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RESEARCH ETHICS AND PROBLEMS
ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS
Presented BY
TARUN KASHNI
INDEX
1. Definition of research ethics
2. Objective of research ethics
3. Importance of research ethics
4. Principles of research ethics
5. Do’s and don'ts of research ethics
6. Problems encountered by researchers
WHAT ARE RESEARCH ETHICS?
 The word "ethics" comes from a Greek term meaning "duty". Thus, a code
of ethics consists of all the obligations that professionals must respect
when carrying out their duties. Research that involves human subjects or
participants raises unique and complex ethical, legal, social, and political
issues. Research ethics specifically deals with the analysis
of ethical issues that are raised when people are involved as participants
in research.
OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH ETHICS
 The first and broadest objective is to protect human participants.
 The second objective is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that
serves interests of individuals, groups and/or society as a whole.
 Finally, the third objective is to examine specific research activities and
projects for their ethical soundness, looking at issues such as the
management of risk, protection of confidentiality and the process of
informed consent.
IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS
 Protects the vulnerable group and other study participants
 Participants are safeguarded from exploitation
 Establishes risk-benefit ratio for study subjects
 Ensures fullest respect, dignity, privacy, disclosure and fair treatment for
subject
 Builds capability of subjects to accept or reject participation in study
PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS
 Honesty
Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods,
and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not
deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
 Objectivity
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review,
personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where
objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose
personal or financial interests that may affect research.
 Integrity
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and
action.
 Carefulness
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the
work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection,
research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS
 OPENNESS
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
 RESPECT FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished
data, methods, or results without permission. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all
contributions to research. Never plagiarize.
 CONFIDENTIALITY
Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication,
personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.
 COMPETENCE
Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong
education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS
 LEGALITY
Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.
 COPYRIGHT
The dictionary defines copyright as "a person's exclusive right to reproduce, publish, or sell
his or her original work of authorship
 RESPONSIBLE PUBLICATION
Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career.
Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Do’s and Don’ts of Research Ethics
Do’s Don’ts
Maintaining a good record of all your research activities and report
your data as carefully and objectively as possible.
Fabrication, manipulation or misrepresentation of data.
Disclose financial or personal interests that may directly/indirectly
affect your work.
Deceiving research sponsors, colleagues, or ethical committees by
having bias in data interpretation, peer review, or personnel decisions.
Treat animals with care and respect when studying them in your
research and adhere to ethical guidelines.
Use any external research data (published or unpublished) without
permission.
Respect intellectual property, privacy, and confidentiality and give
proper credit for any contributions from other researchers.
Support irresponsible publication practices. Your main goal should be
to advance science and share your knowledge within the community.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY
RESEARCHERS
1. Lack of Scientific Training,The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers
undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. They just
look for similar studies and copy the methodologies listed in it. Even the research guides do not
have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. This scenario warrants the need for
some sort of short-term training to be imparted to researchers prior to undertaking research
activities.
2. Insufficient Interaction, There is no proper interaction between researchers and the business
establishments, government institutions, etc. This leads to a great deal of data going untapped.
Interaction programs should be organized between researchers and other institutions on a
regular basis. This will highlight what issues need to be researched, what data is required for
conducting research, and how the study will be useful.
3. Lack of Confidence, Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that, researchers
can misuse the data provided by them. As such, they are reluctant to divulge details of their
company. This affects the research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost
importance. Thus, confidence-building measures should be adopted, which will convince the
business units that their data will be put to productive purposes, and will not be misused in any
manner by the researcher.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY
RESEARCHERS
4. Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the material
supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in
supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy seems to be
sacrosanct to business organizations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable
barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for generating the confidence that the
information/data obtained from a business unit will not be misused.
5. Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate
information. This results in duplication and fritters away resources. This problem can be solved
by proper compilation and revision, at regular intervals, of a list of subjects on which and the
places where the research is going on. Due attention should be given toward identification of
research problems in various disciplines of management which are of immediate concern to the
industries.
6. There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and
interdepartmental rivalries are also quite common. Hence, there is need for developing a code of
conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win over this problem.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY
RESEARCHERS
7. Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial
assistance, including computer assistance. This causes unnecessary delays in the completion of
research studies. All possible efforts be made in this direction so that efficient secretarial
assistance is made available to researchers and that too well in time. University Grants
Commission must play a dynamic role in solving this difficulty.
8. Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and much of the time
and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books, journals, reports, etc.,rather than
in tracing out relevant material from them.
9. There is also the problem that many of our libraries are not able to get copies of old and new
Acts/Rules, reports and other government publications in time. This problem is felt more in
libraries which are away in places from Delhi and/or the state capitals. Thus, efforts should be
made for the regular and speedy supply of all governmental publications to reach our libraries
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY
RESEARCHERS
10. There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various government
and other agencies doing this job in our country. Researcher also faces the problem on account
of the fact that the published data vary quite significantly because of differences in coverage by
the concerning agencies.
11. There may, at times, take place the problem of conceptualization and also problems relating
to the process of data collection and related things.
