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AMERICAN, JAPANESE, CHINESE & INDIAN
MANAGEMENT
Presented BY
TARUN KASHNI
INDEX
1. Definition of management style
2. Types of management style
3. Introduction to Indian Management style
4. Introduction to American management style
5. Significance of American management style
6. Introduction to Japanese management style
7. Features of Japanese management style
8. Introduction of Chinese management style
9. Features of Chinese management style
10. Indian vs American vs Japanese vs Chinese management style
WHAT IS MANGEMENT STYLE
 Management consists of the planning, prioritizing, and organizing work
efforts to accomplish objectives within a business organization. A
management style is the particular way managers go about accomplishing
these objectives.
 Management styles vary by company, level of management, and even from
person to person. A good manager is one that can adjust their
management style to suit different environments and employees. An
individual’s management style is shaped by many different factors including
internal and external business environments, and how one views the role of
work in the lives of employees
TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES
 When considering career success, tangible qualities often come to mind, such as
the type of work and salary. But one critical factor to your success is leadership
style, both in how you manage people and how you like to be managed.
Effective managers can improve productivity and employee morale and reduce
turnover.
 There are six widely agreed-upon types of management styles commonly used
in today’s business world. Each of these styles has their own strengths and
weaknesses, and a person can use more than one style, depending on the
situation. Read on to find out which style resonates the most with you.
1. Autocratic
Autocratic managers make decisions unilaterally, without much (or any) input of
subordinates. This unilateral format can be perceived as a good management
technique if the right decisions are made, and it can lead to faster decision-making,
because only one person’s preferences need to be considered. However, this style of
management can drive away employees who are looking for more ownership of
decisions, and more autonomy. In times of crisis where time is limited, use of
autocratic management is permissible, but extended periods could lead to high
turnover.
TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES
2. Consultative
This form allows for more discussion than an autocratic method, but is essentially
dictatorial. As the name suggests, a leader in this form consults his or her employees,
but ultimately the leader makes the final decision. Decisions attempt to take the best
interests of the employees in account but also focus on the business. This type of
management style often leads to loyalty from employees included in decision-making
processes, but those who are left out are more likely to move on. It can also lead to a
dependency of the employees on the leader.
3. Persuasive
Also similar to autocratic management styles, a persuasive leader maintains the final
decision-making control. However, he or she makes choices based on the persuasion
of subordinates. Employees will convince their manager of the benefits of a decision
and the manager will make the final decision. This is a great option for managers who
need input from experts, but still can keep the final decision-making up to them. This
does not work when employees do not support management and choose not to
provide input or do not trust decisions that have been made.
TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES
4. Democratic
As its name suggests, democratic managers offer employees an opportunity to
engage in decision-making. This means all decisions are agreed upon by the majority.
The communications go from both the manager down to employees and from the
employees up to the managers. This style works when complex decisions must be
made that have a variety of outcomes. However, democracy does slow down decision-
making and could be inefficient at times.
5. Laissez-faire
This style is the complete opposite of autocracy; employees are allowed to make the
majority of decisions, with management providing guidance when needed. The
manager in this case is considered a mentor rather than a leader. This style of
management is popular in startups and technology companies, where risk taking is
encouraged. However, it can lead to difficulties in making decisions.
TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES
6. Management By Walking Around (MBWA)
This classic technique involves management by listening. Managers gather
information by listening to the thoughts of employees that can stop problems at their
source. When using this type of management style, managers must be counselors and
not directors. A good decision will be well received and respected by all. When
employees do not support management there can be problems in MBWA
management.
INDIAN MANAGEMENT STYLE
India is an enormously hierarchical society (arguably the most hierarchical in the
world) and this, obviously, has an impact on management style.
It is imperative that there is a boss and that the manager acts like a boss. The
position of manager demands a certain amount of role-playing from the boss and a
certain amount of deferential behavior from his subordinates. The boss is definitely
not expected to perform any seemingly menial tasks such as making coffee for
everybody or moving chairs in a meeting room! Anglo-Saxon concepts of
egalitarianism where the boss is the first amongst equals are virtually
incomprehensible in a society still dominated by the historical conventions of the
caste system.
