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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 198
FACE RECOGNITION USING LDN CODE
J.K.Jeevitha1 ,B.Karthika2 ,E.Devipriya3
1 2 3Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract - LDN characterizes both the texture and
contrast information of facial components in a compact
way, producing a more discriminative code than other
available methods. An LDN code is obtained by computing
the edge response values in 8 directions at each pixel with
the aid of a compass mask. Image analysis and
understanding has recently received significant
attention, especially during the past several years. At
least two reasons can be accounted for this trend: the
first is the wide range of commercial and law
enforcement applications, and the second is the
availability of feasible technologies after nearly 30 years
of research. In this paper we propose a novel local feature
descriptor, called Local Directional Number Pattern
(LDN), for face analysis, i.e., face and expression
recognition. LDN characterizes both the texture and
contrast information of facial components in a compact
way, producing a more discriminative code than other
available methods.
Key Words: LDN, Compact mask, Median Noise.
1.INTRODUCTION
Face analysis has a varied range of applications, namely
biometric authentication, surveillance, human-computer
interaction, and multimedia management. Due to the endless
possibility of its application and the interest generated,
research and development in automatic face analysis which
consist of face recognition and expression recognition
follows naturally.
A good descriptor should have a high variance among
classes i.e. between different persons or expressions, but
little or no variation within classes i.e. same person or
expression in different conditions. These descriptors are
used in several areas, such as, facial expression and face
recognition. An image may be defined as a two-dimensional
function, f(x,y), where x and y are the spatial coordinates,
and the amplitude of f at any couple of coordinates (x, y) is
called the intensity or a gray level of the image at that point.
When x, y, and an amplitude values of f are all finite,
separate quantities, we call the image a digital image.
Face and expression recognition has been one of the fast
developing areas due to its wide range of applications such
as emotion analysis, biometrics, image retrieval and it is one
of the area on which lot of research has been carried by
solving the problems occurring in recognition of the face
expressions under different conditions and numerous other
variations. Local Directional Number Pattern (LDN) acts as a
face descriptor for recognizing robust faces and encodes the
information related to structural and intensity variations of
the face’s texture. The structure of a local neighborhood is
encoded by analysing its directional information.
This paper represents a method for face and facial
expression recognition more efficiently and robust as
compared to the existing methods. It is a novel encoding
scheme, named as, Local Directional number pattern (LDN)
encodes efficiently into a compact code by taking advantage
of different structural face textures.
2.LITERATURE REVIEW
Face recognition is one of the most successful applications of
image analysis and understanding, face recognition has
recently received important attention, especially during the
past few years. There are two common approaches to
extract facial features: geometric-feature-based and
appearance based methods. The performance of the
appearance-based methods is excellent in constrained
environment but their performance degrades in
environmental variation. The face and expression features
are recognized in different applications in different
conditions.
I.Kotsia and I.Pitas, [5] proposed facial expression
recognition in facial image sequences are presented. The
user has to manually place few Candide grid nodes to face
landmarks depicted at the first frame of the image sequence
under assessment. The grid-tracking and deformation
system is used based on deformable models, tracks the grid
in successive video frames eventually, as the facial
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 199
expression evolves, in anticipation of the frame that
corresponds to the greatest facial expression intensity. The
geometrical displacement of selected certain Candide nodes,
defined as the dissimilarity of the node coordinates between
the first and the greatest facial expression intensity frame
also used as an input to a novel multiclass Support Vector
Machine (SVM) system of classifiers that are used to
recognize either the six basic facial expressions or a set of
chosen Facial Action Units (FAUs).
M. Pantic and L. J. M. Rothkrantz, [6] proposed the Face
Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art in
this automatic face and expression recognition the
characteristics of an ideal system, Databases that have been
used and the advances made in terms of their
standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the
art and discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action
Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters
(FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking,
feature extraction methods. Observations have also been
offered on emotions, expressions and facial features,
conversation on the six prototypic expressions and the
recent studies on expression classifiers.
L.Wiskott,J.-M.Fellous,N.Kuiger and C. von der Malsburg,
[15] proposed Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph
Matching it present a system for recognizing human faces
from single images out of a large database containing one
image per person. The task is difficult because of image
variation in terms of position, expression, size, and pose. The
system collapses most of this variance by extracting concise
face descriptions in the form of image graphs. In these,
fiducial points on the face (eyes, mouth, etc.) are described
by sets of wavelet components (jets). Image graph
extraction is based on a novel approach, the bunch graph,
which is developed from a small set of sample image graphs.
Recognition is based on a simple comparison of image
graphs. We statement recognition experiments on the
FERET database as well as the Bochum database, as well as
recognition across pose.
T. Ahonen, A. Hadid, and M. Pietik¨ainen, [1] proposed a
Face Description with Local Binary Patterns: Application to
Face Recognition in that the face image is divided into
several regions from which the LBP feature distributions are
extracted and concatenated into an enhanced feature vector
to be used as a face descriptor. The act of the proposed
method is assessed in the face recognition problem under
different challenges.
