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Psychology of the Learner
By:
Dr. Manju N. D
Assistant Professor
SVK National College of Education,
Balarajurs Road, NES Campus,
Shivamogga.
Introduction to Educational Psychology
• The word psychology is derived from Greek
word psycho & logos.
• ‘Psycho’ means “soul” and
• ‘logos’ means “science”.
• The science of soul.
History
• Before 1870 psychology was not a separate
discipline rather it was studied under
Philosophy.
• Some of the contributors of psychology were
as follows:-
• Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 opened first
experimental laboratory in psychology at the
University of Leipzig, Germany. He is
considered as the father of psychology.
• G. Stanley Hall A student of Wundt’s who
established what many consider as the first
American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins
University in 1883.
• Hermann Ebbinghaus - A German who reported on
the first experiments on memory, 1885.
• J. MckeenCattell – student of Wundt. Called as the
1st professor in Psychology in 1888.
• He was known for designing a personality test, the
16 PF.
• American Psychological Association (APA) was
established in 1892 and the founder was
G. Stanley Hall.
• In 1896 John Dewey and William James
supported the functionalism in Psychology.
• In 1896 Sigmund Freud developed the theory
of psychoanalysis. On the basis of this therapy
later on he developed the therapy of free
association and dream analysis.
• In 1905 IQ test developed by Alfred Binet and
Thiodore Simon.
• Titchener – Wundt trained psychologist.
• introduced Structuralism in latter part of 19th
century.
• Focused on mental structure and
consciousness. Introspection as major
method.
• William James – psychologist from Harvard,
opposed structuralism and advocated
functionalism, how conscious function.
• Sigmund Freud – 20th century physician from
Vienese introduced the psychoanalytic theory
where human behavior is governed by the
unconscious.
• John Watson – founded behaviorism in 1920.
• Ivan Pavlov – founded the behaviorism which
focused on classical conditioning.
• Max Wertheimer – founded the Gestalt
psychology in Germany. Gestalt means Form
or Configuration.
• In 1913 John B. Watson supported the
behavioral aspects of psychology.
• In 1921 Swiss psychiatrist Hermann
Rorschach devised a personality test based on
patients' interpretations of inkblots which is
named as Rorschach ink blot test.
• In 1921 First Nobel Prize for psychological
research was given to Charles Frederick
Menninger.
• In 1921, Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of
classical conditioning through the
experimental approach
• In 1935 Gestalt Psychology came into
existence. (Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler,
Kurt Koffka)
• B.F. skinner proposed the theory of Operant
conditioning.
• Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic Theory
• He Studied neurology, but wanted to be a
medical researcher, forced into being a private
physician.
• Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs:
People’s struggle is to be the best they
possibly can, known as self-actualization.
• Carl Rogers: Former minister; believed all
people strive for perfection; some interrupted
by a bad environment.
• They developed Humanistic Theory
• They said Everyone striving to reach their
highest potential
• Jean Piaget: developed Cognitive Theory
• studies children’s cognitive development.
• Thought Processes: Can infer mental
processes from observable behavior.
• Noam Chomsky
• • Language • Cognitive Perspective • Humans
have an inborn native ability to develop
language.
• Lawrence Kohlberg • Pre-conventional
morality • Conventional morality • Post-
conventional morality
• Howard Gardner • Theory of multiple
intelligences – Practical intelligence – Emotional
intelligence – Natural intelligence – Analytical
intelligence
• Albert Bandura • Bobo Doll • Observational
Learning • Social-Cognitive Perspective of
personality.
• Gordon Allport • Cardinal Traits (dominant
personality characteristic) • Central Traits •
Secondary Traits • PERSONALITY theorist
• Carl Jung • People have conscious & unconscious
awareness • Archetypes • Collective Unconscious
Concept of Psychology
Meaning:
• The word "psychology" comes from the Greek
word
Psyche and Logos
• ‘Psycho’ means “soul” and
• ‘logos’ means “study of ”
• psychology means the study of soul
Psychology definitions in different stages
• First Stage: Psychology was defined as the
“study of the soul”
• Second Stage: It was again defined as the
“study of the mind”
• Third Stage: Again it was defined by William
James (1890) as the “Study of Consciousness”
• Fourth Stage: “Study of total Behaviour”
(consciousness and unconsciousness).
