SlideShare a Scribd company logo
METHODS OF STUDYING LEARNERS
BEHAVIOURS
Dr. Manju N. D
Assistant Professor
SVK National College of Education,
Balarajurs Road, NES Campus,
Shivamogga - 577201.
METHODS OF STUDYING LEARNERS PSYCHOLOGY
• Educational Psychology is the scientific study
of the behaviour of the learner in relation to
his education / her educational environment.
• To study the behaviour of the learner, there
are different approaches or methods used.
• Following are the important methods of
studying learner behaviour are:
1. Introspection
2. Observation
3. Case study
4. Experimental method
INTROSPECTION METHOD
INTROSPECTION METHOD
• Historically introspection is the oldest method
of all,
• which was formerly used in philosophy, and
then in psychology to collect data about the
conscious experience of the subject.
• To understand one’s own mental health and
the state of mind.
• This method was developed by the
structuralists in psychology who defined
psychology as the study of conscious
experiences of the individual.
• The word ‘Introspection is made up of two
Latin words.
• “Intro” means within
and
• “Spection” means looking.
Hence it is a method where an individual is
looking within one self.
• Self-observation.
• looking within, looking inward.
• Looking within, observes, analyses and reports
his own feelings.
• Angel considered it as “looking inward”.
• In introspection,
– the individual peeps into his own mental state and
– observes his own mental processes.
• Stout considers that ‘to introspect‘ is to
attend to the working of one‘s own mind in a
systematic way.
• It is a process of self – examination where
one perceives, analyses and reports one‘s own
feelings.
• It is said you are introspecting your own
mental feelings and examining what is going
on in your mental process in the state of
happiness.
• Similarly, you may introspect in a state of
anger or fear; etc Introspection is also
defined as the notice, which the mind takes
of itself.
Characteristics of Introspection:
Introspection is the self- observation and it
has the following characteristics:
1. The subject gets direct, immediate and
intuitive knowledge about the mind.
2. The subject has actually to observe his own
mental processes. He cannot speculate about
them.
stages of introspection
1. During the observation of external object, the
person beings to ponder over his own mental
state. For example While listening to music,
which is to him pleasant or unpleasant, he starts
thinking about his own mental state.
2. The person begins to question the working of
his own mind. He thinks and analyses: Why has
he said such and such thing? Why has he talked in
a particular manner? And so on.
3. He tries to frame the laws and conditions of
mental processes: He thinks in terms of
improvement of his reasoning or the control of
his emotional stages. This stage helps in the
advancement of our scientific knowledge.
Merits of Introspection Method:
1. It gives information about one’s own self which is
difficult by other methods.
2. It is an easy method and needs no equipment.
3. it is simplest, economical and is readily available to
the individual.
4. it provides adequate knowledge to know about
internal behaviour of an individual or actual facts of
mental activities are understood properly.
5. It makes a base for other methods such as
experimental and observation method.
Demerits of Introspection Method:
1. This method is highly subjective in
nature and lacks scientific objectivity.
2. Our mental process is under constant
changes so when one attempts to
introspect, the sate of mental process
disappears and it becomes a retrospect.
4. Introspection can not be employed on
children, animals and abnormal propel.
5. There are conflicting reports, as regards the
findings collected from different
introspectionists.
6. there is no way to prove the reliability of
the data.
7. Introspection method Hide facts.
8. it requires highly trained and skilled
workers to introspect.
OBSERVATION METHOD
OBSERVATION METHOD
• In introspection we can observe the mental
process of ourselves only, but
• in observation, we observe the mental
processes of others.
• Hence Observation is the most commonly
used method for the study of human
behaviour.
• Literally Observation means looking outside
oneself. Facts are collected by observing.
• In the words of Good, “ Observation deals
with the overt behaviour of persons in
appropriate situations.”
• Observation has been defined as
“Measurement without instruments.”
• Finally observation is
– Seeing things as they are in their natural setting.
– Overt behaviour of person in appropriate
situations.
– Measurement without instrument.
• For example students in a classroom have
been labeled as good, fair or poor in
achievement and lazy or diligent in study etc.
on the basis of observation. Observation is
indirect approach to study the mental
processes of others through observing their
external behaviour.
• For example if someone frowns, howls, grinds
his teeth, closes his fists, you would say that
the person is angry by only observing these
external signs of his behaviour.
Steps of observation method
1. Observation of behaviour.
is directly perceiving or observing the
behaviour of individuals under study.
2. Recording the behaviour observed.
carefully and immediately noted and
recorded.
Minimum time should be allowed to pass
between happening and recording.
3. Analysis and Interpretation of behaviour.
After completed observed, they are analyzed
objectively and scientifically in order to
interpret the behaviour patterns
4. Generalization.
Social development and behaviour of children
have been described by Child Psychologists on
the basis of generalization based on analysis
and interpretation of the data gathered
through the observation method.
TYPES OF OBSERVATION:
1. Natural Observation:
Observe the specific behavioral characteristics
of children in natural setting.
2. Participant observation:
The observer becomes the part of the group,
which he wants to observe. It discloses the