3. EXISTING SYSTEM
Local binary pattern (LBP) is a nonparametric
descriptor, which efficiently summarizes the local structures
of images. In recent years, it has aroused increasing interest
in many areas of image processing and computer vision and
has shown its
effectiveness in a number of applications, in particular for
facial image analysis, including tasks as diverse as face
detection, face recognition, facial expression analysis, and
demographic classification. As a typical application of the
LBP approach, LBP-based facial image analysis is extensively
reviewed, while its successful extensions, which deal with
various tasks of facial image analysis, are also highlighted.
The original LBP operator labels the pixels of an
image with decimal numbers, which are called LBPs or LBP
codes that encode the local structure around each pixel.
Each pixel is compared with its eight neighbors in a 3 × 3
neighborhood by subtracting the center pixel value; the
resulting strictly negative values are encoded with 0, and the
others with 1. For each given pixel, a binary number is
obtained by concatenating all these binary values in a
clockwise direction, which starts from the one of its top-left
neighbor. The corresponding decimal value of the generated
binary number is then used for labeling the given pixel. The
derived binary numbers are referred to be the LBPs or LBP
codes.
Fig.3.1: Example of the basic LBP operator
In above Fig.3.1 each pixel is compared with its
eight neighbors in a 3 × 3 neighborhood by subtracting the
center pixel value; the resulting strictly negative values are
encoded with 0, and the others with 1.
One limitation of the basic LBP operator is that its
small 3 × 3 neighborhood cannot capture dominant features
with large-scale structures. To deal with the texture at
different scales, the operator was later generalized to use
neighborhoods of different sizes [9]. A local neighborhood is
defined as a set of sampling points evenly spaced on a circle,
which is centered at the pixel to be labeled, and the sampling
points that do not fall within the pixels are interpolated
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 200
using bilinear interpolation, thus allowing for any radius and
any number of sampling points in the neighborhood.
Fig. 3.2: Examples of the ELBP operator. The circular (8, 1),
(16, 2), and
(24, 3) neighborhoods.
In above Fig.3.2 some examples of the extended LBP (ELBP)
operator, where the notation (P, R) denotes a neighborhood
of P sampling points on a circle of radius of R.
3.1Enhancing the discriminative probability
The LBP operator defines a certain number of
patterns to describe the local structures. To enhance their
discriminative capability, more patterns or information
could be encoded. Jin et al. [10] modified the LBP operator to
describe more local structure information under certain
circumstances. Specifically, they proposed an improved LBP
(ILBP), which compares all the pixels (including the central
pixel) with the mean intensity of all the pixels in the patch.
For instance, the LBP(8,1) operator produces only 256 (28 )
patterns in a 3 ×3 neighborhood, while ILBP has 511
patterns (29 − 1, as all zeros and all ones are the same).
Later, ILBP was extended to use the neighborhoods of any
size instead of the original 3 ×3 patch [6]. Almost at the same
time, a similar scheme was used to extend CT to modified CT
[3], namely, modified LBP (MLBP) in [12]. A mean LBP [2] is
presented, which is similar to ILBP, but without considering
the central pixels.
Yang and Wang [15] proposed Hamming LBP to
improve the discriminative ability of the original LBP. They
reclassified non uniform patterns based on Hamming
distance, instead of collecting them into a single bin as
LBPu2 does. In the Hamming LBP, these non uniform
patterns are incorporated into existing uniform patterns by
minimizing the Hamming distance between them; for
example, the nonuniform pattern (10001110)2 is converted
into the uniform one (10001111)2 , since their Hamming
distance is one. When several uniform patterns have the
same Hamming distance with a nonuniform pattern, the one
with the minimum Euclidian distance will be selected.
4. PROPOSED WORK
Local directional number encodes the directional
information of the face’s textures in a dense way, producing
a more discriminative code than current methods. We figure
the structure of each micro-pattern with the support of a
compass mask that extracts directional information, and
encode such information using the well-known direction
indices and sign .which allows us to distinguish among
similar structural patterns that have different intensity
transitions. Then we divide the face into several regions, and
take out the distribution of the LDN features from them.
Then, concatenate these features into a feature vector, and
we use it as a face descriptor.
In which descriptor performs consistently under
illumination, noise, expression, and the time lapse
variations. The proposed Local Directional Number Pattern
(LDN) is a six bit binary code assigned to each pixel of an
input image that represents the structure of the texture and
its intensity transitions. As previous research, edge
magnitudes are largely insensitive to lighting changes.
Accordingly, we create our pattern by computing the edge
response of the neighborhood using a compass mask, and by
captivating the top directional numbers, that is positive and
negative directions of those edge responses. We show this
coding scheme.
The positive and negative responses give valuable
information of the structure of the neighborhood, as they
expose the gradient direction of bright and dark areas in the
neighborhood. Thus, this distinction, between dark and
bright responses, allows LDN to discriminate between
blocks with the positive and the negative direction swapped
(which is equivalent to swap the bright and the dark areas of
the neighborhood) by generating a different code for each
case, while other methods may mistake the swapped regions
as one. also, these transitions occur repeatedly in the face,
for example, the top and bottom edges of the eyebrows and
mouth have different intensity transitions.