Definitions of Psychology
• According to Woodworth & Marquis “first
psychology lost its soul. Then it lost its mind.
Then lost its consciousness, its still has behavior
of sort”.
N.L. Munn defines “Psychology today concerns
itself with the scientific investigation of
behaviour” .
Psychology is the study of human behavior and
human relationships – Crow and Crow
Nature of psychology
• Emphasizes the search for truth.
• Belies in cause and effect relationship
• Having objective investigation, systematic and
controlled observation.
• Predicting future developments.
• Helps in putting theory into practice.
• It emphasizes the search for truth by
advocating objectivity, reliability and validity
in the assessment of behaviour.
• It is scientific study of behaviour.
• The study of behaviour can be verified by other
experiments under similar conditions.
• The established facts, principles and laws of
behaviour have universal applicability in practicle
life.
• Description and quantification of behaviour is
possible in psychology.
• It helps us to make dependable predictions
about the organism in the light of its studied
behaviour.
BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY
Pure psychology and applied psychology
• Pure Psychology
General psychology -study human development,
emotions, motivation, learning, perception, thinking,
memory, intelligence and processing.
Abnormal psychology - study unusual pattern of
behavior.
 Developmental Psychology-scientific study of changes
that occur in human beings over the course of their life
span
 Experimental Psychology-the scientific
investigation of the responses of individuals to
stimuli in controlled situations
Social Psychology- social interactions, including
their origins and their effects on the individual
Behavioral Psychology-study the behaviors of
living organisms.
Biological Psychology-study of physiological,
genetic, and developmental mechanisms of
behavior in humans and non-human animals.
• Cognitive Psychology-the study of mental processes
such as "attention, language use, memory, perception,
problem solving, creativity, and thinking.
• Comparative Psychology-scientific study of the
behavior and mental processes of non-human animals,
especially as these relate to the psycho-genetic history,
adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
• Experimental Psychology- the ways and means of
carrying out psychological experiments by using
scientific method under controlled or laboratory
setting.
Applied Branches of Psychology.
• Educational Psychology- The branch of
psychology concerned with the scientific study
of human learning.
• Clinical psychology- explains the causes of
abnormal behaviour of a client and suggests
individual or group therapy for the treatment
of affected persons in society.
Industrial psychology- seeks application of the
psychological principals, theories and techniques
for the study of human behaviour in relation to
the industrial environment. It deals with
selection, training, solutions for labour problems.
• Forensic Psychology - the intersection between
psychology and the justice system.
• Health Psychology-the study of psychological and
behavioral processes in health, illness, and
healthcare.
What is Education ?
• an attempt to mould and shape the behavior
of students.
• It is the process of bringing desirable change
into the behaviour of human beings.
• Its aims to produce desirable changes in them
for all-round development of their
personalities.
Educational psychology
• Educational psychology is the branch of applied
psychology.
• It is the scientific study of human behaviour in
educational setting.
What do we mean by behavior
Behavior is any action or reaction which
causes a human or animal to adapt to its
environment.
 Behavior can be overt=observable
 Behavior can be covert=internal or hidden
• It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of
psychology to the field of education.
• Educational psychology is mainly devoted to an
understanding of the different aspects of the
teaching-learning process.
• It helps the teacher to understand the
development of his pupils, the range and limits of
their capacities the process by which they learn
and their social relationships.
• In other words , educational psychology is the
study of the experience and behavior of the
learner in relation to educational environment.
Definitions of Educational psychology
• According to Crow and Crow “Educational
Psychology describes and explains the learning
experience of an individual from birth through
old age”.
• • According to Peel, Educational Psychology is
the science of education.
• Skinner defines It is that branch of psychology
which deals with teaching and learning.
• Stephen– Educational Psychology is the
systematic study of the educational growth
and development of a child.
