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Canine
                                         Par voviru s
                                         Enteritis and
                                         your Puppy

                                         By Dr. Jacquel yn
                                         Holmes Burns




   MY PUPPY HAS PARVO
                             NOW WHAT?
©Jacquelyn Holmes Burns, DVM 2011
THIS MATERIAL

 Is intended to educate pet owners about parvovirus enteritis
  and the approach that we at Holmes Veterinary Hospital take
  in the diagnosis and treatment of puppies with canine
  parvovirus. It is not intended as a substitute for advice,
  diagnostics and treatment for your dog by your veterinarian.
WHAT IS CANINE PARVOVIRUS?

        A common puppyhood disease
        Ver y contagious!!!
        Puppies are usually age 4 to 6 months
          Sometimes older
              Seldom over 8 or 9 months old
          Sometimes younger
        Puppies usually are unvaccinated or not fully
         vaccinated
        Signs of par vovirus
            Suddenly sick!
            Appetite loss
            Vomiting—can be foamy, milky or watery
            Diarrhea, often bloody and foul-smelling
            Salivation—thick, ropey saliva
        Unseen consequences of Par vo
          Lowered white blood cell count
          Weakens the immune system
          Easier to get secondary infections/sepsis
THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF FOUR MONTH
           OLD PUPPIES…

Those that have been vaccinated
 appropriately

       and


Those that are going to get parvo
HOW PARVO AFFECTS THE PUPPY’S BODY

 Virus damages cells lining the small intestine, eroding the
  intestine’s lining
     Causes appetite loss
     Causes vomiting
     Causes diarrhea
     Lost intestinal lining cells take about a week to be replaced
     Results in dehydration, which can be fatal
 Virus lowers the white blood cell count
   Easier to get secondary bacterial infection
       Can result in sepsis or septic shock
 Can be further complicated if the pet has parasites
 Can be fatal!!!
HOW DID MY PUPPY GET PARVO???

 Virus particles are almost ever ywhere in nature
 Transmission is fecal  oral




  Sick puppy                        Virus particles      Unvaccinated
   poops out      Virus particles   present in soil    puppy walks on
  millions of     are very stable    can stay for       contaminated
virus particles     in the soil—      years. Soil        soil, licks feet
in each bowel      resist heat &      cannot be       afterwards, ingesti
  movement              cold          disinfected         ng the virus
INCUBATION PERIOD

From the time your puppy is exposed to
 parvovirus particles until he or she gets
 sick takes about a week (5 – 10 days).
BUT THE PERSON WHO SOLD ME THE
            PUPPY TOLD ME
     “HE’S HAD ALL OF HIS SHOTS.”
 It is quite commonplace to be told this by
  breeders, seller s, and dealer s. What they
  mean is that he’s had his f ir st set o f shots
  for all of t he following diseases:
  distemper, adenovirus, parainfluenza and
  par vovirus
 In order to be completely immune to
  par vovirus, t he average puppy has to have
  three sets of shots, with the final shot given
  af ter the ag e of 1 2 to 14 weeks.
 In theor y, a pu ppy could be vaccinated 3 to 5
  t imes before t he ag e of 1 2 weeks and st ill
  not be immune to Par vo.
 Usual vaccination t iming: 8, 11 and 14
  weeks, beginning about t wo weeks af ter
  weaning
Therefore, if your puppy is less than 12 to 14 weeks when purchased he or she
could not possibly have had all of his shots. Since most puppies are sold at 6 to 8
weeks of age, almost no puppies have had all of their shots at the time they’re sold..
SYMPTOMS
  Come on so quickly many people
   think their puppy has been
   poisoned
  Vomiting
        Watery
        Foamy
        Milky
        Slimy
  Diarrhea
      Often bloody
      Foul-smelling
    Appetite loss
    Listless or depressed attitude
    Thick, ropey saliva
    Often have dull, glassy -eyed stare
HOW DOES MY VET DIAGNOSE PARVO?