4.1 Local Directional Number (LDN)
The code is generated using LDN, by analyzing the
edge response of each mask, {M0,...,M7}, that represents the
edge significance in its respective direction, and by
combining the dominant directional numbers. Given that the
edge responses are not equally important; the presence of a
high negative or positive value signals a prominent dark or
bright area. Hence, to encode these prominent regions, we
implicitly use the sign information, as we assign a fixed
position for the top positive directional number, as the three
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 201
most significant bits in the code, and the three least
significant bits are the top negative directional number.
LDN(x,y)=8ix,y+jx,y
where (x, y) is the central pixel of the neighborhood being
coded, ix,y is the directional number of the maximum
positive response, and jx,y is the directional number of the
minimum negative response defined by:
ix,y = argmax{IIi(x,y)|0 ≤ i ≤ 7}
jx,y = argmax{IIj(x,y)|0 ≤ i ≤7}
where Πi is the convolution of the original image, I, and the
ith mask, Mi , defined by:
IIi = I * Mi
To create the LDN code, a compass mask is used to
compute the edge responses. I Proposed code is analyzed
using two different asymmetric masks: Kirsch and
derivative-Gaussian. Both masks operate in the gradient
space, which reveals the face structure. Furthermore,
explore the use of Gaussian smoothing to stabilize the code
in presence of noise by using the derivative-Gaussian mask.
The Kirsch mask is rotated apart to obtain the edge
response in eight different directions. This indicate the use
of this mask to produce the LDN code by LDNK. Moreover,
inspired by the Kirsch mask , use the derivative of a skewed
Gaussian to create an asymmetric compass mask that is used
to compute the edge response on the smoothed face.
This mask is strong against noise and illumination changes,
while producing strong edge responses. Therefore, given a
Gaussian mask defined by:
Gσ(x,y)= /2πσ2 exp(-x2 + y2 2πσ2 )
where x, y are location positions, and is the width of the
Gaussian bell; this defines the mask as:
Mσ(x,y) = Gσ
” (x+k,y) * Gσ (x,y)
where is the derivative of Gσ with respect to x, σ is the width
of the Gaussian bell, * is the convolution operation, and k is
the offset of the Gaussian with respect to its centre. A
compass mask is generated, {M0σ ,...,M7σ}, by rotating Mσ
45° apart, in eight different directions. Thus, a set of masks
is obtained.
Architecture Diagram
Fig:4.1.1 Image acquisition
Fig4.1.1 explain Image acquisition Image acquisition
in image processing can be broadly defined as the action of
retrieving an image from some source, usually a hardware-
based source, so it can be passed through whatever
processes need to occur afterward. Performing image
acquisition in image processing is always the first step in the
workflow sequence because, without an image, no
processing is possible. The image that is acquired is
completely unprocessed and is the result of whatever
hardware was used to generate it, which can be very
important in some fields to have a consistent baseline from
which to work. One of the ultimate goals of this process is to
have a source of input that operates within such controlled
and measured guidelines that the same image can, if
necessary, be nearly perfectly reproduced under the same
conditions so anomalous factors are easier to locate and
eliminate.
Depending on the field of work, a major factor
involved in image acquisition in image processing
Image
Acquisition
Web Camera /
Database
Adaptive
Histogram
Equalization
Median Filter
Feature
Extraction
Kirsch
Compass
Masking
SVM
Classifier
Classification
Result
Analysis
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 202
sometimes is the initial setup and long-term maintenance of
the hardware used to capture the images. The actual
hardware device can be anything from a desktop scanner to
a massive optical telescope. If the hardware is not properly
configured and aligned, then visual artifacts can be produced
that can complicate the image processing. Improperly setup
hardware also may provide images that are of such low
quality that they cannot be salvaged even with extensive
processing. All of these elements are vital to certain areas,
such as comparative image processing, which looks for
specific differences between image sets.
One of the forms of image acquisition in image
processing is known as real-time image acquisition. This
usually involves retrieving images from a source that is
automatically capturing images. Real-time image acquisition
creates a stream of files that can be automatically processed,
queued for later work, or stitched into a single media format.
One common technology that is used with real-time image
processing is known as background image acquisition,
which describes both software and hardware that can
quickly preserve the images flooding into a system.
There are some advanced methods of image
acquisition in image processing that actually use customized
hardware. Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition is one
of these methods. This can require the use of two or more
cameras that have been aligned at precisely describes points
around a target, forming a sequence of images that can be
aligned to create a 3D or stereoscopic scene, or to measure
distances. Some satellites use 3D image acquisition
techniques to build accurate models of different surfaces.