minute and hidden facts.
3. Non-participant observation.
The specific behaviour is observed in natural
setting without subjects getting conscious that
they are observed by some one.
Non-participant observation permits the use of
recording instruments.
4. Structured observation:
The observer sets up a form and categories in
terms of which he wishes to analyse the
problem. The observer always keeps in view
a] A frame of reference
b] Time units.
c] Limits of an act
5. Unstructured observation.
– is also called as uncontrolled or free observation.
– the individual is observed when he is in his
class, playground or when he is moving about with
his friends and class follows without knowing that
he is being observed.
MERITS:
1. Being a record of actual behaviour of the
child, it is more reliable and objective than
introspection.
2. It is an excellent source of information about
what actually happens in classroom.
3. It is a study of an individual in a natural
situation and is therefore more useful than
the restricted study in a test situation.
4. The method can be used with children of all
ages. Younger the child, the easiest it is to
observe him.
5. This method has been found very useful with
shy children.
6. It can be used in every situation-physical
activities, workshop and classroom
situations.
7. It is adaptable to both the individual and the
groups.
DEMERITS:
1. There is great scope for personal prejudices and
bias of the observer.
2. The observers interest, values can distort
observation.
3. Records may not be written with hundred
percent accuracy as the observations are
recorded after the actions are observed.
4. There is some time lag.
5. The observer may get only a small sample to
study behaviour.
6. It is very difficult to observe everything that the
student does or says. As far as possible
observation should be made from several
events.
8. It reveals the overt behaviour only- behaviour
that is expressed and not that is within.
9. It lacks replicability as each natural situation
may occur only once.
10. Records not written with 100% accuracy.
CASE STUDY METHOD
CASE STUDY METHOD
• The credit of case study method was introduced
by the English philosopher Frederic Leplay
• Herbert Spencer adopted it and Healey was the
first supporter of this method and studied
Juvenile Delinquency.
• Later on sociologists, Anthropologists,
Ethnologists and other researcher were
interested in the study of various cultures by
case study method.
• Case study “studying individual in depth” or
• One individual is examined intensively to find out
as much as possible about a certain problem or a
issue as it relates to that person.
• It is the study of an individual case.
• It is usually used for studying the behaviour
problems of a maladjusted or deviant individual.
 It is most often used to investigate the abnormal
behavior.
 In order to prepare a case history of data are
taken from many sources for example his or her
family history, educational life, medical history
and social life.
 This method is very popular in clinical
psychology and life span developmental
psychology.
According to P.V. Young Case study is a
comprehensive study of a social unit, be it a
person, a group of persons, an institution, a
community or a family.
Groode and Hatt. it is a method of exploring and
analyzing the life of a social unit.
According to Johoda. Case study is a small
inclusive and intensive study of an individual
in which investigators brings to bear their
skills and method.
case study is specially used in education psychology. It
deals in education the following problems;
Lack of interest in students
Aggressive behaviour in student
Day dreaming
Poor academic performance
Emotional problem
Social problems
Empathetic understanding
Find the problem
Establish report
Treatment
• The ‘Case Study’ method deals with the
emotional and mental state of an individual.
• This method is applied to study special
behavioural problems of an individual by
specially trained teachers, psychologist and
psychiatrists.
• Through this method total information of
family background, schooling and also social
conditions of the individuals is obtained;
hence it can be called a cumulative record
which is of great help in understanding the
source of an individual’s fears, anxiety, worry,
or any kind of maladjustment.
Objective of the case study Method
• The main objective of this method is
– to help the individual to adjust better with the
environment and
– gain self confidence to attain higher levels of
achievement.
Steps in case study:
• Identification and defining a problem.
• Determination of the most probable
antecedents of the case.
• Formulation of hypothesis.
• Verification of hypothesis.
• Remedial steps.
• Follow-up of the case.
Procedure of Case Study Method
• Different steps/procedures may be used in the
case study method are mentioned below:-
1. Basic preliminary information about the
subject’s name, age, sex, parent’s age,
education, occupation as well as social status.
2. Proper physical check-up of the individual is
done to ascertain whether his/her behavioural
problem is due to any disease. Only in the
absence of any physical ailment can
psychological treatment start.
• The subject should be very comfortable with
the investigator while the latter takes the
information.
• The investigator (teacher or psychologist)
should be friendly and the language of
collecting data must be simple so that free
and frank responses can be available.
• The investigator must not tire the subject;
instead, regular intervals of rest should be
given.
• The method cannot be applied quickly - it
may go on for several weeks or months.
• The behaviour of the individual should be
observed in natural setting and working
conditions. Doing so will provide correct data
which ultimately in most cases, will lead to
proper understanding of the root cause of the
person’s problems.
• Special care must be taken in the post treatment
period so that there is no recurrence of the
problem.
• The parents and family members and other