            History
            Physical Exam findings
              Dehydration
              Sometimes abdominal pain
              Sometimes fever
            Fecal Flotation
              Tells whether or not worms are also present
            Fecal Swab for Parvo ELISA antigen test
              Detects virus particles in the stool
            CBC
              Low white blood cell count
              Helps to establish prognosis
            Sometimes x-rays
              Help rule out other conditions
IS THERE A TREATMENT?

 Yes and no
 There is not a specific treatment
  or cure for this virus
   Like the flu in people, the virus has
    to run its course
   About a week of illness for most
    puppies
 Treatment is considered
  supportive
   Control vomiting
   Hydrate, hydrate, hydrate
     Usually IV fluids
     Sometimes subcutaneous fluids
      (under the skin)
   Antibiotics to control secondary
    bacterial infection or sepsis
     Sometimes several drugs
WHAT ARE MY TREATMENT
           OPTIONS?
          Hospitalization                      Outpatient
           with IV Fluids                        Care
 Ideal approach; better chance            Patient is kept at home
  of sur vival
 Patient is hospitalized here             Brought in twice a day for
 IV catheter used to give fluids           subcutaneous fluids
  and meds intravenously                    (fluids are put under the
 Cerenia for vomiting                      loose skin over the
    Works well!                            puppy’s shoulders)
    Reglan can be added if needed
    Famotidine can be added if needed     Cerenia for vomiting
 Antibiotics                              Antibiotics
    Often two in combination, given IV
 Drugs for pain if needed                 Costs less
 Potassium supplementation if             Puppy’s chances of living
  needed                                    are not as good as with
                                            hospitalization
WHAT IF MONEY IS NO OBJECT AND I
   WILL DO ANY THING FOR MY PUPPY?
 Par vovirus is one of the most common diseases encountered in general
  veterinar y practice
 However, the majority of general practices do not have a 24 hour
  attendant/technician. In most practices, your puppy will be alone at
  night and much of the day on weekends.
 If you are concerned about this, or if your veterinarian thinks your
  puppy could be better managed at another facility, your puppy could be
  transferred to one of the area’s animal emergency clinics for 24 hour
  care
 Advantages of 24 hour facilities:
   Fluid amounts can be adjusted as the patient’s needs change
   Some patients get tangled up in IV lines or lines get kinked and don’t run well
   Small puppies or breeds with very short legs —it’s difficult to keep their IV’s
    running correctly even when an attendant is present, much less when one isn’t
    present
   Some have warmed cages to keep body temp from dropping
 For puppies that are ―crashing‖
   Sometimes a whole blood or fresh plasma transfusion can be given
   24 hour facilities are more likely to have this capability or have it ―on hand.‖
WILL MY PUPPY LIVE?

 Even with proper treatment, some puppies die from Par vo
 Those with the lowest white blood cell counts are more likely to
  die
 Those where IV fluids are not chosen or where IV fluids won’t run
  well are harder to keep alive
 Puppies with ver y small body size are more dif ficult to treat
 Puppies of cer tain breeds are more dif ficult to treat
   Pit bulls, Dobermans, Rottweiler
 Puppies with a lot of worms or other parasites are more dif ficult
  to treat
 Puppies with sepsis or aspiration pneumonia are more dif ficult
  to treat
 Some year s, the virus is just plain more virulent (dangerous)
  than other s, much like the flu varies from year to year

              With early and aggressive treatment
              , the majority of puppies with Parvo
                               live
I LOVE MY PUPPY, BUT I JUST DON’T
        HAVE THE MONEY!
              We understand. We are faced with
               many hard decisions ever y day. We
               know you care deeply about your
               puppy and yet you have to make
               ends meet for yourself and your
               family.
              Many puppies survive and do quite
               well with outpatient care
              Nothing ventured, nothing gained!
              You can keep your puppy clean and
               dry and loved at home
              You can also give unflavored
               Pedialyte with a dropper at home to
               help augment the subcutaneous
               fluids given by your vet’s team
                Our vets will give you instructions as to
                 how much fluid to give your puppy at
                 home
FAQ