Of course, such extraction programs will rarely be
perfect on their first execution and, in the course of
debugging them, it is often helpful to have a perfectly
replicable input. This can help narrow the scope of a search
for bugs or errors. In a vision application this replicable
input may be accomplished by saving a single stream of data
and piping it into subsequent program executions.
4.2.Median Filtering
The median filter is a nonlinear digital filtering
technique, often used to remove noise. Such noise reduction
is a typical pre-processing step to improve the results of
later processing (for example, edge detection on an image).
Median filtering is very widely used in digital image
processing because, under certain conditions, it preserves
edges while removing noise.
Fig4.2.1: The image before filtering and after filtering
In above Fig.4.2.1 the main idea of the median filter
is to run through the signal entry by entry, replacing each
entry with the median of neighboring entries. The pattern of
neighbors is called the "window", which slides, entry by
entry, over the entire signal.
For 1D signals, the most obvious window is just the
first few preceding and following entries, whereas for 2D (or
higher-dimensional) signals such as images, more complex
window patterns are possible (such as "box" or "cross"
patterns). Note that if the window has an odd number of
entries, then the median is simple to define: it is just the
middle value after all the entries in the window are sorted
numerically. For an even number of entries, there is more
than one possible median, see median for more details.
4.3. Image noise
It is random (not present in the object imaged)
variation of brightness or color information in images, and is
usually an aspect of electronic noise. It can be produced by
the sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera.
Image noise can also originate in film grain and in the
unavoidable shot noise of an ideal photon detector. Image
noise is an undesirable by-product of image capture that
adds spurious and extraneous information.
The original meaning of "noise" was and remains
"unwanted signal"; unwanted electrical fluctuations in
signals received by AM radios caused audible acoustic noise
("static"). By analogy unwanted electrical fluctuations
themselves came to be known as "noise". Image noise is, of
course, inaudible.The magnitude of image noise can range
from almost imperceptible specks on a digital photograph
taken in good light, to optical and radioastronomical images
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 203
that are almost entirely noise, from which a small amount of
information can be derived by sophisticated processing.
4.4. Compass mask
We use the gradient space, instead of the intensity
feature space, to calculate our code. The former has more
information than the later, as it holds the associations
among pixels implicitly. Also, due to these relations the
gradient space reveals the underlying structure of the image.
Accordingly, the gradient space has more discriminating
power to discover key facial features.
In addition, we explore the use of a Gaussian to smooth
the image, which makes the gradient estimation more stable.
These operations make our method more robust; similarly
previous research used the gradient space to calculate their code.
Consequently, our method is robust against illumination due to
the gradient space, and to noise suitable to the smoothing.
4.5 Blurring and noise reduction
Filters are most commonly used for blurring and for
noise reduction. Blurring is used in pre processing steps,
such as removal of small details from an image prior to large
object extraction.
5.CONCLUSION
The project describes an encoding scheme called LDN
which is computed from the edge response value using a
compass mask. LDN takes advantage of the structure of the
face’s textures and encodes it efficiently into a compact code.
It uses directional information that is more stable against
noise than intensity, to code the different patterns from the
face’s textures. LDN, implicitly, uses the sign information of
the directional numbers which allows it to distinguish
similar texture’s structures with different intensity
transitions, e.g., from dark to bright and vice versa.
REFERENCES
[1]T.Ahonen, A. Hadid, and M. Pietik¨ainen, “Face description
with local binary patterns: Application to face
recognition,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.,
vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2037–2041, Dec. 2006.
[2]H. Jin, Q. Liu, H. Lu, and X. Tong, “Face detection using
improved LBP under Bayesian framework,” in Proc Int.
Conf. Image Graph., 2004, pp. 306–309.
[3]H.Jin, Q. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Lu, “Learning local
descriptors for face detection,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf.
Multimedia Expo., Jul. 2005, pp. 928–931.
[4] I. Kotsia and I. Pitas, “Facial expression recognition in
image sequences using geometric deformation features
and support vector machines,” IEEE Trans. Image
Process., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 172–187, Jan. 2007.
[5] S. Liao and A. C. S. Chung, “Face recognition by using
elongated local binary patterns with average maximum
distance gradient magnitude,” in Proc. Asian Conf.
Comput. Vis., 2007, pp. 672–679.
[6]T.Ojala, M. Pietik¨ainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution
gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification
with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. [7]M.
[10]Pantic and L. J. M. Rothkrantz, “Automatic analysis
of facial expressions: The state of the art,” IEEE Trans.
Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1424–
1445, Dec. 2000.Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 24, no.
7, pp. 971–987, Jul. 2002.
[7] P.Penev and J. Atick, “Local feature analysis: A general
statistical theory for object representation,” Network:
Computation in Neural Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 477–
500, 1996.
[8] J.Ruiz-del-Solar and J. Quinteros, “Illumination
compensation and normalization in eigenspace-based
face recognition: A comparative study of different pre-
processing approaches,” Pattern Recog. Lett., vol. 29,
no. 14, pp. 1966–1979, 2008.