INDIAN MANAGEMENT STYLE
AMERICAN MAGEMENT STYLES
 American Management
Style. American management
style can be described as
individualistic in approach in so far
as managers are accountable for the
decisions made within their areas of
responsibility.
 Therefore, American managers are
more likely to disregard the opinions of
subordinates than managers in other,
more consensus or compromise-
oriented cultures.
SIGNIFICANCE OF AMERICAN MAGEMENT STYLES
• Primarily short-term orientation
• Individual decision making
• Involvement of a few people in making and selling the decision to people with
divergent values
• Decisions are initiated at the top and flow down
• Fast decision making; slow implementation requiring compromise; often resulting
in suboptimal decisions
JAPANESE MANAGEMENT STYLE
 Japanese management emphasizes the need for information to flow from
the bottom of the company to the top.
 This results in senior management having a largely supervisory rather than
hands-on approach. As a result, it has been noted that policy is often
originated at the middle-levels of a company before being passed upwards
for ratification. The strength of this approach is obviously that those tasked
with the implementation of decisions have been actively involved in the
shaping of policy. The higher a Japanese manager rises within an
organization, the more important it is that he appears unassuming and
lacking ambition. Individual personality and forcefulness are not seen as the
prerequisites for effective leadership.
 The key task for a Japanese manager is to provide the environment in which
the group can flourish. In order to achieve this he must be accessible at all
times and willing to share knowledge within the group. In return for this open
approach, he expects team members to keep him fully informed of
developments. This reciprocity of relationship forms the basis of good
management and teamwork.
FEATURES OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT
STYLE
• Management technology is a highly transportable technology.
• Just-in-time production exposes problems otherwise hidden by excess inventories
and staff.
• Quality begins with production, and requires a company-wide "habit of
improvement.“
• Culture is no obstacle; techniques can change behavior.
• Simplify, and goods will flow like water.
• Flexibility opens doors.
• Travel light and make numerous trips, like the water beetle.
• More self-improvement, fewer programs, less specialist intervention.
• Simplicity is the natural state.
CHINESE MANAGEMENT STYLE
 In China, management style tends towards the directive, with the senior
manager giving instructions to their direct reports who in turn pass on the
instructions down the line. It is not expected that subordinates will question
the decisions of superiors – that would be to show disrespect and be the
direct cause of loss of face for all concerned. The manager should be seen
as a type of father figure who expects and receives loyalty and obedience
from colleagues. In return, the manager is expected to take an holistic
interest in the well-being of those colleagues. It is a mutually beneficial two-
way relationship.
 Senior managers will often have close relations to the Communist Party and
many business decisions are likely to be scrutinized by the party which is
often the unseen force behind many situations.
It is often said that China has a lack of good-quality, experienced managers
– this is typical of a rapidly growing and modernizing economy – and that
the good managers who are available are very expensive (even by Western
standards.) This places enormous emphasis on any company’s recruitment
and retention policies – you have to be able to recruit the best and then
keep them.
FEATURES OF CHINESE MANAGEMENT
STYLE
• Chinese companies generally keep engineering and manufacturing close,
often collocating them.
• Chinese companies tend to acquire new technologies either through formal
licensing deals or by reverse-engineering them, but they keep the physical
work of experimentation and production in-house.
• Chinese companies hire more midlevel engineering and manufacturing
people, even though they’re getting expensive.
