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Approaches to strategic
management…
Dr. Shruti Ganpule
Strategic Decision Making
Core of Strategic management process.
 Strategic decision is a major choice of an action concerning
committing of resources with a view to achieve organizational
objectives.
each firm has its own approaches to these strategic decision-
making.
So many alternative approaches have come into practice
because each firm is unique or strategic.
Examples of strategic decisions
choice of Tata Motors to enter small-car business,
divesting of its edible oil business by Hindustan
Unilever,
takeover of Tetley Tea by Tata Tea,
Strategic decision making involves the usual
decision-making process—
specific objectives derived from organization’s strategic
intent,
search for alternatives to achieve those objectives,
evaluation of these alternatives, and
choice of the most appropriate alternative.
Features of Strategic Decision Making process..
 1. Strategic decision is a major choice of action which affects the entire
organization or major parts of it.
 2. It affects the long-term prosperity of the organization because the
commitment is for long term.
 3. It involves commitment of large amount of resources—human,
financial, and physical— in implementing the strategic option chosen.
 4. Because of high-level of futurity, a strategic decision is made after
analyzing various factors both within the organization and its
environment.
 5. Since a strategic decision has major impact on the organization on
long-term basis, it is made by top management which has much wider
perspective of the organization and its environment.
Complex nature of decision making process
 The differences mainly arise due to:
 the extent of formalization of decision making process,
 move from formalized and structured to informal and unstructured,
process,
 managerial power relationship-from the dominant role of the
strategist to dilution of different interest groups;
 nature of management-ranging from highly complex and variable to
simple and stable;
 the philosophy of management-ranging from highly traditional to
sophisticated ultramodern thinking and application.
Different approaches to strategic decision making process.
Rational-Analytical
Approach
Intuitive-Emotional
Political-
Approach
Administrative
Approach
Entrepreneurial
Approach
Adaptive Approach Planning Approach
Rational Analytical approach….
 the decision maker is a ‘unique actor who behaves intelligently and
rationally’.
 He is fully aware of all available feasible alternatives.
 He considers all the alternatives as well as the consequences
 Then chooses the alternative that secures the maximum gain.
 It rests on the assumption that managers are logical and rational and
they make decisions that are in the best interests of the organization.
Rational Analytical approach….
 Though this approach prescribes a rational, conscious, systematic,
and analytical way, yet decisions are often made with little
consideration for logic and rationality.
 And even when organizations try to be logical, they sometimes fail.
 Decision makers are not rational enough or informed enough to
consider all alternatives or know all the consequences.
 They make decisions with more than a maximization of objectives
but tend to “satisfice” i.e. make a decision expected to yield a
satisfactory, as opposed to “optimal” outcome.
Intuitive-Emotional Approach
 Intuition is an innate belief about something without conscious
consideration.
 Intuitive- emotional approach is opposed to rational decision-
making. Managers sometimes decide to do something because it
feels “right”.
 This feeling is not arbitrary but based on habit or experience, gut
feeling, reflective thinking, and instinct, using the unconscious
mental processes.
 An inner sense or emotion may help managers make an
occasional decision without going through a full- blown rational-
sequence of steps.
Intuitive-Emotional Approach
 Intuitive decision maker considers a number of alternatives and
options.
 Proponents of this approach point out that, in many cases,
judgment may lead to “better” decisions than “optimizing”
techniques.
 the timing of when to implement a decision based on the analysis
may require an intuitive feel for what the data are telling you.
 In many cases, judgment might be preferable to relying on the
analysis. However, all managers, especially inexperienced, should be
careful not to rely too heavily on intuition.
Political-Behavioural Approach
 This approach suggests that real decision makers must consider a variety of
pressures from other people who are affected by their decisions.
 An organization interacts with different stakeholders in interdependent
exchange relationships. A stakeholder is any group or individual who can
affect or is affected by the achievement of an organization’s purpose.
 Unions exchange labour for decent wages and job security.
 Customers exchange money for products and services. Owners exchange
capital for expressed returns on investment.
 Suppliers exchange inputs for money and on-going business.
 Governments exchange protection and economic security for taxes.
 Competitors exchange information with one another through trade
associations or other contacts
Political-Behavioural Approach
 Each stakeholder gives the organization something and expects something in
return.
 To the extent an organization has a favorable exchange relationship compared with
other organizations and stakeholders, it has more power.