[9] C. Shan, S. Gong, and P. W. McOwan, “Facial expression
recognition based on local binary patterns: A
comprehensive study,” Image and Vision Computing,
vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 803–816, 2009.
[10] L. Wiskott, J.-M. Fellous, N. Kuiger, and C. von der
Malsburg, “Face recognition by elastic bunch graph
matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol.
19, no. 7, pp. 775–779, Jul. 1997.
[11] L. Wiskott, J.-M. Fellous, N. Kuiger, and C. von der
Malsburg, “Face recognition by elastic bunch graph
matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.,
vol.19, no. 7, pp. 775–779, Jul. 1997.
[12] H. Yang and Y. Wang, “A LBP-based face recognition
method with Hamming distance constraint,” in Proc.
Int. Conf. Image Graph., Aug., 2007, pp. 645–649.

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IRJET-Face Recognition using LDN Code

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 198 FACE RECOGNITION USING LDN CODE J.K.Jeevitha1 ,B.Karthika2 ,E.Devipriya3 1 2 3Assistant Professor, Department of Information Technology, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract - LDN characterizes both the texture and contrast information of facial components in a compact way, producing a more discriminative code than other available methods. An LDN code is obtained by computing the edge response values in 8 directions at each pixel with the aid of a compass mask. Image analysis and understanding has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons can be accounted for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after nearly 30 years of research. In this paper we propose a novel local feature descriptor, called Local Directional Number Pattern (LDN), for face analysis, i.e., face and expression recognition. LDN characterizes both the texture and contrast information of facial components in a compact way, producing a more discriminative code than other available methods. Key Words: LDN, Compact mask, Median Noise. 1.INTRODUCTION Face analysis has a varied range of applications, namely biometric authentication, surveillance, human-computer interaction, and multimedia management. Due to the endless possibility of its application and the interest generated, research and development in automatic face analysis which consist of face recognition and expression recognition follows naturally. A good descriptor should have a high variance among classes i.e. between different persons or expressions, but little or no variation within classes i.e. same person or expression in different conditions. These descriptors are used in several areas, such as, facial expression and face recognition. An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function, f(x,y), where x and y are the spatial coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any couple of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity or a gray level of the image at that point. When x, y, and an amplitude values of f are all finite, separate quantities, we call the image a digital image. Face and expression recognition has been one of the fast developing areas due to its wide range of applications such as emotion analysis, biometrics, image retrieval and it is one of the area on which lot of research has been carried by solving the problems occurring in recognition of the face expressions under different conditions and numerous other variations. Local Directional Number Pattern (LDN) acts as a face descriptor for recognizing robust faces and encodes the information related to structural and intensity variations of the face’s texture. The structure of a local neighborhood is encoded by analysing its directional information. This paper represents a method for face and facial expression recognition more efficiently and robust as compared to the existing methods. It is a novel encoding scheme, named as, Local Directional number pattern (LDN) encodes efficiently into a compact code by taking advantage of different structural face textures. 2.LITERATURE REVIEW Face recognition is one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received important attention, especially during the past few years. There are two common approaches to extract facial features: geometric-feature-based and appearance based methods. The performance of the appearance-based methods is excellent in constrained environment but their performance degrades in environmental variation. The face and expression features are recognized in different applications in different conditions. I.Kotsia and I.Pitas, [5] proposed facial expression recognition in facial image sequences are presented. The user has to manually place few Candide grid nodes to face landmarks depicted at the first frame of the image sequence under assessment. The grid-tracking and deformation system is used based on deformable models, tracks the grid in successive video frames eventually, as the facial
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 199 expression evolves, in anticipation of the frame that corresponds to the greatest facial expression intensity. The geometrical displacement of selected certain Candide nodes, defined as the dissimilarity of the node coordinates between the first and the greatest facial expression intensity frame also used as an input to a novel multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM) system of classifiers that are used to recognize either the six basic facial expressions or a set of chosen Facial Action Units (FAUs). M. Pantic and L. J. M. Rothkrantz, [6] proposed the Face Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art in this automatic face and expression recognition the characteristics of an ideal system, Databases that have been used and the advances made in terms of their standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the art and discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking, feature extraction methods. Observations have also been offered on emotions, expressions and facial features, conversation on the six prototypic expressions and the recent studies on expression classifiers. L.Wiskott,J.