associates must take care so that the subject can
modify his behaviour and prevent
maladjustment.
Method of Treatment
Treatment methods of maladjusted individuals
include the following :-
Efforts must be made to modify the
environmental factors so that the individual
can adapt better.
If the existing environment cannot be
modified then the individual should be
physically placed in a different environment
which is more congenial for his development.
Proper guidance and counseling should be
provided to the individual.
• Different types of therapies should be applied
like play therapy, group therapy,
psychotherapy etc. by experts.
• Case study method provides details about the
individual’s behaviour, an in-depth study
about the root cause of the behavioural
problems, and help to provide guidance to
modify the behaviour of the subject.
Sources of Data for Case Study
• Personal documents, viz diaries, memories,
autobiographies, letters etc of the researcher.
• Qualification and interest of the researcher.
• Life history of the respondents.
• Motives and objectives of the study.
Characteristics of case study method
Following are the characteristics
The number of unit to be studied is small.
It studies a social unit deeply and thoroughly.
It is qualitative as well as quantitative.
It covers sufficient wide cycle of time.
It has continuity in nature.
Types of Case Studies
• Enterprise level case study.
• Organization level case study.
• Function level case study i.e. marketing, finance,
production, IT etc.
• Success Story.
• Cases of Failures.
• Cases regarding mergers and acquisitions.
• Subject related case studies –Marketing, Finance,
HR, etc.
MERITS of CASE STUDY:
• Considers all aspects of the child, highly
reliable, suggests remedial measures.
• It provides comprehensive and complete
information about an individuals behaviour in
relation to his environment.
• It is best method for diagnostic study of the
cases.
• It provides information regarding the
behavioral problems of the individual and
possible remedial measures to overcome the
problem.
• This method is useful in solving problems of
backwardness in learning, reading disability,
emotional disturbances, isolation and
delinquent behaviour.
Demerits of Case Study:
• Time consuming, needs lot of effort, requires
technical proficiency.
• The data or information collected by the
individual, parents and his friends may or may
not be true.
• The information is not verifiable and is highly
subjective.
• It needs technically trained person to collect and
study human behaviour.
• The results cannot be generalized and limited in
scope.
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
• Most objective and scientific method for
studying behavior.
• Cause and effect relationship.
• It is the method, which is responsible for
assigning the status of Science to Psychology.
• Experiment conducted in a laboratory or
classroom or other field situations.
• In 1879, William Wundt established the first
psychological laboratory at Leipzing in
Germany.
• Since then, experimental method in
psychology has become popular, Experimental
method consists of actions performed under
pre-arranged or rigidly controlled conditions.
• J. W. Best describes, “Experimental research
is the description and analysis of what will
be, or what will occur under carefully
controlled conditions.”
• Psychological experiments performed in this
method essentially require two people;
• the experimenter or group of experimenters
who perform the experiments and
• the other is the subject or subjects on whom
the experiment is performed.
• Psychological experiments are always
conducted on living organisms.
• The key factor in this method is the controlling
of conditions or variables.
• The term ‘Variable‘ means that which can be
varied or changed.
Steps of experimentation
• For conducting a scientific experiment the
investigator follow the steps given below.
Selection of a problem.
Defining the problem
Formulating the hypotheses.
Selecting a appropriate experimental design.
Single group design and
one group pre-test post test design.
Selection of sample.
Conducting the experiment and data collection
Analysis of data.
Verification of hypotheses.
Drawing conclusions.
Merits of experimental method
1. Experimental method is the most systematic
method or getting reliable data.
2. Experimental method enables accurate
observations due to controlled conditions.
3. It allows us to establish cause effect
relationship between different phenomena.
4. The results obtained are valid and reliable.
5. The findings of the experimental method are
verifiable by other experiments under
identical conditions.
6. It helps to protect from the subjective
opinions. Hence it provides objective
information about the problem.
7. It provides adequate information about the
problem.
8. In experimental method, experiments are
conducted under vigorously controlled
conditions. The experimenter can control the
application and withdrawal of independent
variables.
9. Experimental method increases ones
knowledge or psychological facts in child
psychology, social and abnormal psychology.
Demerits of the method
1. Experimental method is a costly and time
consuming method as it requires a laboratory
and apparatus to conduct it properly.
2. Experiments are conducted in artificially
determined pattern of behaviour. In real life
situation it is quite different.
3. It needs specialized knowledge and therefore
every teacher cannot be expected to conduct
the experiment.
4. The scope is limited. All problems of psychology
cannot be studied by this method as we cannot
perform experiments for all the problems that
may come up in the diverse subject matter of
psychology.
5. Accurate measurements, in case of human
beings, are never possible.
6. It is difficult to always control the independent
variable. Therefore it is not possible to create
desired conditions in laboratory.
7. It is not possible to reach certainty in matters of
social science s including educational
psychology.
Methods of studying learners behaviour