• Educational psychology is concerned with
nature, conditions, outcomes and evaluation
of school learning and retention by Ausubel,
David P.
• Finally educational psychology is
Educational psychology is concerned with an
understanding of:
• The child - his development, his need and his
potentialities
• The learning situation including group dynamics
and its effect on learning
• The learning process-its nature and the ways to
make it effective. Stated differently, the Central
theme of Educational Psychology is Psychology of
learning.
NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Following are the important characteristics of the
nature of educational psychology:
• It is an applied branch of fundamental
Psychology.
• It combines two fields - Education and
Psychology.
• It is the scientific study of human behaviour in
educational situations.
• It is concerned with these factors, principles and
techniques which relate to the various aspects of a child‘s
growth and development.
• It is concerned with learning situation and process by which
learning can be more efficient and effective.
• Educational Psychology, draws heavily from various
branches of psychology, biology sociology and anthropology
• Educational Psychology is not as exact as natural sciences
since the human behavior cannot be predicated exactly,
because it is dynamic.
• Educational Psychology is a science of education dealing
primarily with how, when and what of education.
SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
• Five major areas covered by Educational
Psychology are:
The Learner.
Human growth and development.
Methods of psychology.
The Learning Process.
Personality and adjustment.
The Learning Situation.
The Teaching Situation.
Evaluation of Learning Performance.
Differences between psychology and
Educational Psychology
Psychology
Pure Psychology
Develops the theory
Conducted experiments
Exact science
Ednl. Psychology
Applied Psychology
Apply the theory into
practice
Adopted the
experiments output
Applied science
Psychology
Pure Psychology
Develops the theory
Conducted experiments
Exact science
Ednl. Psychology
Applied Psychology
Apply the theory into
practice
Adopted the
experiments output
Applied science
Importance of the knowledge of psychology to a
Classroom Teacher
• To understand the learner and his characteristics.
– His interest,
– Attitude
– Innate capacities and abilities
– Level of aspiration
– Stages of development- social, emotional, moral,
intellectual, physical needs.
– His motivational behaviour
– Aspects of his group behaviour
– His mental health-conflicts and desires
• To understand the nature of classroom
learning.
– Various approaches of learning
– Principles, laws
– What are the factors affecting the class
• To develop competencies for catering to
individual differences.
• To understand the influence of heredity and
environment on growth and development of
a child.
• To understand the procedure of curriculum
construction:
– Curriculum is integral part of tg & lg process.
– It helps to understand the developmental stages.
– Child developments differ from stage to stage.
– It helps the curriculum constructor to prepare a
sound and balanced curriculum for children.
• To understand the group behaviour:
– Helps how to handle the group.
– Group life's modifies the individual behaviour.
• To understand the mental health:
– Which factors responsible for mental illness.
– Maladjustment
– Necessary insight to improve his own mental status to
cope with the situations.
• To learn effective classroom management skills:
– Helps to applying new principles of learning.
– Overcome the classroom problem.
– Knowing the psychology of the students.
• To maintain the classroom discipline:
– To maintain efficient classroom discipline.
– To Understand students psychology
– To control students
• To understand the principles of evaluation:
– Evaluation is integral part of the teaching learning
process.
– To test the potentialities of students.
– To develop different psychological tests to
evaluate the individuals.
• To provide guidance and counseling:
– Child needs every stage of life regarding:
– His abilities, interests and learning styles are differ
from person to person.
– Curricular
– Co-curricular activities
– His future Career
• Guidance of the education of exceptional
children:
– Give special facilities.
– To understand their psychology.
• To take up researches in Education:
– Helps to develop different psychological tolls to
measure various variables which influence the
behaviour of students.
– How to control the behaviour of students in
classroom.
– Regarding teachers attitude, abilities and
responsibilities on classroom.
• To prepare time table:
– Applying psychological principles.
– Giving subject preference.
– No two difficult subjects are taught in successive
periods.
• To attain proficiency for helping children in
personality development.
• Knowing about himself:
– It helps the teacher to know about himself.