-M.Fellous,N.Kuiger and C. von der Malsburg, [15] proposed Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching it present a system for recognizing human faces from single images out of a large database containing one image per person. The task is difficult because of image variation in terms of position, expression, size, and pose. The system collapses most of this variance by extracting concise face descriptions in the form of image graphs. In these, fiducial points on the face (eyes, mouth, etc.) are described by sets of wavelet components (jets). Image graph extraction is based on a novel approach, the bunch graph, which is developed from a small set of sample image graphs. Recognition is based on a simple comparison of image graphs. We statement recognition experiments on the FERET database as well as the Bochum database, as well as recognition across pose. T. Ahonen, A. Hadid, and M. Pietik¨ainen, [1] proposed a Face Description with Local Binary Patterns: Application to Face Recognition in that the face image is divided into several regions from which the LBP feature distributions are extracted and concatenated into an enhanced feature vector to be used as a face descriptor. The act of the proposed method is assessed in the face recognition problem under different challenges. 3. EXISTING SYSTEM Local binary pattern (LBP) is a nonparametric descriptor, which efficiently summarizes the local structures of images. In recent years, it has aroused increasing interest in many areas of image processing and computer vision and has shown its effectiveness in a number of applications, in particular for facial image analysis, including tasks as diverse as face detection, face recognition, facial expression analysis, and demographic classification. As a typical application of the LBP approach, LBP-based facial image analysis is extensively reviewed, while its successful extensions, which deal with various tasks of facial image analysis, are also highlighted. The original LBP operator labels the pixels of an image with decimal numbers, which are called LBPs or LBP codes that encode the local structure around each pixel. Each pixel is compared with its eight neighbors in a 3 × 3 neighborhood by subtracting the center pixel value; the resulting strictly negative values are encoded with 0, and the others with 1. For each given pixel, a binary number is obtained by concatenating all these binary values in a clockwise direction, which starts from the one of its top-left neighbor. The corresponding decimal value of the generated binary number is then used for labeling the given pixel. The derived binary numbers are referred to be the LBPs or LBP codes. Fig.3.1: Example of the basic LBP operator In above Fig.3.1 each pixel is compared with its eight neighbors in a 3 × 3 neighborhood by subtracting the center pixel value; the resulting strictly negative values are encoded with 0, and the others with 1. One limitation of the basic LBP operator is that its small 3 × 3 neighborhood cannot capture dominant features with large-scale structures. To deal with the texture at different scales, the operator was later generalized to use neighborhoods of different sizes [9]. A local neighborhood is defined as a set of sampling points evenly spaced on a circle, which is centered at the pixel to be labeled, and the sampling points that do not fall within the pixels are interpolated
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 200 using bilinear interpolation, thus allowing for any radius and any number of sampling points in the neighborhood. Fig. 3.2: Examples of the ELBP operator. The circular (8, 1), (16, 2), and (24, 3) neighborhoods. In above Fig.3.2 some examples of the extended LBP (ELBP) operator, where the notation (P, R) denotes a neighborhood of P sampling points on a circle of radius of R. 3.1Enhancing the discriminative probability The LBP operator defines a certain number of patterns to describe the local structures. To enhance their discriminative capability, more patterns or information could be encoded. Jin et al. [10] modified the LBP operator to describe more local structure information under certain circumstances. Specifically, they proposed an improved LBP (ILBP), which compares all the pixels (including the central pixel) with the mean intensity of all the pixels in the patch. For instance, the LBP(8,1) operator produces only 256 (28 ) patterns in a 3 ×3 neighborhood, while ILBP has 511 patterns (29 − 1, as all zeros and all ones are the same). Later, ILBP was extended to use the neighborhoods of any size instead of the original 3 ×3 patch [6]. Almost at the same time, a similar scheme was used to extend CT to modified CT [3], namely, modified LBP (MLBP) in [12]. A mean LBP [2] is presented, which is similar to ILBP, but without considering the central pixels. Yang and Wang [15] proposed Hamming LBP to improve the discriminative ability of the original LBP. They reclassified non uniform patterns based on Hamming distance, instead of collecting them into a single bin as LBPu2 does. In the Hamming LBP, these non uniform patterns are incorporated into existing uniform patterns by minimizing the Hamming distance between them; for example, the nonuniform pattern (10001110)2 is converted into the uniform one (10001111)2 , since their Hamming distance is one. When several uniform patterns have the same Hamming distance with a nonuniform pattern, the one with the minimum Euclidian distance will be selected. 4. PROPOSED WORK Local directional number encodes the directional information of the face’s textures in a dense way, producing a more discriminative code than current methods. We figure the structure of each micro-pattern with the support of a compass mask that extracts directional information, and encode such information using the well-known direction indices and sign .which allows us to distinguish among similar structural patterns that have different intensity transitions. Then we divide the face into several regions, and take out the distribution of the LDN features from them. Then, concatenate these features into a feature vector, and we use it as a face descriptor. In which descriptor performs consistently under illumination, noise, expression, and the time lapse variations. The proposed Local Directional Number Pattern (LDN) is a six bit binary code assigned to each pixel of an input image that represents the structure of the texture and its intensity transitions. As previous research, edge magnitudes are largely insensitive to lighting changes. Accordingly, we create our pattern by computing the edge response of the neighborhood using a compass mask, and by captivating the top directional numbers, that is positive and negative directions of those edge responses. We show this coding scheme. The positive and negative responses give valuable information of the structure of the neighborhood, as they expose the gradient direction of bright and dark areas in the neighborhood. Thus, this distinction, between dark and bright responses, allows LDN to discriminate between blocks with the positive and the negative direction swapped (which is equivalent to swap the bright and the dark areas of the neighborhood) by generating a different code for each case, while other methods may mistake the swapped regions as one. also, these transitions occur repeatedly in the face, for example, the top and bottom edges of the eyebrows and mouth have different intensity transitions. 