 Q: Can my other dog get Parvo?
 A: Adult dogs with healthy immune systems seldom get
  Parvo, especially if they’ve been vaccinated. Puppies that
  have not had ALL recommended shots at the recommended
  ages are susceptible and very likely could get it
 Q: Should we vaccinate my other puppy right away?
 A: Some people choose to do this, but our vets do not
  recommend it. If your other puppy has been
  exposed, challenging his or her immune system with
  vaccination may not be the best thing to do. We recommend
  waiting a week, and if they puppy still hasn’t gotten
  Parvo, proceed with vaccinations.
 Q: Should we give my adult dog a Parvo booster right away?
 A: Yes, if it’s been more than a year since the last shot.
FAQ

 Q: What can I do to disinfect my home?
 A: Smooth, hard surfaces may be disinfected with a mixture
  of 1 part Clorox liquid bleach to 9 equal parts water
 Q: How can I disinfect my yard?
 A: Soil is very resistant to disinfection. Simply put, you can’t
  do it.
 Q: What can I do to prevent future puppies from getting
  Parvo?
 A: Disinfect or discard all toys, bowls, leashes/collars,
  doghouses, dog beds, etc. And get any future puppies
  vaccinated according to your veterinarian’s recommendations,
  starting as soon as you get them.
 Q: Can my puppy get Parvo again?
 A: No, after recovery, your puppy is immune to Parvo.
FAQ

 Q: If my puppy can’t get Parvo again, why did the vet
  recommend that I bring him in for shot in a week?
 A: The shots also protect against several other diseases, so
  it’s still important for your puppy to get regular vaccinations
  and checkups.
 Q: Can people get Parvo?
 A: No, people cannot be infected with canine parvovirus
 Q: I heard that Parvo comes from cats. Should I get rid of my
  cats?
 A: No. Canine parvovirus originated from a feline virus that
  mutated in the 1970’s. But now there is a cat parvovirus
  (feline panleukopenia or feline distemper) and a dog
  parvovirus. Dogs don’t get the cat form and cats don’t get the
  dog form.
SLIDE SHOW COURTESY OF
       JACQUELYN H. BURNS, DVM

 Slide show courtesy of Jacquelyn H. Burns, DVM
 Holmes Veterinary Hospital
  1001 Church Street
  Laurens, SC 29360
  www.holmesvethospital.com
© Jacquelyn H. Burns, DVM, 2011



   Information in this slide presentation is for client education
    purposes only and it not intended as a substitute for your
   veterinarian’s examination, clinical judgment and treatment
                        recommendations.

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My Puppy Has Parvo! Now What?

