far their effectiveness, particularly in changing important outcomes, has not been established (Class IIb, LOE
  • 13. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Laryngeal masks, which fit over the laryngeal inlet, can achieve effective ventilation in term and preterm newborns at 34 weeks or more of gestation. Data are limited for their use in preterm infants delivered at less than 34 weeks of gestation or who weigh less than 2000 g. A laryngeal mask may be considered as an alternative to tracheal intubation if face-mask ventilation is unsuccessful in achieving effective ventilation (Class IIb, LOE B-R). A laryngeal mask is recommended during resuscitation of term and
  • 14. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments CPAP Based on this evidence, spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress may be supported with CPAP initially rather than routine intubation for administering PPV (Class IIb, LOE B- R).
  • 15. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Compressions are delivered on the lower third of the sternum to a depth of approximately one third of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest (Class IIb, LOE C-LD). Because the 2-thumb technique generates higher blood pressures and coronary perfusion pressure with less rescuer fatigue, the 2 thumb–encircling hands technique is suggested as the preferred method (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  • 16. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments It is still suggested that compressions and ventilations be coordinated to avoid simultaneous delivery. The chest should be allowed to re- expand fully during relaxation, but the rescuer’s thumbs should not leave the chest. The Neonatal Resuscitation ILCOR and Guidelines Task Forces continue to support use of a 3:1 ratio of compressions to ventilation, with 90 compressions and 30 breaths to achieve approximately 120 events per minute to maximize ventilation at an achievable rate (Class IIa, LOE C-LD).
  • 17. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments The Neonatal Guidelines Writing Group endorses increasing the oxygen concentration to 100% whenever chest compressions are provided (Class IIa, LOE C-EO). To reduce the risks of complications associated with hyperoxia the supplementary oxygen concentration should be weaned as soon as the heart rate recovers (Class I, LOE C- LD).
  • 18. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments The current measure for determining successful progress in neonatal resuscitation is to assess the heart rate response. Other devices, such as end-tidal CO2 monitoring and pulse oximetry, may be useful techniques to determine when return of spontaneous circulation
  • 19. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Evidence suggests that use of therapeutic hypothermia in resource-limited settings (ie, lack of qualified staff, inadequate equipment, etc) may be considered and offered under clearly defined protocols similar to those used in published clinical trials and in facilities with the capabilities for multidisciplinary care and longitudinal follow-up (Class IIb, LOE- B-R).
  • 20. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments However, in individual cases, when counseling a family and constructing a prognosis for survival at gestations below 25 weeks, it is reasonable to consider variables such as perceived accuracy of gestational age assignment, the presence or absence of chorioamnionitis, and the level of care available for location of delivery. It is also recognized that decisions about appropriateness of resuscitation below 25 weeks of gestation will be influenced by region-specific guidelines. In making this statement, a higher value was placed on the lack of evidence for a
  • 21. 2015 guideline update recommendation Topic Recommendation LOE comments Until more research is available to clarify the optimal instructor training methodology, it is suggested that neonatal resuscitation instructors be trained using timely, objective, structured, and individually targeted verbal and/or written feedback (Class IIb, LOE C-EO). Studies that explored how frequently healthcare providers or healthcare students should train showed no differences in patient outcomes (LOE C-EO) but were able to show some advantages in psychomotor performance (LOE B-R) and