4.1 Local Directional Number (LDN) The code is generated using LDN, by analyzing the edge response of each mask, {M0,...,M7}, that represents the edge significance in its respective direction, and by combining the dominant directional numbers. Given that the edge responses are not equally important; the presence of a high negative or positive value signals a prominent dark or bright area. Hence, to encode these prominent regions, we implicitly use the sign information, as we assign a fixed position for the top positive directional number, as the three
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 201 most significant bits in the code, and the three least significant bits are the top negative directional number. LDN(x,y)=8ix,y+jx,y where (x, y) is the central pixel of the neighborhood being coded, ix,y is the directional number of the maximum positive response, and jx,y is the directional number of the minimum negative response defined by: ix,y = argmax{IIi(x,y)|0 ≤ i ≤ 7} jx,y = argmax{IIj(x,y)|0 ≤ i ≤7} where Πi is the convolution of the original image, I, and the ith mask, Mi , defined by: IIi = I * Mi To create the LDN code, a compass mask is used to compute the edge responses. I Proposed code is analyzed using two different asymmetric masks: Kirsch and derivative-Gaussian. Both masks operate in the gradient space, which reveals the face structure. Furthermore, explore the use of Gaussian smoothing to stabilize the code in presence of noise by using the derivative-Gaussian mask. The Kirsch mask is rotated apart to obtain the edge response in eight different directions. This indicate the use of this mask to produce the LDN code by LDNK. Moreover, inspired by the Kirsch mask , use the derivative of a skewed Gaussian to create an asymmetric compass mask that is used to compute the edge response on the smoothed face. This mask is strong against noise and illumination changes, while producing strong edge responses. Therefore, given a Gaussian mask defined by: Gσ(x,y)= /2πσ2 exp(-x2 + y2 2πσ2 ) where x, y are location positions, and is the width of the Gaussian bell; this defines the mask as: Mσ(x,y) = Gσ ” (x+k,y) * Gσ (x,y) where is the derivative of Gσ with respect to x, σ is the width of the Gaussian bell, * is the convolution operation, and k is the offset of the Gaussian with respect to its centre. A compass mask is generated, {M0σ ,...,M7σ}, by rotating Mσ 45° apart, in eight different directions. Thus, a set of masks is obtained. Architecture Diagram Fig:4.1.1 Image acquisition Fig4.1.1 explain Image acquisition Image acquisition in image processing can be broadly defined as the action of retrieving an image from some source, usually a hardware- based source, so it can be passed through whatever processes need to occur afterward. Performing image acquisition in image processing is always the first step in the workflow sequence because, without an image, no processing is possible. The image that is acquired is completely unprocessed and is the result of whatever hardware was used to generate it, which can be very important in some fields to have a consistent baseline from which to work. One of the ultimate goals of this process is to have a source of input that operates within such controlled and measured guidelines that the same image can, if necessary, be nearly perfectly reproduced under the same conditions so anomalous factors are easier to locate and eliminate. Depending on the field of work, a major factor involved in image acquisition in image processing Image Acquisition Web Camera / Database Adaptive Histogram Equalization Median Filter Feature Extraction Kirsch Compass Masking SVM Classifier Classification Result Analysis
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 202 sometimes is the initial setup and long-term maintenance of the hardware used to capture the images. The actual hardware device can be anything from a desktop scanner to a massive optical telescope. If the hardware is not properly configured and aligned, then visual artifacts can be produced that can complicate the image processing. Improperly setup hardware also may provide images that are of such low quality that they cannot be salvaged even with extensive processing. All of these elements are vital to certain areas, such as comparative image processing, which looks for specific differences between image sets. One of the forms of image acquisition in image processing is known as real-time image acquisition. This usually involves retrieving images from a source that is automatically capturing images. Real-time image acquisition creates a stream of files that can be automatically processed, queued for later work, or stitched into a single media format. One common technology that is used with real-time image processing is known as background image acquisition, which describes both software and hardware that can quickly preserve the images flooding into a system. There are some advanced methods of image acquisition in image processing that actually use customized hardware. Three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition is one of these methods. This can require the use of two or more cameras that have been aligned at precisely describes points around a target, forming a sequence of images that can be aligned to create a 3D or stereoscopic scene, or to measure distances. Some satellites use 3D image acquisition techniques to build accurate models of different surfaces. Of course, such extraction programs will rarely be perfect on their first execution and, in the course of debugging them, it is often helpful to have a perfectly replicable input. This can help narrow the scope of a search for bugs or errors. In a vision application this replicable input may be accomplished by saving a single stream of data and piping it into subsequent program executions. 