• Using nonmarket strategies adroitly(in a skillful way)
COMPARISON OF INDIAN, AMERICAN,
JAPANESE & CHINESE MANGAEMENT STYLES
INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE
Long term Short Term Long term Long term and short
term
Government/
authorised person
make decisions
Individual Decision
Making
Collective decision
making
Decision making by
the committees
Authorised person
involvement
Few Involvement Involvement of
many people
Involvement of
committees
Slow decision
making
Fast decision
making
Slow decision
making
decision making slow
Slow
implementation
decision
slow
implementation
decision
fast implementation
of the decision
implementation
process also slow
PLANNING
INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE
Collective
responsible and
accountability
Individual
responsibility and
accountability
Collective
responsible and
accountability
Collective
responsible and
accountability
Formal hierarchal
organization
structure
Clarity and specify
of decision
responsibility
Informal
organization
structure
Formal bureaucratic
organizational
structure,
Well known
common
organization
culture
Lack of common
organization
culture
Well known
common
organization
culture
Well known common
organization culture
Low competitive
spirit toward other
identification with
profession rather
that with company
competitive spirit
toward other
competitive spirit
toward other
ORGNANIZING
INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE
Mixed recruitment
process
People hired out of
schools and from
the companies
Young people hired
out of school
Skills based hiring
Life time
employment
common in large
companies
frequent company
change
Life time
employment
common in large
companies
frequent company
change
Slow advancement
and highly desired
Rapid
advancement
highly desired and
demanded
Rapid
advancement
Rapid advancement
Loyalty to the
company
Loyalty to the
profession
Loyalty to the
company
lack of loyalty to the
company and
profession
Lack of training
and development
undertaken
Training and
development
undertaken with
hesitation
Training and
development
undertaken with
confidence
Training and
development
undertaken with
confidence
STAFFING
INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE
Leader acting as
social facilitator
and group
member
Leader acts as
decision maker and
head of group
Leader acting as
social facilitator
and group
member
Leader acting as a
head of the group
common values
facilitating
cooperation
Directive
style(strong
,firm,determined)
common values
facilitating
cooperation
Directive style of
leadership is
applicable
Emphasis on self emphasis on clarity emphasise on
harmony
emphasis on
education & training
Communication
primarily top to
down
Communication
primarily top to
down
Bottom-top
communication
Communication
primarily top to down
LEADING
INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE
Control by superior Control by superior Control by peers Control by group
leader (Superior)
Control focus on
group performance
Control focus on
individual
performance
Control focus on
group performance
Control individual
performance
Fix blame Fix blame Saving face Fix blame
limited use of
quality control
circles
Limited use of
quality control
circles
Extensive use of
quality control
circles
limited use of quality
control circles
CONTROLLING
THANK YOU

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Indian, American, Japanese, Chinese Management styles (comparison)

  • 1. AMERICAN, JAPANESE, CHINESE & INDIAN MANAGEMENT Presented BY TARUN KASHNI
  • 2. INDEX 1. Definition of management style 2. Types of management style 3. Introduction to Indian Management style 4. Introduction to American management style 5. Significance of American management style 6. Introduction to Japanese management style 7. Features of Japanese management style 8. Introduction of Chinese management style 9. Features of Chinese management style 10. Indian vs American vs Japanese vs Chinese management style
  • 3. WHAT IS MANGEMENT STYLE  Management consists of the planning, prioritizing, and organizing work efforts to accomplish objectives within a business organization. A management style is the particular way managers go about accomplishing these objectives.  Management styles vary by company, level of management, and even from person to person. A good manager is one that can adjust their management style to suit different environments and employees. An individual’s management style is shaped by many different factors including internal and external business environments, and how one views the role of work in the lives of employees
  • 4. TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES  When considering career success, tangible qualities often come to mind, such as the type of work and salary. But one critical factor to your success is leadership style, both in how you manage people and how you like to be managed. Effective managers can improve productivity and employee morale and reduce turnover.  There are six widely agreed-upon types of management styles commonly used in today’s business world. Each of these styles has their own strengths and weaknesses, and a person can use more than one style, depending on the situation. Read on to find out which style resonates the most with you. 1. Autocratic Autocratic managers make decisions unilaterally, without much (or any) input of subordinates. This unilateral format can be perceived as a good management technique if the right decisions are made, and it can lead to faster decision-making, because only one person’s preferences need to be considered. However, this style of management can drive away employees who are looking for more ownership of decisions, and more autonomy. In times of crisis where time is limited, use of autocratic management is permissible, but extended periods could lead to high turnover.
