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BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
Presented By
TARUN KASHNI
INDEX
1. DEFINITION OF BUREAUCRACY
2. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
3. HISTORY OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
4. INTRODUCTION TO BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
5. WORKS OF MAX WEBER
6. PRINCIPLES OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
7. COMPARISON OF ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS
BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY?
 Bureaucracies are all around us. This form of organization, which is
comprised of non-elected officials who implement rules, is not only
common in the public sector but in the business world as well. Examples
of bureaucracies in the public sector include the Social Security
Administration, Environmental Protection Agency and public universities.
Among the oldest bureaucratic structures in the country is the United
States military.
EXAMPLES OF BUREAUCRACY
 Examples of private sector firms with a bureaucratic structure include
IBM, GM and the Union Pacific Railroad. Knowing how bureaucratic
management works can lead to a better understanding of how government
agencies and large business firms operate; it can assist you in interacting
with complex organizations, whether it be seeking social security benefits
or working for a large corporation.
WHAT IS BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY
 According to Max Weber, the bureaucratic organization is the most rational
means to exercise a vital control over the individual workers. A
bureaucratic organization is one that has a hierarchy of authority,
specialized work force, standardized principles, rules and regulations,
trained administrative personnel, etc.
HERARICAL MODEL OF AN ORGANIZATION
HISTORY
 Max Weber (1864-1920), is the 'father of the bureaucratic
management theory.' Weber was a German sociologist
and political economist that viewed bureaucracy in a
positive light, believing it to be more rational and efficient
than its historical predecessors.
 Bureaucratic management theory developed by Max
Weber, contained two essential elements, including
structuring an organization into a hierarchy and having
clearly defined rules to help govern an organization and its
members.
 Max Weber’s work was oftentimes interpreted as a
caricature of modern bureaucracies with all of their
shortcomings.
 But it was more than that. Weber’s work was indented for
displacing the old organizational structures of the
industrialization period.
 John Stuart Mill
 Writing in the early 1860s, political scientist John
Stuart Mill theorized that successful monarchies
were essentially bureaucracies, and found evidence
of their existence in Imperial China, the Russian
Empire, and the regimes of Europe. Mill referred to
bureaucracy as a distinct form of government,
separate from representative democracy. He
believed bureaucracies had certain advantages,
most importantly the accumulation of experience in
those who actually conduct the affairs.
Nevertheless, he believed this form of governance
compared poorly to representative government, as
it relied on appointment rather than direct election.
Mill wrote that ultimately the bureaucracy stifles the
mind, and that "a bureaucracy always tends to
become a pedantocracy.
Other Bureaucratic Management
Theorists
 Karl Marx
 Karl Marx theorized about the role and function of
bureaucracy in his Critique of Hegel's Philosophy
of Right, published in 1843. In Philosophy of
Right, Hegel had supported the role of
specialized officials in public administration,
although he never used the term "bureaucracy"
himself. Marx, by contrast, was opposed to
bureaucracy. Marx posited that
while corporate and government bureaucracy
seem to operate in opposition, in actuality they
mutually rely on one another to exist. He wrote
that "The Corporation is civil society's attempt to
become state; but the bureaucracy is the state
which has really made itself into civil society."
Other Bureaucratic Management
Theorists
 Woodrow Wilson
 Writing as an academic while a professor at Bryn
Mawr College, Woodrow Wilson's essay The Study of
Administration argued for bureaucracy as a
professional cadre, devoid of allegiance to fleeting
politics. Wilson advocated a bureaucracy that "is a
part of political life only as the methods of the
counting house are a part of the life of society; only
as machinery is part of the manufactured product. But
it is, at the same time, raised very far above the dull
level of mere technical detail by the fact that through
its greater principles it is directly connected with the
lasting maxims of political wisdom, the permanent
truths of political progress. This essay became a
foundation for the study of public administration in
America.
Other Bureaucratic Management
Theorists
INTRODUCTION
 Weber's theory of bureaucratic management also has two essential elements. First, it
entails structuring an organization into a hierarchy. Secondly, the organization and its
members are governed by clearly defined rational-legal decision-making rules. Each element
helps an organization to achieve its goals.
 An organizational hierarchy is the arrangement of the organization by level of authority in
reference to the levels above and below it. For example, a vice-president of marketing is
below the company's president, at the same level as the company's vice president of sales,
and above the supervisor of the company's social media department. Each level answers to
the level above it, with the ultimate leader of the organization at the top.
WORKS OF MAX WEBER
In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation, Weber took an interest
in contemporary social policy.