– His own behaviour pattern.
– Personality characteristics.
– Likes and dislikes
– motivation, anxiety, conflicts, adjustment.
– All this knowledge helps in growing as a successful
teacher.
• Creation of a Conducive Learning Climate in
the Classroom.
• Selection of Learning Strategies and
Methods.
• Establish Learning Objectives .
• Use of Learning Media.

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Educational Psychology- Brief History, introduction, meaning and concept of Psychology and Educational psychology

  • 1. Psychology of the Learner By: Dr. Manju N. D Assistant Professor SVK National College of Education, Balarajurs Road, NES Campus, Shivamogga.
  • 2. Introduction to Educational Psychology • The word psychology is derived from Greek word psycho & logos. • ‘Psycho’ means “soul” and • ‘logos’ means “science”. • The science of soul.
  • 3. History • Before 1870 psychology was not a separate discipline rather it was studied under Philosophy. • Some of the contributors of psychology were as follows:- • Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 opened first experimental laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig, Germany. He is considered as the father of psychology.
  • 4. • G. Stanley Hall A student of Wundt’s who established what many consider as the first American psychology laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in 1883. • Hermann Ebbinghaus - A German who reported on the first experiments on memory, 1885. • J. MckeenCattell – student of Wundt. Called as the 1st professor in Psychology in 1888. • He was known for designing a personality test, the 16 PF.
  • 5. • American Psychological Association (APA) was established in 1892 and the founder was G. Stanley Hall. • In 1896 John Dewey and William James supported the functionalism in Psychology. • In 1896 Sigmund Freud developed the theory of psychoanalysis. On the basis of this therapy later on he developed the therapy of free association and dream analysis. • In 1905 IQ test developed by Alfred Binet and Thiodore Simon.
  • 6. • Titchener – Wundt trained psychologist. • introduced Structuralism in latter part of 19th century. • Focused on mental structure and consciousness. Introspection as major method. • William James – psychologist from Harvard, opposed structuralism and advocated functionalism, how conscious function.
  • 7. • Sigmund Freud – 20th century physician from Vienese introduced the psychoanalytic theory where human behavior is governed by the unconscious. • John Watson – founded behaviorism in 1920. • Ivan Pavlov – founded the behaviorism which focused on classical conditioning. • Max Wertheimer – founded the Gestalt psychology in Germany. Gestalt means Form or Configuration.
  • 8. • In 1913 John B. Watson supported the behavioral aspects of psychology. • In 1921 Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach devised a personality test based on patients' interpretations of inkblots which is named as Rorschach ink blot test. • In 1921 First Nobel Prize for psychological research was given to Charles Frederick Menninger. • In 1921, Ivan Pavlov developed the theory of classical conditioning through the experimental approach
  • 9. • In 1935 Gestalt Psychology came into existence. (Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka) • B.F. skinner proposed the theory of Operant conditioning. • Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic Theory • He Studied neurology, but wanted to be a medical researcher, forced into being a private physician.
  • 10. • Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs: People’s struggle is to be the best they possibly can, known as self-actualization. • Carl Rogers: Former minister; believed all people strive for perfection; some interrupted by a bad environment. • They developed Humanistic Theory • They said Everyone striving to reach their highest potential
  • 11. • Jean Piaget: developed Cognitive Theory • studies children’s cognitive development. • Thought Processes: Can infer mental processes from observable behavior. • Noam Chomsky • • Language • Cognitive Perspective • Humans have an inborn native ability to develop language. • Lawrence Kohlberg • Pre-conventional morality • Conventional morality • Post- conventional morality
  • 12. • Howard Gardner • Theory of multiple intelligences – Practical intelligence – Emotional intelligence – Natural intelligence – Analytical intelligence • Albert Bandura • Bobo Doll • Observational Learning • Social-Cognitive Perspective of personality. • Gordon Allport • Cardinal Traits (dominant personality characteristic) • Central Traits • Secondary Traits • PERSONALITY theorist • Carl Jung • People have conscious & unconscious awareness • Archetypes • Collective Unconscious
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Concept of Psychology Meaning: • The word "psychology" comes from the Greek word Psyche and Logos • ‘Psycho’ means “soul” and • ‘logos’ means “study of ” • psychology means the study of soul
  • 16. Psychology definitions in different stages • First Stage: Psychology was defined as the “study of the soul” • Second Stage: It was again defined as the “study of the mind” • Third Stage: Again it was defined by William James (1890) as the “Study of Consciousness” • Fourth Stage: “Study of total Behaviour” (consciousness and unconsciousness).