More Related Content

What's hot

Thurston's Group Factor Theory
Thurston's Group Factor TheoryThurston's Group Factor Theory
Thurston's Group Factor Theory
Atul Thakur
 
Methods of educational psychology
Methods of educational psychologyMethods of educational psychology
Methods of educational psychology
Priyanka Chaurasia
 
Trial and error learning theory
Trial and error learning theoryTrial and error learning theory
Trial and error learning theory
Dr. Manju N D
 
Attitude, Aptitude and Interest
Attitude, Aptitude and InterestAttitude, Aptitude and Interest
Attitude, Aptitude and Interest
Suresh Babu
 
Adjustment
AdjustmentAdjustment
Adjustment
Dr.Amol Ubale
 
Construction of an achievement test
Construction of an achievement testConstruction of an achievement test
Construction of an achievement test
BeulahJayarani
 
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
MDFAIZANALAM4
 
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
Diksha Verma
 
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCETHEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
Exceptional Children
Exceptional Children Exceptional Children
Exceptional Children
Suresh Babu
 
National curriculum framework 2005
National curriculum framework 2005National curriculum framework 2005
National curriculum framework 2005
Ramakanta Mohalik
 
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, PsychologistInterest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
LAKSHMANAN S
 
Nature & function of education psychology
Nature & function of education psychologyNature & function of education psychology
Nature & function of education psychology
Sarfraz Ahmad
 
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and CharacteristicsAptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
Subhankar Rana
 
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
Suresh Babu
 
Experimental method
Experimental methodExperimental method
Experimental method
teenzzzzz
 
Backward child
Backward childBackward child
Backward child
RubiRoy1
 
Education psychology - Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
Education psychology -  Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...Education psychology -  Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
Education psychology - Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
Suresh Babu
 
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
Ketan Kamble
 
Type-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
Type-cum-trait approach - ThiyagusuriType-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
Type-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
Thiyagu K
 

What's hot (20)

Thurston's Group Factor Theory
Thurston's Group Factor TheoryThurston's Group Factor Theory
Thurston's Group Factor Theory
 
Methods of educational psychology
Methods of educational psychologyMethods of educational psychology
Methods of educational psychology
 
Trial and error learning theory
Trial and error learning theoryTrial and error learning theory
Trial and error learning theory
 
Attitude, Aptitude and Interest
Attitude, Aptitude and InterestAttitude, Aptitude and Interest
Attitude, Aptitude and Interest
 
Adjustment
AdjustmentAdjustment
Adjustment
 
Construction of an achievement test
Construction of an achievement testConstruction of an achievement test
Construction of an achievement test
 
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
Ncfte- 2009 (National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education)
 
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
Writing instructional objectives in behavioural terms
 
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCETHEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
 
Exceptional Children
Exceptional Children Exceptional Children
Exceptional Children
 
National curriculum framework 2005
National curriculum framework 2005National curriculum framework 2005
National curriculum framework 2005
 
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, PsychologistInterest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
Interest by S.Lakshmanan, Psychologist
 
Nature & function of education psychology
Nature & function of education psychologyNature & function of education psychology
Nature & function of education psychology
 
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and CharacteristicsAptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
Aptitude (Test) and their Nature and Characteristics
 
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
Intelligence Test - Categories of Intelligence tests – uses and limitations o...
 
Experimental method
Experimental methodExperimental method
Experimental method
 
Backward child
Backward childBackward child
Backward child
 
Education psychology - Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
Education psychology -  Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...Education psychology -  Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
Education psychology - Meaning, nature and functions of educational psycholo...
 
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
Continuous and Comprehensive Assessment (CCA)
 
Type-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
Type-cum-trait approach - ThiyagusuriType-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
Type-cum-trait approach - Thiyagusuri
 

Similar to Methods of studying learners behaviour

LETH.pptx
LETH.pptxLETH.pptx
LETH.pptx
AlfonsoDurano
 
Looking At The Teacher
Looking At The TeacherLooking At The Teacher
Looking At The Teacher
Christian Sisles Gle
 
Subject Psychology introduction of psychology
Subject Psychology introduction of psychologySubject Psychology introduction of psychology
Subject Psychology introduction of psychology
varsha surkar
 
Unit1 Introduction of psychology
Unit1 Introduction of psychologyUnit1 Introduction of psychology
Unit1 Introduction of psychology
Home
 
840-1.docx
840-1.docx840-1.docx
840-1.docx
Noaman Akbar
 
Introspection method
Introspection methodIntrospection method
Introspection method
Choudary Ihtasham
 
Introspection
Introspection Introspection
Introspection
Safna KV
 
Introduction to psychology
Introduction to psychologyIntroduction to psychology
Introduction to psychology
piyushparashar13
 
Introspection method presentation
Introspection method presentationIntrospection method presentation
Introspection method presentation
Saher Akhtar
 
Definition and scope of psychology
Definition and scope of psychologyDefinition and scope of psychology
Definition and scope of psychology
Vivekananda Shikrashetty
 
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptxINTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
KavyaNagraj8
 
Observational procedures in Research methodology
Observational procedures in Research methodologyObservational procedures in Research methodology
Observational procedures in Research methodology
Ridazaman2
 
observation method.pptx
observation method.pptxobservation method.pptx
observation method.pptx
SehrishKhan125
 
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdfppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
AgronomistKaushal
 
Ppt educational psychology
Ppt educational psychologyPpt educational psychology
Ppt educational psychology
jayasree ravikumar
 
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGYMETHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
mpk212395
 
Methods of Psychology.pptx
Methods of Psychology.pptxMethods of Psychology.pptx
Methods of Psychology.pptx
Yatheesh Bharadwaj H S
 
learning and thinking
learning and thinkinglearning and thinking
learning and thinking
Burhan Hadi
 
psychologists conduct research.pptx
psychologists conduct research.pptxpsychologists conduct research.pptx
psychologists conduct research.pptx
research gate
 
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
HUMAN BEHAVIORHUMAN BEHAVIOR
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Abdul Mannan
 

Similar to Methods of studying learners behaviour (20)

LETH.pptx
LETH.pptxLETH.pptx
LETH.pptx
 
Looking At The Teacher
Looking At The TeacherLooking At The Teacher
Looking At The Teacher
 
Subject Psychology introduction of psychology
Subject Psychology introduction of psychologySubject Psychology introduction of psychology
Subject Psychology introduction of psychology
 