 In 1888 he joined the Verein für Socialpolitik, a new professional association of German
economists affiliated with the historical school, who saw the role of economics primarily as
finding solutions to the social problems of the age and who pioneered large scale statistical
studies of economic issues. He also involved himself in politics, joining the left-
leaning Evangelical Social Congress.
 In 1890 the Verein established a research program to examine "the Polish question"
or Ostflucht: the influx of Polish farm workers into eastern Germany as local laborers
migrated to Germany's rapidly industrializing cities. Weber was put in charge of the study
and wrote a large part of the final report, which generated considerable attention and
controversy and marked the beginning of Weber's renown as a social scientist.
Principles of Bureaucratic
management
1. A formal hierarchical structure – In a bureaucratic organization, each level
controls the level below it. Also, the level above it controls it. A formal hierarchy is the
basis of central planning and centralized decision-making.
2. Rules-based Management – The organization uses rules to exert control.
Therefore, the lower levels seamlessly execute the decisions made at higher levels.
3. Functional Specialty organization – Specialists do the work. Also, the
organization divides employees into units based on the type of work they do or the
skills they possess.
Principles of Bureaucratic
management
4. Up-focused or In-focused Mission – If the mission of the organization is to serve
the stockholders, board, or any other agency that empowered it, then it is up-focused.
On the other hand, if the mission is to serve the organization itself and those within it
(like generating profits, etc.), then it is in-focused.
5. Impersonal – Bureaucratic organizations treat all employees equally. They also
treat all customers equally and do not allow individual differences to influence them.
6. Employment-based on Qualifications – Selection as well as the promotion of
employees is based on qualifications and skills.
While these rules have received criticisms from many corners, the bureaucratic form
of the organization continues to live on.
Why is a Bureaucratic
Organization criticized?
1. The rules are inflexible and rigid. Further, there is too much emphasis on these
rules and regulations.
2. Informal groups do not receive any importance. In current times, informal groups
play a huge role in most business organizations.
3. Typically, bureaucracy involves a lot of paperwork which leads to a waste of time,
money, and also effort.
4. While Government organizations can benefit from a bureaucratic structure,
business organization need quick decision-making and flexibility in procedures.
Therefore, it is not suitable for the latter.
5. There is limited scope for Human Resource management.
6. Coordinating and communicating is difficult.
ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS BUREAUCRATIC
MANAGEMENT
ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS BUREAUCRATIC
MANAGEMENT
THANK YOU

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Beauractric managment and Comparison of Administrative vs scientific vs bureaucratic management

  • 2. INDEX 1. DEFINITION OF BUREAUCRACY 2. BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY 3. HISTORY OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY 4. INTRODUCTION TO BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY 5. WORKS OF MAX WEBER 6. PRINCIPLES OF BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY 7. COMPARISON OF ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
  • 3. WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY?  Bureaucracies are all around us. This form of organization, which is comprised of non-elected officials who implement rules, is not only common in the public sector but in the business world as well. Examples of bureaucracies in the public sector include the Social Security Administration, Environmental Protection Agency and public universities. Among the oldest bureaucratic structures in the country is the United States military.
  • 4. EXAMPLES OF BUREAUCRACY  Examples of private sector firms with a bureaucratic structure include IBM, GM and the Union Pacific Railroad. Knowing how bureaucratic management works can lead to a better understanding of how government agencies and large business firms operate; it can assist you in interacting with complex organizations, whether it be seeking social security benefits or working for a large corporation.
  • 5. WHAT IS BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT THEORY  According to Max Weber, the bureaucratic organization is the most rational means to exercise a vital control over the individual workers. A bureaucratic organization is one that has a hierarchy of authority, specialized work force, standardized principles, rules and regulations, trained administrative personnel, etc. HERARICAL MODEL OF AN ORGANIZATION
  • 6. HISTORY  Max Weber (1864-1920), is the 'father of the bureaucratic management theory.' Weber was a German sociologist and political economist that viewed bureaucracy in a positive light, believing it to be more rational and efficient than its historical predecessors.  Bureaucratic management theory developed by Max Weber, contained two essential elements, including structuring an organization into a hierarchy and having clearly defined rules to help govern an organization and its members.  Max Weber’s work was oftentimes interpreted as a caricature of modern bureaucracies with all of their shortcomings.  But it was more than that. Weber’s work was indented for displacing the old organizational structures of the industrialization period.