  • 17. Definitions of Psychology • According to Woodworth & Marquis “first psychology lost its soul. Then it lost its mind. Then lost its consciousness, its still has behavior of sort”. N.L. Munn defines “Psychology today concerns itself with the scientific investigation of behaviour” . Psychology is the study of human behavior and human relationships – Crow and Crow
  • 18. Nature of psychology • Emphasizes the search for truth. • Belies in cause and effect relationship • Having objective investigation, systematic and controlled observation. • Predicting future developments. • Helps in putting theory into practice. • It emphasizes the search for truth by advocating objectivity, reliability and validity in the assessment of behaviour. • It is scientific study of behaviour.
  • 19. • The study of behaviour can be verified by other experiments under similar conditions. • The established facts, principles and laws of behaviour have universal applicability in practicle life. • Description and quantification of behaviour is possible in psychology. • It helps us to make dependable predictions about the organism in the light of its studied behaviour.
  • 20.
  • 21. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY Pure psychology and applied psychology • Pure Psychology General psychology -study human development, emotions, motivation, learning, perception, thinking, memory, intelligence and processing. Abnormal psychology - study unusual pattern of behavior.  Developmental Psychology-scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span
  • 22.  Experimental Psychology-the scientific investigation of the responses of individuals to stimuli in controlled situations Social Psychology- social interactions, including their origins and their effects on the individual Behavioral Psychology-study the behaviors of living organisms. Biological Psychology-study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human animals.
  • 23. • Cognitive Psychology-the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking. • Comparative Psychology-scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the psycho-genetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior. • Experimental Psychology- the ways and means of carrying out psychological experiments by using scientific method under controlled or laboratory setting.
  • 24.
  • 25. Applied Branches of Psychology. • Educational Psychology- The branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. • Clinical psychology- explains the causes of abnormal behaviour of a client and suggests individual or group therapy for the treatment of affected persons in society.
  • 26. Industrial psychology- seeks application of the psychological principals, theories and techniques for the study of human behaviour in relation to the industrial environment. It deals with selection, training, solutions for labour problems. • Forensic Psychology - the intersection between psychology and the justice system. • Health Psychology-the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. What is Education ? • an attempt to mould and shape the behavior of students. • It is the process of bringing desirable change into the behaviour of human beings. • Its aims to produce desirable changes in them for all-round development of their personalities.
  • 30. Educational psychology • Educational psychology is the branch of applied psychology. • It is the scientific study of human behaviour in educational setting.
  • 31. What do we mean by behavior Behavior is any action or reaction which causes a human or animal to adapt to its environment.  Behavior can be overt=observable  Behavior can be covert=internal or hidden
  • 32. • It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of psychology to the field of education. • Educational psychology is mainly devoted to an understanding of the different aspects of the teaching-learning process. • It helps the teacher to understand the development of his pupils, the range and limits of their capacities the process by which they learn and their social relationships. • In other words , educational psychology is the study of the experience and behavior of the learner in relation to educational environment.
  • 33. Definitions of Educational psychology • According to Crow and Crow “Educational Psychology describes and explains the learning experience of an individual from birth through old age”. • • According to Peel, Educational Psychology is the science of education. • Skinner defines It is that branch of psychology which deals with teaching and learning.
  • 34. • Stephen– Educational Psychology is the systematic study of the educational growth and development of a child. • Educational psychology is concerned with nature, conditions, outcomes and evaluation of school learning and retention by Ausubel, David P. • Finally educational psychology is
  • 35. Educational psychology is concerned with an understanding of: • The child - his development, his need and his potentialities • The learning situation including group dynamics and its effect on learning • The learning process-its nature and the ways to make it effective. Stated differently, the Central theme of Educational Psychology is Psychology of learning.