Unit1 Introduction of psychology
Unit1 Introduction of psychologyUnit1 Introduction of psychology
Unit1 Introduction of psychology
 
840-1.docx
840-1.docx840-1.docx
840-1.docx
 
Introspection method
Introspection methodIntrospection method
Introspection method
 
Introspection
Introspection Introspection
Introspection
 
Introduction to psychology
Introduction to psychologyIntroduction to psychology
Introduction to psychology
 
Introspection method presentation
Introspection method presentationIntrospection method presentation
Introspection method presentation
 
Definition and scope of psychology
Definition and scope of psychologyDefinition and scope of psychology
Definition and scope of psychology
 
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptxINTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
INTRODUCTION to psychology.pptx
 
Observational procedures in Research methodology
Observational procedures in Research methodologyObservational procedures in Research methodology
Observational procedures in Research methodology
 
observation method.pptx
observation method.pptxobservation method.pptx
observation method.pptx
 
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdfppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
ppt-educationalpsychology-160628080341.pdf
 
Ppt educational psychology
Ppt educational psychologyPpt educational psychology
Ppt educational psychology
 
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGYMETHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
 
Methods of Psychology.pptx
Methods of Psychology.pptxMethods of Psychology.pptx
Methods of Psychology.pptx
 
learning and thinking
learning and thinkinglearning and thinking
learning and thinking
 
psychologists conduct research.pptx
psychologists conduct research.pptxpsychologists conduct research.pptx
psychologists conduct research.pptx
 
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
HUMAN BEHAVIORHUMAN BEHAVIOR
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
 

More from Dr. Manju N D

Difference between oc and cc theory of learning
Difference between oc and cc theory of learningDifference between oc and cc theory of learning
Difference between oc and cc theory of learning
Dr. Manju N D
 
Classical conditioning theory
Classical conditioning theoryClassical conditioning theory
Classical conditioning theory
Dr. Manju N D
 
Defense mechanism
Defense mechanismDefense mechanism
Defense mechanism
Dr. Manju N D
 
2. learning curves
2. learning curves2. learning curves
2. learning curves
Dr. Manju N D
 
1. learning process
1. learning process1. learning process
1. learning process
Dr. Manju N D
 
Intelligence
IntelligenceIntelligence
Intelligence
Dr. Manju N D
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
Dr. Manju N D
 
Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligenceEmotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence
Dr. Manju N D
 
Individual difference
Individual differenceIndividual difference
Individual difference
Dr. Manju N D
 
Social constructivism
Social constructivismSocial constructivism
Social constructivism
Dr. Manju N D
 
Psycho social development
Psycho social development Psycho social development
Psycho social development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Moral development
Moral developmentMoral development
Moral development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Moral development
Moral developmentMoral development
Moral development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Cognitive development
Cognitive developmentCognitive development
Cognitive development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Constructivism
ConstructivismConstructivism
Constructivism
Dr. Manju N D
 
Dimenstions of individual development
Dimenstions of individual developmentDimenstions of individual development
Dimenstions of individual development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Growth and development
Growth and developmentGrowth and development
Growth and development
Dr. Manju N D
 
Different Schools of psychology
Different Schools of psychologyDifferent Schools of psychology
Different Schools of psychology
Dr. Manju N D
 
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning and concept of ...
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning  and concept of ...Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning  and concept of ...
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning and concept of ...
Dr. Manju N D
 

More from Dr. Manju N D (19)

Difference between oc and cc theory of learning
Difference between oc and cc theory of learningDifference between oc and cc theory of learning
Difference between oc and cc theory of learning
 
Classical conditioning theory
Classical conditioning theoryClassical conditioning theory
Classical conditioning theory
 
Defense mechanism
Defense mechanismDefense mechanism
Defense mechanism
 
2. learning curves
2. learning curves2. learning curves
2. learning curves
 
1. learning process
1. learning process1. learning process
1. learning process
 
Intelligence
IntelligenceIntelligence
Intelligence
 
Creativity
CreativityCreativity
Creativity
 
Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligenceEmotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence
 
Individual difference
Individual differenceIndividual difference
Individual difference
 
Social constructivism
Social constructivismSocial constructivism
Social constructivism
 
Psycho social development
Psycho social development Psycho social development
Psycho social development
 
Moral development
Moral developmentMoral development
Moral development
 
Moral development
Moral developmentMoral development
Moral development
 
Cognitive development
Cognitive developmentCognitive development
Cognitive development
 
Constructivism
ConstructivismConstructivism
Constructivism
 
Dimenstions of individual development
Dimenstions of individual developmentDimenstions of individual development
Dimenstions of individual development
 
Growth and development
Growth and developmentGrowth and development
Growth and development
 
Different Schools of psychology
Different Schools of psychologyDifferent Schools of psychology
Different Schools of psychology
 
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning and concept of ...
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning  and concept of ...Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning  and concept of ...
Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning and concept of ...
 

Recently uploaded

Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
Codeavour International
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
Association for Project Management
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Abhik Roychoudhury
 
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
UmeshTimilsina1
 
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdfOpen Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Jessica Zairo
 
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesDemonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Celine George
 
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate ChangeOur Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
Postal Advocate Inc.
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
Celine George
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Julie Sarpy
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docxMATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
yardenmendoza
 
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHatNode JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Scholarhat
 
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
MANIVALANSR
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
Alvaro Barbosa
 
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
Dr. Nasir Mustafa
 
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
ALBERTHISOLER1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
Codeavour 5.0 International Impact Report - The Biggest International AI, Cod...
 