4.2.Median Filtering The median filter is a nonlinear digital filtering technique, often used to remove noise. Such noise reduction is a typical pre-processing step to improve the results of later processing (for example, edge detection on an image). Median filtering is very widely used in digital image processing because, under certain conditions, it preserves edges while removing noise. Fig4.2.1: The image before filtering and after filtering In above Fig.4.2.1 the main idea of the median filter is to run through the signal entry by entry, replacing each entry with the median of neighboring entries. The pattern of neighbors is called the "window", which slides, entry by entry, over the entire signal. For 1D signals, the most obvious window is just the first few preceding and following entries, whereas for 2D (or higher-dimensional) signals such as images, more complex window patterns are possible (such as "box" or "cross" patterns). Note that if the window has an odd number of entries, then the median is simple to define: it is just the middle value after all the entries in the window are sorted numerically. For an even number of entries, there is more than one possible median, see median for more details. 4.3. Image noise It is random (not present in the object imaged) variation of brightness or color information in images, and is usually an aspect of electronic noise. It can be produced by the sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera. Image noise can also originate in film grain and in the unavoidable shot noise of an ideal photon detector. Image noise is an undesirable by-product of image capture that adds spurious and extraneous information. The original meaning of "noise" was and remains "unwanted signal"; unwanted electrical fluctuations in signals received by AM radios caused audible acoustic noise ("static"). By analogy unwanted electrical fluctuations themselves came to be known as "noise". Image noise is, of course, inaudible.The magnitude of image noise can range from almost imperceptible specks on a digital photograph taken in good light, to optical and radioastronomical images
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 01 | Apr-2015 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2015, IRJET.NET- All Rights Reserved Page 203 that are almost entirely noise, from which a small amount of information can be derived by sophisticated processing. 4.4. Compass mask We use the gradient space, instead of the intensity feature space, to calculate our code. The former has more information than the later, as it holds the associations among pixels implicitly. Also, due to these relations the gradient space reveals the underlying structure of the image. Accordingly, the gradient space has more discriminating power to discover key facial features. In addition, we explore the use of a Gaussian to smooth the image, which makes the gradient estimation more stable. These operations make our method more robust; similarly previous research used the gradient space to calculate their code. Consequently, our method is robust against illumination due to the gradient space, and to noise suitable to the smoothing. 4.5 Blurring and noise reduction Filters are most commonly used for blurring and for noise reduction. Blurring is used in pre processing steps, such as removal of small details from an image prior to large object extraction. 5.CONCLUSION The project describes an encoding scheme called LDN which is computed from the edge response value using a compass mask. LDN takes advantage of the structure of the face’s textures and encodes it efficiently into a compact code. It uses directional information that is more stable against noise than intensity, to code the different patterns from the face’s textures. LDN, implicitly, uses the sign information of the directional numbers which allows it to distinguish similar texture’s structures with different intensity transitions, e.g., from dark to bright and vice versa. REFERENCES [1]T.Ahonen, A. Hadid, and M. Pietik¨ainen, “Face description with local binary patterns: Application to face recognition,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2037–2041, Dec. 2006. [2]H. Jin, Q. Liu, H. Lu, and X. Tong, “Face detection using improved LBP under Bayesian framework,” in Proc Int. Conf. Image Graph., 2004, pp. 306–309. [3]H.Jin, Q. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Lu, “Learning local descriptors for face detection,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., Jul. 2005, pp. 928–931. [4] I. Kotsia and I. Pitas, “Facial expression recognition in image sequences using geometric deformation features and support vector machines,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 172–187, Jan. 2007. [5] S. Liao and A. C. S. Chung, “Face recognition by using elongated local binary patterns with average maximum distance gradient magnitude,” in Proc. Asian Conf. Comput. Vis., 2007, pp. 672–679. [6]T.Ojala, M. Pietik¨ainen, and T. Maenpaa, “Multiresolution gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification with local binary patterns,” IEEE Trans. [7]M. [10]Pantic and L. J. M. Rothkrantz, “Automatic analysis of facial expressions: The state of the art,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1424– 1445, Dec. 2000.Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 971–987, Jul. 2002. [7] P.Penev and J. Atick, “Local feature analysis: A general statistical theory for object representation,” Network: Computation in Neural Systems, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 477– 500, 1996. [8] J.Ruiz-del-Solar and J. Quinteros, “Illumination compensation and normalization in eigenspace-based face recognition: A comparative study of different pre- processing approaches,” Pattern Recog. Lett., vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 1966–1979, 2008. [9] C. Shan, S. Gong, and P. W. McOwan, “Facial expression recognition based on local binary patterns: A comprehensive study,” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 803–816, 2009. [10] L. Wiskott, J.-M. Fellous, N. Kuiger, and C. von der Malsburg, “Face recognition by elastic bunch graph matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 775–779, Jul. 1997. [11] L. Wiskott, J.-M. Fellous, N. Kuiger, and C. von der Malsburg, “Face recognition by elastic bunch graph matching,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol.19, no. 7, pp. 775–779, Jul. 1997. [12] H. Yang and Y. Wang, “A LBP-based face recognition method with Hamming distance constraint,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Image Graph., Aug., 2007, pp. 645–649.