  • 5. TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES 2. Consultative This form allows for more discussion than an autocratic method, but is essentially dictatorial. As the name suggests, a leader in this form consults his or her employees, but ultimately the leader makes the final decision. Decisions attempt to take the best interests of the employees in account but also focus on the business. This type of management style often leads to loyalty from employees included in decision-making processes, but those who are left out are more likely to move on. It can also lead to a dependency of the employees on the leader. 3. Persuasive Also similar to autocratic management styles, a persuasive leader maintains the final decision-making control. However, he or she makes choices based on the persuasion of subordinates. Employees will convince their manager of the benefits of a decision and the manager will make the final decision. This is a great option for managers who need input from experts, but still can keep the final decision-making up to them. This does not work when employees do not support management and choose not to provide input or do not trust decisions that have been made.
  • 6. TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES 4. Democratic As its name suggests, democratic managers offer employees an opportunity to engage in decision-making. This means all decisions are agreed upon by the majority. The communications go from both the manager down to employees and from the employees up to the managers. This style works when complex decisions must be made that have a variety of outcomes. However, democracy does slow down decision- making and could be inefficient at times. 5. Laissez-faire This style is the complete opposite of autocracy; employees are allowed to make the majority of decisions, with management providing guidance when needed. The manager in this case is considered a mentor rather than a leader. This style of management is popular in startups and technology companies, where risk taking is encouraged. However, it can lead to difficulties in making decisions.
  • 7. TYPES OF MANGMENT STYLES 6. Management By Walking Around (MBWA) This classic technique involves management by listening. Managers gather information by listening to the thoughts of employees that can stop problems at their source. When using this type of management style, managers must be counselors and not directors. A good decision will be well received and respected by all. When employees do not support management there can be problems in MBWA management.
  • 8. INDIAN MANAGEMENT STYLE India is an enormously hierarchical society (arguably the most hierarchical in the world) and this, obviously, has an impact on management style. It is imperative that there is a boss and that the manager acts like a boss. The position of manager demands a certain amount of role-playing from the boss and a certain amount of deferential behavior from his subordinates. The boss is definitely not expected to perform any seemingly menial tasks such as making coffee for everybody or moving chairs in a meeting room! Anglo-Saxon concepts of egalitarianism where the boss is the first amongst equals are virtually incomprehensible in a society still dominated by the historical conventions of the caste system.
  • 10. AMERICAN MAGEMENT STYLES  American Management Style. American management style can be described as individualistic in approach in so far as managers are accountable for the decisions made within their areas of responsibility.  Therefore, American managers are more likely to disregard the opinions of subordinates than managers in other, more consensus or compromise- oriented cultures.
  • 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF AMERICAN MAGEMENT STYLES • Primarily short-term orientation • Individual decision making • Involvement of a few people in making and selling the decision to people with divergent values • Decisions are initiated at the top and flow down • Fast decision making; slow implementation requiring compromise; often resulting in suboptimal decisions
  • 12. JAPANESE MANAGEMENT STYLE  Japanese management emphasizes the need for information to flow from the bottom of the company to the top.  This results in senior management having a largely supervisory rather than hands-on approach. As a result, it has been noted that policy is often originated at the middle-levels of a company before being passed upwards for ratification. The strength of this approach is obviously that those tasked with the implementation of decisions have been actively involved in the shaping of policy. The higher a Japanese manager rises within an organization, the more important it is that he appears unassuming and lacking ambition. Individual personality and forcefulness are not seen as the prerequisites for effective leadership.  The key task for a Japanese manager is to provide the environment in which the group can flourish. In order to achieve this he must be accessible at all times and willing to share knowledge within the group. In return for this open approach, he expects team members to keep him fully informed of developments. This reciprocity of relationship forms the basis of good management and teamwork.