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
A beginner’s guide to project reviews - everything you wanted to know but wer...
 
Imagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science ResearchImagination in Computer Science Research
Imagination in Computer Science Research
 
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture  produce.pptx
2 Post harvest Physiology of Horticulture produce.pptx
 
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdfOpen Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
Open Source and AI - ByWater Closing Keynote Presentation.pdf
 
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesDemonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Demonstration module in Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List ScanningOdoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning
 
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate ChangeOur Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
Our Guide to the July 2024 USPS® Rate Change
 
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 SlidesWhat is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
What is Rescue Session in Odoo 17 POS - Odoo 17 Slides
 
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POSHow to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
How to Manage Early Receipt Printing in Odoo 17 POS
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation PowerpointAllopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
Allopathic M1 Srudent Orientation Powerpoint
 
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docxMATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
MATATAG CURRICULUM sample lesson exemplar.docx
 
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHatNode JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
Node JS Interview Question PDF By ScholarHat
 
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
Lange and Roberts "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape Session 5: DEIA in Peer Re...
 
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
slidesgo-mastering-the-art-of-listening-insights-from-robin-sharma-2024070718...
 
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
How to Manage Access Rights & User Types in Odoo 17
 
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
Benchmarking Sustainability: Neurosciences and AI Tech Research in Macau - Ke...
 
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
Dr. Nasir Mustafa CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION "NEUROANATOMY"
 
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
Brigada Eskwela 2024 PowerPoint Update for SY 2024-2025
 