THANK YOU

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Research ethics and problems encountred by reseachers

  • 1. RESEARCH ETHICS AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS Presented BY TARUN KASHNI
  • 2. INDEX 1. Definition of research ethics 2. Objective of research ethics 3. Importance of research ethics 4. Principles of research ethics 5. Do’s and don'ts of research ethics 6. Problems encountered by researchers
  • 3. WHAT ARE RESEARCH ETHICS?  The word "ethics" comes from a Greek term meaning "duty". Thus, a code of ethics consists of all the obligations that professionals must respect when carrying out their duties. Research that involves human subjects or participants raises unique and complex ethical, legal, social, and political issues. Research ethics specifically deals with the analysis of ethical issues that are raised when people are involved as participants in research.
  • 4. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH ETHICS  The first and broadest objective is to protect human participants.  The second objective is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that serves interests of individuals, groups and/or society as a whole.  Finally, the third objective is to examine specific research activities and projects for their ethical soundness, looking at issues such as the management of risk, protection of confidentiality and the process of informed consent.
  • 5. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH ETHICS  Protects the vulnerable group and other study participants  Participants are safeguarded from exploitation  Establishes risk-benefit ratio for study subjects  Ensures fullest respect, dignity, privacy, disclosure and fair treatment for subject  Builds capability of subjects to accept or reject participation in study
  • 6. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS  Honesty Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods, and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.  Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.  Integrity Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.  Carefulness Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
  • 7. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS  OPENNESS Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.  RESPECT FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize.  CONFIDENTIALITY Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records.  COMPETENCE Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
  • 8. PRINCIPLES OF RESEARCH ETHICS  LEGALITY Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies.  COPYRIGHT The dictionary defines copyright as "a person's exclusive right to reproduce, publish, or sell his or her original work of authorship  RESPONSIBLE PUBLICATION Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
  • 9. Do’s and Don’ts of Research Ethics Do’s Don’ts Maintaining a good record of all your research activities and report your data as carefully and objectively as possible. Fabrication, manipulation or misrepresentation of data. Disclose financial or personal interests that may directly/indirectly affect your work. Deceiving research sponsors, colleagues, or ethical committees by having bias in data interpretation, peer review, or personnel decisions. Treat animals with care and respect when studying them in your research and adhere to ethical guidelines. Use any external research data (published or unpublished) without permission. Respect intellectual property, privacy, and confidentiality and give proper credit for any contributions from other researchers. Support irresponsible publication practices. Your main goal should be to advance science and share your knowledge within the community.
  • 10. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS 1. Lack of Scientific Training,The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. They just look for similar studies and copy the methodologies listed in it. Even the research guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. This scenario warrants the need for some sort of short-term training to be imparted to researchers prior to undertaking research activities. 2. Insufficient Interaction, There is no proper interaction between researchers and the business establishments, government institutions, etc. This leads to a great deal of data going untapped. Interaction programs should be organized between researchers and other institutions on a regular basis. This will highlight what issues need to be researched, what data is required for conducting research, and how the study will be useful. 3. Lack of Confidence, Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that, researchers can misuse the data provided by them. As such, they are reluctant to divulge details of their company. This affects the research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance. Thus, confidence-building measures should be adopted, which will convince the business units that their data will be put to productive purposes, and will not be misused in any manner by the researcher.
  • 11. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS 4. Most of the business units in our country do not have the confidence that the material supplied by them to researchers will not be misused and as such they are often reluctant in supplying the needed information to researchers. The concept of secrecy seems to be sacrosanct to business organizations in the country so much so that it proves an impermeable barrier to researchers. Thus, there is the need for generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a business unit will not be misused. 5. Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate information. This results in duplication and fritters away resources. This problem can be solved by proper compilation and revision, at regular intervals, of a list of subjects on which and the places where the research is going on. Due attention should be given toward identification of research problems in various disciplines of management which are of immediate concern to the industries. 6. There does not exist a code of conduct for researchers and inter-university and interdepartmental rivalries are also quite common. Hence, there is need for developing a code of conduct for researchers which, if adhered sincerely, can win over this problem.
  • 12. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS 7. Many researchers in our country also face the difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial assistance, including computer assistance. This causes unnecessary delays in the completion of research studies. All possible efforts be made in this direction so that efficient secretarial assistance is made available to researchers and that too well in time. University Grants Commission must play a dynamic role in solving this difficulty. 8. Library management and functioning is not satisfactory at many places and much of the time and energy of researchers are spent in tracing out the books, journals, reports, etc.,rather than in tracing out relevant material from them. 9. There is also the problem that many of our libraries are not able to get copies of old and new Acts/Rules, reports and other government publications in time. This problem is felt more in libraries which are away in places from Delhi and/or the state capitals. Thus, efforts should be made for the regular and speedy supply of all governmental publications to reach our libraries
  • 13. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY RESEARCHERS 10. There is also the difficulty of timely availability of published data from various government and other agencies doing this job in our country. Researcher also faces the problem on account of the fact that the published data vary quite significantly because of differences in coverage by the concerning agencies. 11. There may, at times, take place the problem of conceptualization and also problems relating to the process of data collection and related things.