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JGrass: The Horton machine ,[object Object],Foss4G, Cape Town 01/10/2008
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine: what and where
“ to give some quantitative and qualitative instruments for knowing the morphology of catchments” “ to supply a modern environmental modelling framework implementing current standards of the scientific community” HortonMachine: the main purposes
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine: the history
” marks” the basin outlets It fills the depression points contained in a DEM so that the drainage directions are defined in each point Given the Strahler number of the channel network, the subbasins up to a selected order are labeled Generates a watershed basin mask from a drainage direction map and a set of coordinates ,[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
draining area per length unit inclination angle of the gradient longitudinal, normal and planar curvatures drainage directions minimizing the deviation from the real flow drainage directions with the method of the maximal steepest descent slope module of the gradient vector slope in every site by employing the drainage directions upslope catchment  area ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
distance of each pixel from the outlet, measured along the drainage directions extracts the channel network from the drainage directions number of sources upriver  drainage density function for the basin upstream of each pixel assign numbers to the network’s links Strahler order in a basin ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
for each hillslope pixel its distance from the river networks, following the steepest descent subdivides the sites of a basin in 11 topographic classes (9 from h.tc) subdivides the sites of a basin in the 9 topographic classes identified by the longitudinal and transversal curvatures ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
diameter of the basin subtended to a point euclidean distance of each pixel from the outlet of the bigger basin which contains it main moments of inertia of each subnet of a channel net rescaled distance of each pixel from the outlet topographic index of a basin ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
sums the values of an assigned quantity from the point till the outlet the histogram of a set of data contained in a matrix with respect to the set of data contained in another matrix ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
the Shalstab hillslope stability model the Peakflow semidistributed model for discharge calculation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],HortonMachine:
The representation on a regular rectangular grid of the data constitutes the most common and most efficient form in which the terrain digital data can be found. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The data in this raster form usually is made by reporting the vertical coordinate, z, for a subsequent series of points, along an assigned regular spacing profile. Digital Terrain Model
definition the working region pit detection definition of the drainage directions definition of the main network extraction of the interesting catchment D8  (maximum slope)‏ D8 with correction  (correction on the direction of  the gradient)‏ import in JGrass the starting DEM which we want to analyse individuation of the existing sub basins Example of basic geomorphologic analysis
The first operation to do is to fill the depression points present within a DTM so that the drainage directions can be defined in each point. Observations on this topic demonstrate that this calculation addresses lesser than the 1% of the data and that usually this depressions are given by wrong calculation in the DEM creation phase and that in fact they are not real depressions. The command used to fill the depressions is:  h.pitfiller  and is based on the Tarboton algorithm. First step: depitting the DTM
They define how water moves on the surface in relation to the topology of the study region. Flowdirection allow you to calculate the drainage directions. Hypothesis: each DEM cell drains only in one of its 8 neighbours, either adjacent or diagonal in the direction of the steepest downward slope. only 8 possible direction (see Figure for the numbering convention) in which direct the flux this is a limit of modelling the natural flow Flowdirections
In the map each colour represents one of the 8 drainage directions. The map contains the convention number of this directions.
It represents the area that contributes to a particular point of the catchment basin. It is a extremely important quantity in the geomorphologic and hydrologic study of a river basin: it is strictly related to the discharge flowing through the different points of the system in uniform precipitation conditions. On this quantity are based all the more diffusive methods used to extract the stream network from the digital models. Total contributing area
TCA:Total Contributing Area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],source point
Using the “pure” D8 method for the drainage direction estimation cause an effect of deviation from the real direction identified by the gradients. This algorithm calculates the drainage direction minimizing the deviation of the flow from the real flux direction. The deviation is calculated beginning from the pixel at highest elevation and going downstream. The deviation is calculated with a triangular construction and can be expressed as angular deviation (method D8-LAD) or as transversal distance (method D8-LTD)‏ The    parameter is used to assign a weight to the correction made to the drainage directions. This method has been developed by S. Orlandini A correction to the pure D8 method: h.draindir
LAD method:  angular deviation LTD method:  transversal deviation The deviation is cumulated from higher pixels down-hill and the D8 drainage direction is redirected to the real direction when the value is larger than an assigned threshold. If  λ  = 0 the deviation counter has no memory and the pixels up-hill do not affect the choice.
In the figures are compared the total contributing areas calculated with the pure D8 method and with the corrected method (LAD-D8). In the second case the typical maximum steepest parallelisms are not present with a representation of the flow very near to reality. Results comparison Log(TCA)‏ Log (LAD-TCA)‏
STANDARD METHOD
In flat areas or where there are manmade constructions, it can happen that the extracted channel  network does not coincide with the real channel network. Network assigned method
Network assigned method
Network assigned method
Network assigned method
Threshold on the tca 1°method Channel network extraction The threshold is on the parameter: which is proportional to the stress tangential to the bottom. 2°method Threshold on the tca of the concave sites. 3°method
In the resulting raster map the network pixels have the 2 value and outside the network there are null values (the yellow background is kept for visualization purposes). example with threshold on the tca Channel network extraction
Example of a network extracted with a high threshold value. Channel network extraction
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Extraction of the working basin
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Extraction of the working basin
Many other modules...
Many other modules...
Many other modules...
Many other modules...
Many other modules...
The planar curvatures separate the concave parts from the convex ones The longitudinal curvatures highlight  valleys Many other modules...
h.tc 9 classes h.tc 3 classes Many other modules...
...didn't I say  standards ? STOP!