Methods of studying learners behaviour

  • 1. METHODS OF STUDYING LEARNERS BEHAVIOURS Dr. Manju N. D Assistant Professor SVK National College of Education, Balarajurs Road, NES Campus, Shivamogga - 577201.
  • 2. METHODS OF STUDYING LEARNERS PSYCHOLOGY • Educational Psychology is the scientific study of the behaviour of the learner in relation to his education / her educational environment. • To study the behaviour of the learner, there are different approaches or methods used.
  • 3. • Following are the important methods of studying learner behaviour are: 1. Introspection 2. Observation 3. Case study 4. Experimental method
  • 5. INTROSPECTION METHOD • Historically introspection is the oldest method of all, • which was formerly used in philosophy, and then in psychology to collect data about the conscious experience of the subject. • To understand one’s own mental health and the state of mind. • This method was developed by the structuralists in psychology who defined psychology as the study of conscious experiences of the individual.
  • 6. • The word ‘Introspection is made up of two Latin words. • “Intro” means within and • “Spection” means looking. Hence it is a method where an individual is looking within one self.
  • 7. • Self-observation. • looking within, looking inward. • Looking within, observes, analyses and reports his own feelings. • Angel considered it as “looking inward”. • In introspection, – the individual peeps into his own mental state and – observes his own mental processes. • Stout considers that ‘to introspect‘ is to attend to the working of one‘s own mind in a systematic way.
  • 8. • It is a process of self – examination where one perceives, analyses and reports one‘s own feelings. • It is said you are introspecting your own mental feelings and examining what is going on in your mental process in the state of happiness. • Similarly, you may introspect in a state of anger or fear; etc Introspection is also defined as the notice, which the mind takes of itself.
  • 9. Characteristics of Introspection: Introspection is the self- observation and it has the following characteristics: 1. The subject gets direct, immediate and intuitive knowledge about the mind. 2. The subject has actually to observe his own mental processes. He cannot speculate about them.
  • 10. stages of introspection 1. During the observation of external object, the person beings to ponder over his own mental state. For example While listening to music, which is to him pleasant or unpleasant, he starts thinking about his own mental state. 2. The person begins to question the working of his own mind. He thinks and analyses: Why has he said such and such thing? Why has he talked in a particular manner? And so on. 3. He tries to frame the laws and conditions of mental processes: He thinks in terms of improvement of his reasoning or the control of his emotional stages. This stage helps in the advancement of our scientific knowledge.
  • 11. Merits of Introspection Method: 1. It gives information about one’s own self which is difficult by other methods. 2. It is an easy method and needs no equipment. 3. it is simplest, economical and is readily available to the individual. 4. it provides adequate knowledge to know about internal behaviour of an individual or actual facts of mental activities are understood properly. 5. It makes a base for other methods such as experimental and observation method.
  • 12. Demerits of Introspection Method: 1. This method is highly subjective in nature and lacks scientific objectivity. 2. Our mental process is under constant changes so when one attempts to introspect, the sate of mental process disappears and it becomes a retrospect. 4. Introspection can not be employed on children, animals and abnormal propel.
  • 13. 5. There are conflicting reports, as regards the findings collected from different introspectionists. 6. there is no way to prove the reliability of the data. 7. Introspection method Hide facts. 8. it requires highly trained and skilled workers to introspect.
  • 15. OBSERVATION METHOD • In introspection we can observe the mental process of ourselves only, but • in observation, we observe the mental processes of others. • Hence Observation is the most commonly used method for the study of human behaviour.
  • 16. • Literally Observation means looking outside oneself. Facts are collected by observing. • In the words of Good, “ Observation deals with the overt behaviour of persons in appropriate situations.” • Observation has been defined as “Measurement without instruments.” • Finally observation is – Seeing things as they are in their natural setting. – Overt behaviour of person in appropriate situations. – Measurement without instrument.
  • 17. • For example students in a classroom have been labeled as good, fair or poor in achievement and lazy or diligent in study etc. on the basis of observation. Observation is indirect approach to study the mental processes of others through observing their external behaviour. • For example if someone frowns, howls, grinds his teeth, closes his fists, you would say that the person is angry by only observing these external signs of his behaviour.
  • 18. Steps of observation method 1. Observation of behaviour. is directly perceiving or observing the behaviour of individuals under study. 2. Recording the behaviour observed. carefully and immediately noted and recorded. Minimum time should be allowed to pass between happening and recording.
  • 19. 3. Analysis and Interpretation of behaviour. After completed observed, they are analyzed objectively and scientifically in order to interpret the behaviour patterns 4. Generalization. Social development and behaviour of children have been described by Child Psychologists on the basis of generalization based on analysis and interpretation of the data gathered through the observation method.
  • 20. TYPES OF OBSERVATION: 1. Natural Observation: Observe the specific behavioral characteristics of children in natural setting. 2. Participant observation: The observer becomes the part of the group, which he wants to observe. It discloses the minute and hidden facts.
  • 21. 3. Non-participant observation. The specific behaviour is observed in natural setting without subjects getting conscious that they are observed by some one. Non-participant observation permits the use of recording instruments. 4. Structured observation: The observer sets up a form and categories in terms of which he wishes to analyse the problem. The observer always keeps in view a] A frame of reference b] Time units. c] Limits of an act
  • 22. 5. Unstructured observation. – is also called as uncontrolled or free observation. – the individual is observed when he is in his class, playground or when he is moving about with his friends and class follows without knowing that he is being observed.
  • 23. MERITS: 1. Being a record of actual behaviour of the child, it is more reliable and objective than introspection. 2. It is an excellent source of information about what actually happens in classroom. 3. It is a study of an individual in a natural situation and is therefore more useful than the restricted study in a test situation.
  • 24. 4. The method can be used with children of all ages. Younger the child, the easiest it is to observe him. 5. This method has been found very useful with shy children. 6. It can be used in every situation-physical activities, workshop and classroom situations. 7. It is adaptable to both the individual and the groups.
  • 25. DEMERITS: 1. There is great scope for personal prejudices and bias of the observer. 2. The observers interest, values can distort observation. 3. Records may not be written with hundred percent accuracy as the observations are recorded after the actions are observed. 4. There is some time lag. 5. The observer may get only a small sample to study behaviour. 6. It is very difficult to observe everything that the student does or says. As far as possible observation should be made from several events.
  • 26. 8. It reveals the overt behaviour only- behaviour that is expressed and not that is within. 9. It lacks replicability as each natural situation may occur only once. 10. Records not written with 100% accuracy.
  • 28. CASE STUDY METHOD • The credit of case study method was introduced by the English philosopher Frederic Leplay • Herbert Spencer adopted it and Healey was the first supporter of this method and studied Juvenile Delinquency. • Later on sociologists, Anthropologists, Ethnologists and other researcher were interested in the study of various cultures by case study method. • Case study “studying individual in depth” or • One individual is examined intensively to find out as much as possible about a certain problem or a issue as it relates to that person.
  • 29. • It is the study of an individual case. • It is usually used for studying the behaviour problems of a maladjusted or deviant individual.  It is most often used to investigate the abnormal behavior.  In order to prepare a case history of data are taken from many sources for example his or her family history, educational life, medical history and social life.  This method is very popular in clinical psychology and life span developmental psychology.