  • 1. Canine Par voviru s Enteritis and your Puppy By Dr. Jacquel yn Holmes Burns MY PUPPY HAS PARVO NOW WHAT? ©Jacquelyn Holmes Burns, DVM 2011
  • 2. THIS MATERIAL  Is intended to educate pet owners about parvovirus enteritis and the approach that we at Holmes Veterinary Hospital take in the diagnosis and treatment of puppies with canine parvovirus. It is not intended as a substitute for advice, diagnostics and treatment for your dog by your veterinarian.
  • 3. WHAT IS CANINE PARVOVIRUS?  A common puppyhood disease  Ver y contagious!!!  Puppies are usually age 4 to 6 months  Sometimes older  Seldom over 8 or 9 months old  Sometimes younger  Puppies usually are unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated  Signs of par vovirus  Suddenly sick!  Appetite loss  Vomiting—can be foamy, milky or watery  Diarrhea, often bloody and foul-smelling  Salivation—thick, ropey saliva  Unseen consequences of Par vo  Lowered white blood cell count  Weakens the immune system  Easier to get secondary infections/sepsis
  • 4. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF FOUR MONTH OLD PUPPIES… Those that have been vaccinated appropriately and Those that are going to get parvo
  • 5. HOW PARVO AFFECTS THE PUPPY’S BODY  Virus damages cells lining the small intestine, eroding the intestine’s lining  Causes appetite loss  Causes vomiting  Causes diarrhea  Lost intestinal lining cells take about a week to be replaced  Results in dehydration, which can be fatal  Virus lowers the white blood cell count  Easier to get secondary bacterial infection  Can result in sepsis or septic shock  Can be further complicated if the pet has parasites  Can be fatal!!!
  • 6. HOW DID MY PUPPY GET PARVO???  Virus particles are almost ever ywhere in nature  Transmission is fecal  oral Sick puppy Virus particles Unvaccinated poops out Virus particles present in soil puppy walks on millions of are very stable can stay for contaminated virus particles in the soil— years. Soil soil, licks feet in each bowel resist heat & cannot be afterwards, ingesti movement cold disinfected ng the virus
  • 7. INCUBATION PERIOD From the time your puppy is exposed to parvovirus particles until he or she gets sick takes about a week (5 – 10 days).
  • 8. BUT THE PERSON WHO SOLD ME THE PUPPY TOLD ME “HE’S HAD ALL OF HIS SHOTS.”  It is quite commonplace to be told this by breeders, seller s, and dealer s. What they mean is that he’s had his f ir st set o f shots for all of t he following diseases: distemper, adenovirus, parainfluenza and par vovirus  In order to be completely immune to par vovirus, t he average puppy has to have three sets of shots, with the final shot given af ter the ag e of 1 2 to 14 weeks.  In theor y, a pu ppy could be vaccinated 3 to 5 t imes before t he ag e of 1 2 weeks and st ill not be immune to Par vo.  Usual vaccination t iming: 8, 11 and 14 weeks, beginning about t wo weeks af ter weaning Therefore, if your puppy is less than 12 to 14 weeks when purchased he or she could not possibly have had all of his shots. Since most puppies are sold at 6 to 8 weeks of age, almost no puppies have had all of their shots at the time they’re sold..
  • 9. SYMPTOMS  Come on so quickly many people think their puppy has been poisoned  Vomiting  Watery  Foamy  Milky  Slimy  Diarrhea  Often bloody  Foul-smelling  Appetite loss  Listless or depressed attitude  Thick, ropey saliva  Often have dull, glassy -eyed stare
  • 10. HOW DOES MY VET DIAGNOSE PARVO?  History  Physical Exam findings  Dehydration  Sometimes abdominal pain  Sometimes fever  Fecal Flotation  Tells whether or not worms are also present  Fecal Swab for Parvo ELISA antigen test  Detects virus particles in the stool  CBC  Low white blood cell count  Helps to establish prognosis  Sometimes x-rays  Help rule out other conditions
  • 11. IS THERE A TREATMENT?  Yes and no  There is not a specific treatment or cure for this virus  Like the flu in people, the virus has to run its course  About a week of illness for most puppies  Treatment is considered supportive  Control vomiting  Hydrate, hydrate, hydrate  Usually IV fluids  Sometimes subcutaneous fluids (under the skin)  Antibiotics to control secondary bacterial infection or sepsis  Sometimes several drugs
  • 12. WHAT ARE MY TREATMENT OPTIONS? Hospitalization Outpatient with IV Fluids Care  Ideal approach; better chance  Patient is kept at home of sur vival  Patient is hospitalized here  Brought in twice a day for  IV catheter used to give fluids subcutaneous fluids and meds intravenously (fluids are put under the  Cerenia for vomiting loose skin over the  Works well! puppy’s shoulders)  Reglan can be added if needed  Famotidine can be added if needed  Cerenia for vomiting  Antibiotics  Antibiotics  Often two in combination, given IV  Drugs for pain if needed  Costs less  Potassium supplementation if  Puppy’s chances of living needed are not as good as with hospitalization
