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WEATHER
AND
CLIMATE
NOTICE
Before we can fully understand
the difference between weather
and climate, and how they
change, it is important to know
where these changes occur and
how they happen.
TEMPERATURE
An important element of climate.
Degree of hotness and coldness
of the atmosphere.
Influenced by certain factors
such as altitude and latitude.
© Jamaica Olazo
COMPOSITION OF THE
ATMOSPHERE
78 % Nitrogen 21% Oxygen
1% combination of Hydrogen,
Carbon Dioxide, Argon and inert gases
© Jamaica Olazo
Layers of the
ATMOSPHERE
Ozone Layer - filters
the ultraviolet radiation
from the Sun entering
the Earth.
• Ionosphere - ionized by
solar and cosmic radiation.
• Thermosphere - about 50
to 85 km above our planet
• Mesosphere – lies
between thermosphere and
stratosphere.
• Stratosphere – Ozone
layers is found
• Troposphere – weather
and climate occur
© Jamaica Olazo
Figure 1: The atmosphere, its layers and how air pressure changes with altitudes.
Figure 2: The atmosphere, its layers and how high they are.
Figure 1: The atmosphere, its layers and the objects able to flew on the certain layer.
WEATHER
• The condition of the air or the
atmosphere in general, at a
particular moment or over a short
period of time.
• It is an experience from day to
day and may change any time.
© Jamaica Olazo
CLIMATE
• The average condition of the
atmosphere in a given place or
region.
• Observed every year, and the
summary of the weather patterns of
a given region.
© Jamaica Olazo
ELEMENTS &
CONTROLS OF
WEATHER &
CLIMATE
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
ELEMENTS
• Temperature
• Precipitation
• Air Pressure
• Wind
CLIMATIC CONTROLS
• Altitude or Elevation
• Orographic or mountain
barriers
• Pressure belts
• Ocean current
• Heating differences
• Typhoons and wind flows
© Jamaica Olazo
Latitude and Temperature
Due to the changing angles of the Sun’s
rays as they reach the surface of the Earth.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
1
© Jamaica Olazo
Altitude or Elevation
Atmospheric temperature decreases as
elevation increases.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
2
© Jamaica Olazo
Orographic or
Mountain Barriers
Affect the amount of rainfall a place will
receive depending on its position.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
3
© Jamaica Olazo
OROGRAPHIC OR
MOUNTAIN BARRIERS
Windward Side
• Where the wind blows
and undergoes cooling
and condensation. Leeward Side
• Where no rain fall.
Orographic Rainfall
• Where the rainfall will
fall.
© Jamaica Olazo
Pressure Belts
of the world control the flow of winds
and the amount of precipitation
received by a place.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
4
© Jamaica Olazo
Ocean Currents
is a large volume of ocean water that moves
as a unit and in a specific direction.
Cold or warm depending on
where it comes from.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
5
Ocean Currents
of the world help distribute heat all over the
Earth bringing warm temperature to cold
areas and cold temperatures to places that
are warm or hot.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
California Current
Benguela Current
Canary Current
Peruvian or Humboldt Current
WARM MAJOR CURRENTS
OF THE WORLD
Equatorial Currents
Japan Current or Kurushio
North Pacific Drift
North Atlantic Drift
Gulf Stream
Alaska Current
MAJOR CURRENTS
OF THE WORLD
Land Breeze & Sea Breeze
phenomena illustrate how the heating
differences between land and water bodies
affect the development of pressure systems
and the movement of winds.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
6
CONTROLS OF CLIMATE
LAND BREEZE
• Movement of the wind
from the land towards
the sea.
SEA BREEZE
• Movement of the wind
from the sea towards
the land.
© Jamaica Olazo
Typhoon
comes from the Chinese word “tai-fung”, which
means “big wind”.
A compact low pressure system that moves as a
unit and within which winds are spiraling with
great speed.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
7
TYPHOON BELT
Effects of Typhoon Ondoy in the Philippines
Windflow
like the Monsoon. The word monsoon comes from
the Arabic word “mausim”, which means SEASON.
Monsoon is the seasonal flow of winds between the
Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
CONTROLS OF
CLIMATE
8
© Jamaica Olazo
MONSOON ASIA
Particular in the Philippines and Southeast Asia.
HABAGAT
Southwest Monsoon
- experienced from
November to February.
AMIHAN
Northeast Monsoon
- experienced during
June to September.
LATITUDINAL
ZONES
Low Latitudes
Middle Latitudes
High Latitudes
© Jamaica Olazo
The tropics are the areas
bounded by the Tropic of
Cancer (23 ½◦) in the North and
the Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½◦)
in the south.
LOW LATITUDE
CLIMATES
8
Are areas found between the Tropic
of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in
the Northern Hemisphere and thos
between the Tropic of Capricorn
and the Antarctic Circle.