  • 13. FEATURES OF JAPANESE MANAGEMENT STYLE • Management technology is a highly transportable technology. • Just-in-time production exposes problems otherwise hidden by excess inventories and staff. • Quality begins with production, and requires a company-wide "habit of improvement.“ • Culture is no obstacle; techniques can change behavior. • Simplify, and goods will flow like water. • Flexibility opens doors. • Travel light and make numerous trips, like the water beetle. • More self-improvement, fewer programs, less specialist intervention. • Simplicity is the natural state.
  • 14. CHINESE MANAGEMENT STYLE  In China, management style tends towards the directive, with the senior manager giving instructions to their direct reports who in turn pass on the instructions down the line. It is not expected that subordinates will question the decisions of superiors – that would be to show disrespect and be the direct cause of loss of face for all concerned. The manager should be seen as a type of father figure who expects and receives loyalty and obedience from colleagues. In return, the manager is expected to take an holistic interest in the well-being of those colleagues. It is a mutually beneficial two- way relationship.  Senior managers will often have close relations to the Communist Party and many business decisions are likely to be scrutinized by the party which is often the unseen force behind many situations. It is often said that China has a lack of good-quality, experienced managers – this is typical of a rapidly growing and modernizing economy – and that the good managers who are available are very expensive (even by Western standards.) This places enormous emphasis on any company’s recruitment and retention policies – you have to be able to recruit the best and then keep them.
  • 15. FEATURES OF CHINESE MANAGEMENT STYLE • Chinese companies generally keep engineering and manufacturing close, often collocating them. • Chinese companies tend to acquire new technologies either through formal licensing deals or by reverse-engineering them, but they keep the physical work of experimentation and production in-house. • Chinese companies hire more midlevel engineering and manufacturing people, even though they’re getting expensive. • Using nonmarket strategies adroitly(in a skillful way)
  • 16. COMPARISON OF INDIAN, AMERICAN, JAPANESE & CHINESE MANGAEMENT STYLES INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE Long term Short Term Long term Long term and short term Government/ authorised person make decisions Individual Decision Making Collective decision making Decision making by the committees Authorised person involvement Few Involvement Involvement of many people Involvement of committees Slow decision making Fast decision making Slow decision making decision making slow Slow implementation decision slow implementation decision fast implementation of the decision implementation process also slow PLANNING
  • 17. INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE Collective responsible and accountability Individual responsibility and accountability Collective responsible and accountability Collective responsible and accountability Formal hierarchal organization structure Clarity and specify of decision responsibility Informal organization structure Formal bureaucratic organizational structure, Well known common organization culture Lack of common organization culture Well known common organization culture Well known common organization culture Low competitive spirit toward other identification with profession rather that with company competitive spirit toward other competitive spirit toward other ORGNANIZING
  • 18. INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE Mixed recruitment process People hired out of schools and from the companies Young people hired out of school Skills based hiring Life time employment common in large companies frequent company change Life time employment common in large companies frequent company change Slow advancement and highly desired Rapid advancement highly desired and demanded Rapid advancement Rapid advancement Loyalty to the company Loyalty to the profession Loyalty to the company lack of loyalty to the company and profession Lack of training and development undertaken Training and development undertaken with hesitation Training and development undertaken with confidence Training and development undertaken with confidence STAFFING
  • 19. INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE Leader acting as social facilitator and group member Leader acts as decision maker and head of group Leader acting as social facilitator and group member Leader acting as a head of the group common values facilitating cooperation Directive style(strong ,firm,determined) common values facilitating cooperation Directive style of leadership is applicable Emphasis on self emphasis on clarity emphasise on harmony emphasis on education & training Communication primarily top to down Communication primarily top to down Bottom-top communication Communication primarily top to down LEADING
  • 20. INDIAN AMERICAN JAPANESE CHINESE Control by superior Control by superior Control by peers Control by group leader (Superior) Control focus on group performance Control focus on individual performance Control focus on group performance Control individual performance Fix blame Fix blame Saving face Fix blame limited use of quality control circles Limited use of quality control circles Extensive use of quality control circles limited use of quality control circles CONTROLLING