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],DB pit flow Trig getValues getValues getValues Horton Machine OpenMI Implementing standards: The Horton OpenMI Link
JGrass-Console – the scripting engine Horton Machine OpenMI JGrass-Console Engine ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Horton Machine OpenMI J-Console Engine JGrass UIBuilder GRASS JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
JGrass-Console – the scripting engine ...behind the scenes of the GUI mode - an xml file holds the gui definition and the command syntax  - the gui is automatically generated, and when  ok  is pressed, the console command is launched. Everything goes through the console! ...it is possible to construct complex (hybrid jgrass/grass/groovy/java) commands
JGrass is available at http://www.jgrass.org  Thanks for your attention RELATED WORKSHOP: Hydrological and Geomorphological Terrain Analysis with JGrass  Friday, 3 rd  October  01:30 PM – 05:00 PM Building: UCT Labs Room: Pilanesberg Room (UCT Environmental and Geographic Science Lab)

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JGrass: the Horton machine (FOSS4G2008)

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. “ to give some quantitative and qualitative instruments for knowing the morphology of catchments” “ to supply a modern environmental modelling framework implementing current standards of the scientific community” HortonMachine: the main purposes
  • 4.
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  • 8.
  • 9.
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  • 12.
  • 13. definition the working region pit detection definition of the drainage directions definition of the main network extraction of the interesting catchment D8 (maximum slope)‏ D8 with correction (correction on the direction of the gradient)‏ import in JGrass the starting DEM which we want to analyse individuation of the existing sub basins Example of basic geomorphologic analysis
  • 14. The first operation to do is to fill the depression points present within a DTM so that the drainage directions can be defined in each point. Observations on this topic demonstrate that this calculation addresses lesser than the 1% of the data and that usually this depressions are given by wrong calculation in the DEM creation phase and that in fact they are not real depressions. The command used to fill the depressions is: h.pitfiller and is based on the Tarboton algorithm. First step: depitting the DTM
  • 15. They define how water moves on the surface in relation to the topology of the study region. Flowdirection allow you to calculate the drainage directions. Hypothesis: each DEM cell drains only in one of its 8 neighbours, either adjacent or diagonal in the direction of the steepest downward slope. only 8 possible direction (see Figure for the numbering convention) in which direct the flux this is a limit of modelling the natural flow Flowdirections
  • 16. In the map each colour represents one of the 8 drainage directions. The map contains the convention number of this directions.
  • 17. It represents the area that contributes to a particular point of the catchment basin. It is a extremely important quantity in the geomorphologic and hydrologic study of a river basin: it is strictly related to the discharge flowing through the different points of the system in uniform precipitation conditions. On this quantity are based all the more diffusive methods used to extract the stream network from the digital models. Total contributing area
  • 18.
  • 19. Using the “pure” D8 method for the drainage direction estimation cause an effect of deviation from the real direction identified by the gradients. This algorithm calculates the drainage direction minimizing the deviation of the flow from the real flux direction. The deviation is calculated beginning from the pixel at highest elevation and going downstream. The deviation is calculated with a triangular construction and can be expressed as angular deviation (method D8-LAD) or as transversal distance (method D8-LTD)‏ The  parameter is used to assign a weight to the correction made to the drainage directions. This method has been developed by S. Orlandini A correction to the pure D8 method: h.draindir
  • 20. LAD method: angular deviation LTD method: transversal deviation The deviation is cumulated from higher pixels down-hill and the D8 drainage direction is redirected to the real direction when the value is larger than an assigned threshold. If λ = 0 the deviation counter has no memory and the pixels up-hill do not affect the choice.
  • 21. In the figures are compared the total contributing areas calculated with the pure D8 method and with the corrected method (LAD-D8). In the second case the typical maximum steepest parallelisms are not present with a representation of the flow very near to reality. Results comparison Log(TCA)‏ Log (LAD-TCA)‏
  • 23. In flat areas or where there are manmade constructions, it can happen that the extracted channel network does not coincide with the real channel network. Network assigned method
  • 27. Threshold on the tca 1°method Channel network extraction The threshold is on the parameter: which is proportional to the stress tangential to the bottom. 2°method Threshold on the tca of the concave sites. 3°method
  • 28. In the resulting raster map the network pixels have the 2 value and outside the network there are null values (the yellow background is kept for visualization purposes). example with threshold on the tca Channel network extraction
  • 29. Example of a network extracted with a high threshold value. Channel network extraction
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 37. The planar curvatures separate the concave parts from the convex ones The longitudinal curvatures highlight valleys Many other modules...
  • 38. h.tc 9 classes h.tc 3 classes Many other modules...
  • 39. ...didn't I say standards ? STOP!
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. Horton Machine OpenMI J-Console Engine JGrass UIBuilder GRASS JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
  • 43. JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
  • 44. JGrass-Console – the scripting engine
  • 45. JGrass-Console – the scripting engine ...behind the scenes of the GUI mode - an xml file holds the gui definition and the command syntax - the gui is automatically generated, and when ok is pressed, the console command is launched. Everything goes through the console! ...it is possible to construct complex (hybrid jgrass/grass/groovy/java) commands
  • 46. JGrass is available at http://www.jgrass.org Thanks for your attention RELATED WORKSHOP: Hydrological and Geomorphological Terrain Analysis with JGrass Friday, 3 rd October 01:30 PM – 05:00 PM Building: UCT Labs Room: Pilanesberg Room (UCT Environmental and Geographic Science Lab)