MIDDLE LATITUDE
CLIMATES
8
Are places located in the High
latitudes. These are areas north of
the Arctic Circle and south of the
Antarctic Circle.
HIGH LATITUDE
CLIMATES
8
THANK YOU 

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Lesson 17: Weather and Climate

  • 2. NOTICE Before we can fully understand the difference between weather and climate, and how they change, it is important to know where these changes occur and how they happen.
  • 3. TEMPERATURE An important element of climate. Degree of hotness and coldness of the atmosphere. Influenced by certain factors such as altitude and latitude. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 4. COMPOSITION OF THE ATMOSPHERE 78 % Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% combination of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Argon and inert gases © Jamaica Olazo
  • 5. Layers of the ATMOSPHERE Ozone Layer - filters the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun entering the Earth. • Ionosphere - ionized by solar and cosmic radiation. • Thermosphere - about 50 to 85 km above our planet • Mesosphere – lies between thermosphere and stratosphere. • Stratosphere – Ozone layers is found • Troposphere – weather and climate occur © Jamaica Olazo
  • 6. Figure 1: The atmosphere, its layers and how air pressure changes with altitudes.
  • 7. Figure 2: The atmosphere, its layers and how high they are.
  • 8. Figure 1: The atmosphere, its layers and the objects able to flew on the certain layer.
  • 9. WEATHER • The condition of the air or the atmosphere in general, at a particular moment or over a short period of time. • It is an experience from day to day and may change any time. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 10. CLIMATE • The average condition of the atmosphere in a given place or region. • Observed every year, and the summary of the weather patterns of a given region. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 12. WEATHER AND CLIMATE ELEMENTS • Temperature • Precipitation • Air Pressure • Wind CLIMATIC CONTROLS • Altitude or Elevation • Orographic or mountain barriers • Pressure belts • Ocean current • Heating differences • Typhoons and wind flows © Jamaica Olazo
  • 13. Latitude and Temperature Due to the changing angles of the Sun’s rays as they reach the surface of the Earth. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 1 © Jamaica Olazo
  • 14. Altitude or Elevation Atmospheric temperature decreases as elevation increases. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 2 © Jamaica Olazo
  • 15. Orographic or Mountain Barriers Affect the amount of rainfall a place will receive depending on its position. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 3 © Jamaica Olazo
  • 16. OROGRAPHIC OR MOUNTAIN BARRIERS Windward Side • Where the wind blows and undergoes cooling and condensation. Leeward Side • Where no rain fall. Orographic Rainfall • Where the rainfall will fall. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 17. Pressure Belts of the world control the flow of winds and the amount of precipitation received by a place. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 4 © Jamaica Olazo
  • 18. Ocean Currents is a large volume of ocean water that moves as a unit and in a specific direction. Cold or warm depending on where it comes from. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 5
  • 19. Ocean Currents of the world help distribute heat all over the Earth bringing warm temperature to cold areas and cold temperatures to places that are warm or hot. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE
  • 20. California Current Benguela Current Canary Current Peruvian or Humboldt Current WARM MAJOR CURRENTS OF THE WORLD
  • 21. Equatorial Currents Japan Current or Kurushio North Pacific Drift North Atlantic Drift Gulf Stream Alaska Current MAJOR CURRENTS OF THE WORLD
  • 22.
  • 23. Land Breeze & Sea Breeze phenomena illustrate how the heating differences between land and water bodies affect the development of pressure systems and the movement of winds. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 6
  • 24. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE LAND BREEZE • Movement of the wind from the land towards the sea. SEA BREEZE • Movement of the wind from the sea towards the land. © Jamaica Olazo
  • 25. Typhoon comes from the Chinese word “tai-fung”, which means “big wind”. A compact low pressure system that moves as a unit and within which winds are spiraling with great speed. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 7
  • 27. Effects of Typhoon Ondoy in the Philippines
  • 28. Windflow like the Monsoon. The word monsoon comes from the Arabic word “mausim”, which means SEASON. Monsoon is the seasonal flow of winds between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. CONTROLS OF CLIMATE 8 © Jamaica Olazo
  • 29. MONSOON ASIA Particular in the Philippines and Southeast Asia. HABAGAT Southwest Monsoon - experienced from November to February. AMIHAN Northeast Monsoon - experienced during June to September.
  • 31. The tropics are the areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer (23 ½◦) in the North and the Tropic of Capricorn (23 ½◦) in the south. LOW LATITUDE CLIMATES 8
  • 32. Are areas found between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and thos between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle. MIDDLE LATITUDE CLIMATES 8
  • 33. Are places located in the High latitudes. These are areas north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle. HIGH LATITUDE CLIMATES 8