  • 30. According to P.V. Young Case study is a comprehensive study of a social unit, be it a person, a group of persons, an institution, a community or a family. Groode and Hatt. it is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit. According to Johoda. Case study is a small inclusive and intensive study of an individual in which investigators brings to bear their skills and method.
  • 31. case study is specially used in education psychology. It deals in education the following problems; Lack of interest in students Aggressive behaviour in student Day dreaming Poor academic performance Emotional problem Social problems Empathetic understanding Find the problem Establish report Treatment
  • 32. • The ‘Case Study’ method deals with the emotional and mental state of an individual. • This method is applied to study special behavioural problems of an individual by specially trained teachers, psychologist and psychiatrists. • Through this method total information of family background, schooling and also social conditions of the individuals is obtained; hence it can be called a cumulative record which is of great help in understanding the source of an individual’s fears, anxiety, worry, or any kind of maladjustment.
  • 33. Objective of the case study Method • The main objective of this method is – to help the individual to adjust better with the environment and – gain self confidence to attain higher levels of achievement.
  • 34. Steps in case study: • Identification and defining a problem. • Determination of the most probable antecedents of the case. • Formulation of hypothesis. • Verification of hypothesis. • Remedial steps. • Follow-up of the case.
  • 35. Procedure of Case Study Method • Different steps/procedures may be used in the case study method are mentioned below:- 1. Basic preliminary information about the subject’s name, age, sex, parent’s age, education, occupation as well as social status. 2. Proper physical check-up of the individual is done to ascertain whether his/her behavioural problem is due to any disease. Only in the absence of any physical ailment can psychological treatment start.
  • 36. • The subject should be very comfortable with the investigator while the latter takes the information. • The investigator (teacher or psychologist) should be friendly and the language of collecting data must be simple so that free and frank responses can be available. • The investigator must not tire the subject; instead, regular intervals of rest should be given. • The method cannot be applied quickly - it may go on for several weeks or months.
  • 37. • The behaviour of the individual should be observed in natural setting and working conditions. Doing so will provide correct data which ultimately in most cases, will lead to proper understanding of the root cause of the person’s problems. • Special care must be taken in the post treatment period so that there is no recurrence of the problem. • The parents and family members and other associates must take care so that the subject can modify his behaviour and prevent maladjustment.
  • 38. Method of Treatment Treatment methods of maladjusted individuals include the following :- Efforts must be made to modify the environmental factors so that the individual can adapt better. If the existing environment cannot be modified then the individual should be physically placed in a different environment which is more congenial for his development. Proper guidance and counseling should be provided to the individual.
  • 39. • Different types of therapies should be applied like play therapy, group therapy, psychotherapy etc. by experts. • Case study method provides details about the individual’s behaviour, an in-depth study about the root cause of the behavioural problems, and help to provide guidance to modify the behaviour of the subject.
  • 40. Sources of Data for Case Study • Personal documents, viz diaries, memories, autobiographies, letters etc of the researcher. • Qualification and interest of the researcher. • Life history of the respondents. • Motives and objectives of the study.
  • 41. Characteristics of case study method Following are the characteristics The number of unit to be studied is small. It studies a social unit deeply and thoroughly. It is qualitative as well as quantitative. It covers sufficient wide cycle of time. It has continuity in nature.
  • 42. Types of Case Studies • Enterprise level case study. • Organization level case study. • Function level case study i.e. marketing, finance, production, IT etc. • Success Story. • Cases of Failures. • Cases regarding mergers and acquisitions. • Subject related case studies –Marketing, Finance, HR, etc.
  • 43. MERITS of CASE STUDY: • Considers all aspects of the child, highly reliable, suggests remedial measures. • It provides comprehensive and complete information about an individuals behaviour in relation to his environment. • It is best method for diagnostic study of the cases.
  • 44. • It provides information regarding the behavioral problems of the individual and possible remedial measures to overcome the problem. • This method is useful in solving problems of backwardness in learning, reading disability, emotional disturbances, isolation and delinquent behaviour.
  • 45. Demerits of Case Study: • Time consuming, needs lot of effort, requires technical proficiency. • The data or information collected by the individual, parents and his friends may or may not be true. • The information is not verifiable and is highly subjective. • It needs technically trained person to collect and study human behaviour. • The results cannot be generalized and limited in scope.
  • 47. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD • Most objective and scientific method for studying behavior. • Cause and effect relationship. • It is the method, which is responsible for assigning the status of Science to Psychology. • Experiment conducted in a laboratory or classroom or other field situations.
  • 48. • In 1879, William Wundt established the first psychological laboratory at Leipzing in Germany. • Since then, experimental method in psychology has become popular, Experimental method consists of actions performed under pre-arranged or rigidly controlled conditions. • J. W. Best describes, “Experimental research is the description and analysis of what will be, or what will occur under carefully controlled conditions.”
  • 49. • Psychological experiments performed in this method essentially require two people; • the experimenter or group of experimenters who perform the experiments and • the other is the subject or subjects on whom the experiment is performed. • Psychological experiments are always conducted on living organisms. • The key factor in this method is the controlling of conditions or variables. • The term ‘Variable‘ means that which can be varied or changed.
  • 50. Steps of experimentation • For conducting a scientific experiment the investigator follow the steps given below. Selection of a problem. Defining the problem Formulating the hypotheses. Selecting a appropriate experimental design. Single group design and one group pre-test post test design. Selection of sample. Conducting the experiment and data collection Analysis of data. Verification of hypotheses. Drawing conclusions.
  • 51. Merits of experimental method 1. Experimental method is the most systematic method or getting reliable data. 2. Experimental method enables accurate observations due to controlled conditions. 3. It allows us to establish cause effect relationship between different phenomena. 4. The results obtained are valid and reliable. 5. The findings of the experimental method are verifiable by other experiments under identical conditions.
  • 52. 6. It helps to protect from the subjective opinions. Hence it provides objective information about the problem. 7. It provides adequate information about the problem. 8. In experimental method, experiments are conducted under vigorously controlled conditions. The experimenter can control the application and withdrawal of independent variables. 9. Experimental method increases ones knowledge or psychological facts in child psychology, social and abnormal psychology.
  • 53. Demerits of the method 1. Experimental method is a costly and time consuming method as it requires a laboratory and apparatus to conduct it properly. 2. Experiments are conducted in artificially determined pattern of behaviour. In real life situation it is quite different. 3. It needs specialized knowledge and therefore every teacher cannot be expected to conduct the experiment.
  • 54. 4. The scope is limited. All problems of psychology cannot be studied by this method as we cannot perform experiments for all the problems that may come up in the diverse subject matter of psychology. 5. Accurate measurements, in case of human beings, are never possible. 6. It is difficult to always control the independent variable. Therefore it is not possible to create desired conditions in laboratory. 7. It is not possible to reach certainty in matters of social science s including educational psychology.