 More powerful stakeholders have more influence over decisions because the
organization is more dependent on these stakeholders.
 A majority stakeholder can have a greater influence on decisions about
reinvestment than if stock is widely held by many small owners.
 In a labor-intensive firm, more attention may be paid to union leaders’ demands for
better wages than, to the desires of stockholders for more profit, because the union
might shut the firm down.
 Decisions are made when the coalitions involved in the process agree to find a
solution by mutual adjustment and negotiation in the way decisions have been
made in the past
Administrative Approach
 Herbert A Simon was one of the first persons to recognize that decisions
are not always made with rationality and logic.
 He put forth the administrative approach to strategic decision making.
 His administrative model holds that managers-
 (i) have incomplete and imperfect information,
 (ii) are constrained by bounded rationality, and
 (iii) tried to satisfice when making decision.
 Bounded rationality suggests that their values and unconscious reflexes,
skills and habits limit decision makers.
 “Satisficing” suggests that rather than conducting an exhaustive search for
the best possible alternative, decision makers tend to search only until
they identify an alternative that meets some minimum standard of
sufficiency.
Administrative Approach
 A manager looking for a site for a new plant, for example, may select
the first site he find that meets basic requirements for transportation,
utilities, and price, even though further search might yield a better
location.
 People may satisfice for a variety of reasons. Managers may simply be
unwilling to ignore their own motives and therefore may not be able to
continue searching after a minimally acceptable alternative is identified.
 The decision maker may be unable to weigh and evaluate large number
of alternatives and criteria. Also subjective and personal considerations
often interfere with decision situations.
 Because of the inherent imperfection of information, bounded
rationality, and satisficing, the decisions made by a manager may or
may not actually be in the best interests of the organization.
Entrepreneurial Approach:
 As the caption suggests, this approach is followed in strategic decision-
making by the organizations headed by family heads where by the
organization is molded to- face the environmental changes.
 In the Indian context the business groups such as Reliance, Jyoti Udyog,
Nirma, Kothari Products, Mofatlal Group, Dabur Products, T.T.K. Group,
and Infosys Technologies are examples.
 Entrepreneurial approach warrants constant search for opportunities that
changing environment makes available.
 The family head is the person who has the exclusive power of making
bold and unusual decision. It is founded on rich experience of past and
sound judgment that play vital role in making the head as competent
authority to make decisions.
 always alert and agile and keen observation of business situations is the
key to their success.
Adaptive Approach
 This adaptive approach is reactive rather than proactive
 This approach is very common in case of public sector enterprises
where decision-making power is divided amongst different
constituents.
 the aim is to meet the social needs by the government enterprises but
are not barred from making profit.
 Such an approach is to solve the problem encountered which are more
of survival and maintenance or continuation of existing situation rather
hunting new opportunities and encashing on them.
 The decision-making process is shared by the owners, managers,
government agencies, trade unions, financers etc.
 The most urgent problem gets the priority over others.
Planning Approach
 This approach calls for making decisions in anticipation of the future state of
affairs where the organization is prepared to face it boldly.
 It is widely used by multi-nationals which have formalized and structured
strategic decision-making process.
 The process of strategy making is founded on analysis of various factors that
influence the strategy. These factors are both external and internal. External
factors are economic, technological, socio-cultural, political, and ecological
and the internal are related with firm’s strengths and weaknesses.
 It is a systems approach in that the structure of organization and its parts are
geared to make possible the payoffs in terms of costs and benefits.
 It is comprehensive process, i.e. all the decisions and strategies that are
inter-departmental and inter level of the organization are supporting one
another.

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BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 

Strategic decision making

  • 2. Strategic Decision Making Core of Strategic management process.  Strategic decision is a major choice of an action concerning committing of resources with a view to achieve organizational objectives. each firm has its own approaches to these strategic decision- making. So many alternative approaches have come into practice because each firm is unique or strategic.
  • 3. Examples of strategic decisions choice of Tata Motors to enter small-car business, divesting of its edible oil business by Hindustan Unilever, takeover of Tetley Tea by Tata Tea, Strategic decision making involves the usual decision-making process— specific objectives derived from organization’s strategic intent, search for alternatives to achieve those objectives, evaluation of these alternatives, and choice of the most appropriate alternative.