  • 13. WHAT IF MONEY IS NO OBJECT AND I WILL DO ANY THING FOR MY PUPPY?  Par vovirus is one of the most common diseases encountered in general veterinar y practice  However, the majority of general practices do not have a 24 hour attendant/technician. In most practices, your puppy will be alone at night and much of the day on weekends.  If you are concerned about this, or if your veterinarian thinks your puppy could be better managed at another facility, your puppy could be transferred to one of the area’s animal emergency clinics for 24 hour care  Advantages of 24 hour facilities:  Fluid amounts can be adjusted as the patient’s needs change  Some patients get tangled up in IV lines or lines get kinked and don’t run well  Small puppies or breeds with very short legs —it’s difficult to keep their IV’s running correctly even when an attendant is present, much less when one isn’t present  Some have warmed cages to keep body temp from dropping  For puppies that are ―crashing‖  Sometimes a whole blood or fresh plasma transfusion can be given  24 hour facilities are more likely to have this capability or have it ―on hand.‖
  • 14. WILL MY PUPPY LIVE?  Even with proper treatment, some puppies die from Par vo  Those with the lowest white blood cell counts are more likely to die  Those where IV fluids are not chosen or where IV fluids won’t run well are harder to keep alive  Puppies with ver y small body size are more dif ficult to treat  Puppies of cer tain breeds are more dif ficult to treat  Pit bulls, Dobermans, Rottweiler  Puppies with a lot of worms or other parasites are more dif ficult to treat  Puppies with sepsis or aspiration pneumonia are more dif ficult to treat  Some year s, the virus is just plain more virulent (dangerous) than other s, much like the flu varies from year to year With early and aggressive treatment , the majority of puppies with Parvo live
  • 15. I LOVE MY PUPPY, BUT I JUST DON’T HAVE THE MONEY!  We understand. We are faced with many hard decisions ever y day. We know you care deeply about your puppy and yet you have to make ends meet for yourself and your family.  Many puppies survive and do quite well with outpatient care  Nothing ventured, nothing gained!  You can keep your puppy clean and dry and loved at home  You can also give unflavored Pedialyte with a dropper at home to help augment the subcutaneous fluids given by your vet’s team  Our vets will give you instructions as to how much fluid to give your puppy at home
  • 16. FAQ  Q: Can my other dog get Parvo?  A: Adult dogs with healthy immune systems seldom get Parvo, especially if they’ve been vaccinated. Puppies that have not had ALL recommended shots at the recommended ages are susceptible and very likely could get it  Q: Should we vaccinate my other puppy right away?  A: Some people choose to do this, but our vets do not recommend it. If your other puppy has been exposed, challenging his or her immune system with vaccination may not be the best thing to do. We recommend waiting a week, and if they puppy still hasn’t gotten Parvo, proceed with vaccinations.  Q: Should we give my adult dog a Parvo booster right away?  A: Yes, if it’s been more than a year since the last shot.
  • 17. FAQ  Q: What can I do to disinfect my home?  A: Smooth, hard surfaces may be disinfected with a mixture of 1 part Clorox liquid bleach to 9 equal parts water  Q: How can I disinfect my yard?  A: Soil is very resistant to disinfection. Simply put, you can’t do it.  Q: What can I do to prevent future puppies from getting Parvo?  A: Disinfect or discard all toys, bowls, leashes/collars, doghouses, dog beds, etc. And get any future puppies vaccinated according to your veterinarian’s recommendations, starting as soon as you get them.  Q: Can my puppy get Parvo again?  A: No, after recovery, your puppy is immune to Parvo.
  • 18. FAQ  Q: If my puppy can’t get Parvo again, why did the vet recommend that I bring him in for shot in a week?  A: The shots also protect against several other diseases, so it’s still important for your puppy to get regular vaccinations and checkups.  Q: Can people get Parvo?  A: No, people cannot be infected with canine parvovirus  Q: I heard that Parvo comes from cats. Should I get rid of my cats?  A: No. Canine parvovirus originated from a feline virus that mutated in the 1970’s. But now there is a cat parvovirus (feline panleukopenia or feline distemper) and a dog parvovirus. Dogs don’t get the cat form and cats don’t get the dog form.
  • 19. SLIDE SHOW COURTESY OF JACQUELYN H. BURNS, DVM  Slide show courtesy of Jacquelyn H. Burns, DVM  Holmes Veterinary Hospital 1001 Church Street Laurens, SC 29360 www.holmesvethospital.com © Jacquelyn H. Burns, DVM, 2011 Information in this slide presentation is for client education purposes only and it not intended as a substitute for your veterinarian’s examination, clinical judgment and treatment recommendations.