  • 36. NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Following are the important characteristics of the nature of educational psychology: • It is an applied branch of fundamental Psychology. • It combines two fields - Education and Psychology. • It is the scientific study of human behaviour in educational situations.
  • 37. • It is concerned with these factors, principles and techniques which relate to the various aspects of a child‘s growth and development. • It is concerned with learning situation and process by which learning can be more efficient and effective. • Educational Psychology, draws heavily from various branches of psychology, biology sociology and anthropology • Educational Psychology is not as exact as natural sciences since the human behavior cannot be predicated exactly, because it is dynamic. • Educational Psychology is a science of education dealing primarily with how, when and what of education.
  • 38. SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • Five major areas covered by Educational Psychology are: The Learner. Human growth and development. Methods of psychology. The Learning Process. Personality and adjustment. The Learning Situation. The Teaching Situation. Evaluation of Learning Performance.
  • 39. Differences between psychology and Educational Psychology Psychology Pure Psychology Develops the theory Conducted experiments Exact science Ednl. Psychology Applied Psychology Apply the theory into practice Adopted the experiments output Applied science Psychology Pure Psychology Develops the theory Conducted experiments Exact science Ednl. Psychology Applied Psychology Apply the theory into practice Adopted the experiments output Applied science
  • 40. Importance of the knowledge of psychology to a Classroom Teacher • To understand the learner and his characteristics. – His interest, – Attitude – Innate capacities and abilities – Level of aspiration – Stages of development- social, emotional, moral, intellectual, physical needs. – His motivational behaviour – Aspects of his group behaviour – His mental health-conflicts and desires
  • 41. • To understand the nature of classroom learning. – Various approaches of learning – Principles, laws – What are the factors affecting the class • To develop competencies for catering to individual differences. • To understand the influence of heredity and environment on growth and development of a child.
  • 42. • To understand the procedure of curriculum construction: – Curriculum is integral part of tg & lg process. – It helps to understand the developmental stages. – Child developments differ from stage to stage. – It helps the curriculum constructor to prepare a sound and balanced curriculum for children. • To understand the group behaviour: – Helps how to handle the group. – Group life's modifies the individual behaviour.
  • 43. • To understand the mental health: – Which factors responsible for mental illness. – Maladjustment – Necessary insight to improve his own mental status to cope with the situations. • To learn effective classroom management skills: – Helps to applying new principles of learning. – Overcome the classroom problem. – Knowing the psychology of the students.
  • 44. • To maintain the classroom discipline: – To maintain efficient classroom discipline. – To Understand students psychology – To control students • To understand the principles of evaluation: – Evaluation is integral part of the teaching learning process. – To test the potentialities of students. – To develop different psychological tests to evaluate the individuals.
  • 45. • To provide guidance and counseling: – Child needs every stage of life regarding: – His abilities, interests and learning styles are differ from person to person. – Curricular – Co-curricular activities – His future Career • Guidance of the education of exceptional children: – Give special facilities. – To understand their psychology.
  • 46. • To take up researches in Education: – Helps to develop different psychological tolls to measure various variables which influence the behaviour of students. – How to control the behaviour of students in classroom. – Regarding teachers attitude, abilities and responsibilities on classroom.
  • 47. • To prepare time table: – Applying psychological principles. – Giving subject preference. – No two difficult subjects are taught in successive periods. • To attain proficiency for helping children in personality development.
  • 48. • Knowing about himself: – It helps the teacher to know about himself. – His own behaviour pattern. – Personality characteristics. – Likes and dislikes – motivation, anxiety, conflicts, adjustment. – All this knowledge helps in growing as a successful teacher.
  • 49. • Creation of a Conducive Learning Climate in the Classroom. • Selection of Learning Strategies and Methods. • Establish Learning Objectives . • Use of Learning Media.