  • 7.  John Stuart Mill  Writing in the early 1860s, political scientist John Stuart Mill theorized that successful monarchies were essentially bureaucracies, and found evidence of their existence in Imperial China, the Russian Empire, and the regimes of Europe. Mill referred to bureaucracy as a distinct form of government, separate from representative democracy. He believed bureaucracies had certain advantages, most importantly the accumulation of experience in those who actually conduct the affairs. Nevertheless, he believed this form of governance compared poorly to representative government, as it relied on appointment rather than direct election. Mill wrote that ultimately the bureaucracy stifles the mind, and that "a bureaucracy always tends to become a pedantocracy. Other Bureaucratic Management Theorists
  • 8.  Karl Marx  Karl Marx theorized about the role and function of bureaucracy in his Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, published in 1843. In Philosophy of Right, Hegel had supported the role of specialized officials in public administration, although he never used the term "bureaucracy" himself. Marx, by contrast, was opposed to bureaucracy. Marx posited that while corporate and government bureaucracy seem to operate in opposition, in actuality they mutually rely on one another to exist. He wrote that "The Corporation is civil society's attempt to become state; but the bureaucracy is the state which has really made itself into civil society." Other Bureaucratic Management Theorists
  • 9.  Woodrow Wilson  Writing as an academic while a professor at Bryn Mawr College, Woodrow Wilson's essay The Study of Administration argued for bureaucracy as a professional cadre, devoid of allegiance to fleeting politics. Wilson advocated a bureaucracy that "is a part of political life only as the methods of the counting house are a part of the life of society; only as machinery is part of the manufactured product. But it is, at the same time, raised very far above the dull level of mere technical detail by the fact that through its greater principles it is directly connected with the lasting maxims of political wisdom, the permanent truths of political progress. This essay became a foundation for the study of public administration in America. Other Bureaucratic Management Theorists
  • 10. INTRODUCTION  Weber's theory of bureaucratic management also has two essential elements. First, it entails structuring an organization into a hierarchy. Secondly, the organization and its members are governed by clearly defined rational-legal decision-making rules. Each element helps an organization to achieve its goals.  An organizational hierarchy is the arrangement of the organization by level of authority in reference to the levels above and below it. For example, a vice-president of marketing is below the company's president, at the same level as the company's vice president of sales, and above the supervisor of the company's social media department. Each level answers to the level above it, with the ultimate leader of the organization at the top.
  • 11. WORKS OF MAX WEBER In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation, Weber took an interest in contemporary social policy.  In 1888 he joined the Verein für Socialpolitik, a new professional association of German economists affiliated with the historical school, who saw the role of economics primarily as finding solutions to the social problems of the age and who pioneered large scale statistical studies of economic issues. He also involved himself in politics, joining the left- leaning Evangelical Social Congress.  In 1890 the Verein established a research program to examine "the Polish question" or Ostflucht: the influx of Polish farm workers into eastern Germany as local laborers migrated to Germany's rapidly industrializing cities. Weber was put in charge of the study and wrote a large part of the final report, which generated considerable attention and controversy and marked the beginning of Weber's renown as a social scientist.
  • 12. Principles of Bureaucratic management 1. A formal hierarchical structure – In a bureaucratic organization, each level controls the level below it. Also, the level above it controls it. A formal hierarchy is the basis of central planning and centralized decision-making. 2. Rules-based Management – The organization uses rules to exert control. Therefore, the lower levels seamlessly execute the decisions made at higher levels. 3. Functional Specialty organization – Specialists do the work. Also, the organization divides employees into units based on the type of work they do or the skills they possess.
  • 13. Principles of Bureaucratic management 4. Up-focused or In-focused Mission – If the mission of the organization is to serve the stockholders, board, or any other agency that empowered it, then it is up-focused. On the other hand, if the mission is to serve the organization itself and those within it (like generating profits, etc.), then it is in-focused. 5. Impersonal – Bureaucratic organizations treat all employees equally. They also treat all customers equally and do not allow individual differences to influence them. 6. Employment-based on Qualifications – Selection as well as the promotion of employees is based on qualifications and skills. While these rules have received criticisms from many corners, the bureaucratic form of the organization continues to live on.
  • 14. Why is a Bureaucratic Organization criticized? 1. The rules are inflexible and rigid. Further, there is too much emphasis on these rules and regulations. 2. Informal groups do not receive any importance. In current times, informal groups play a huge role in most business organizations. 3. Typically, bureaucracy involves a lot of paperwork which leads to a waste of time, money, and also effort. 4. While Government organizations can benefit from a bureaucratic structure, business organization need quick decision-making and flexibility in procedures. Therefore, it is not suitable for the latter. 5. There is limited scope for Human Resource management. 6. Coordinating and communicating is difficult.
  • 15. ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
  • 16. ADMINISTRATIVE VS SCIENTIFIC VS BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT

Editor's Notes

  1. Coordinating and communicating is difficult.