  • 4. Features of Strategic Decision Making process..  1. Strategic decision is a major choice of action which affects the entire organization or major parts of it.  2. It affects the long-term prosperity of the organization because the commitment is for long term.  3. It involves commitment of large amount of resources—human, financial, and physical— in implementing the strategic option chosen.  4. Because of high-level of futurity, a strategic decision is made after analyzing various factors both within the organization and its environment.  5. Since a strategic decision has major impact on the organization on long-term basis, it is made by top management which has much wider perspective of the organization and its environment.
  • 5. Complex nature of decision making process  The differences mainly arise due to:  the extent of formalization of decision making process,  move from formalized and structured to informal and unstructured, process,  managerial power relationship-from the dominant role of the strategist to dilution of different interest groups;  nature of management-ranging from highly complex and variable to simple and stable;  the philosophy of management-ranging from highly traditional to sophisticated ultramodern thinking and application.
  • 6. Different approaches to strategic decision making process. Rational-Analytical Approach Intuitive-Emotional Political- Approach Administrative Approach Entrepreneurial Approach Adaptive Approach Planning Approach
  • 7. Rational Analytical approach….  the decision maker is a ‘unique actor who behaves intelligently and rationally’.  He is fully aware of all available feasible alternatives.  He considers all the alternatives as well as the consequences  Then chooses the alternative that secures the maximum gain.  It rests on the assumption that managers are logical and rational and they make decisions that are in the best interests of the organization.
  • 8. Rational Analytical approach….  Though this approach prescribes a rational, conscious, systematic, and analytical way, yet decisions are often made with little consideration for logic and rationality.  And even when organizations try to be logical, they sometimes fail.  Decision makers are not rational enough or informed enough to consider all alternatives or know all the consequences.  They make decisions with more than a maximization of objectives but tend to “satisfice” i.e. make a decision expected to yield a satisfactory, as opposed to “optimal” outcome.
  • 9. Intuitive-Emotional Approach  Intuition is an innate belief about something without conscious consideration.  Intuitive- emotional approach is opposed to rational decision- making. Managers sometimes decide to do something because it feels “right”.  This feeling is not arbitrary but based on habit or experience, gut feeling, reflective thinking, and instinct, using the unconscious mental processes.  An inner sense or emotion may help managers make an occasional decision without going through a full- blown rational- sequence of steps.
  • 10. Intuitive-Emotional Approach  Intuitive decision maker considers a number of alternatives and options.  Proponents of this approach point out that, in many cases, judgment may lead to “better” decisions than “optimizing” techniques.  the timing of when to implement a decision based on the analysis may require an intuitive feel for what the data are telling you.  In many cases, judgment might be preferable to relying on the analysis. However, all managers, especially inexperienced, should be careful not to rely too heavily on intuition.
  • 11. Political-Behavioural Approach  This approach suggests that real decision makers must consider a variety of pressures from other people who are affected by their decisions.  An organization interacts with different stakeholders in interdependent exchange relationships. A stakeholder is any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organization’s purpose.  Unions exchange labour for decent wages and job security.  Customers exchange money for products and services. Owners exchange capital for expressed returns on investment.  Suppliers exchange inputs for money and on-going business.  Governments exchange protection and economic security for taxes.  Competitors exchange information with one another through trade associations or other contacts
  • 12. Political-Behavioural Approach  Each stakeholder gives the organization something and expects something in return.  To the extent an organization has a favorable exchange relationship compared with other organizations and stakeholders, it has more power.  More powerful stakeholders have more influence over decisions because the organization is more dependent on these stakeholders.  A majority stakeholder can have a greater influence on decisions about reinvestment than if stock is widely held by many small owners.  In a labor-intensive firm, more attention may be paid to union leaders’ demands for better wages than, to the desires of stockholders for more profit, because the union might shut the firm down.  Decisions are made when the coalitions involved in the process agree to find a solution by mutual adjustment and negotiation in the way decisions have been made in the past
  • 13. Administrative Approach  Herbert A Simon was one of the first persons to recognize that decisions are not always made with rationality and logic.  He put forth the administrative approach to strategic decision making.  His administrative model holds that managers-  (i) have incomplete and imperfect information,  (ii) are constrained by bounded rationality, and  (iii) tried to satisfice when making decision.  Bounded rationality suggests that their values and unconscious reflexes, skills and habits limit decision makers.  “Satisficing” suggests that rather than conducting an exhaustive search for the best possible alternative, decision makers tend to search only until they identify an alternative that meets some minimum standard of sufficiency.
  • 14. Administrative Approach  A manager looking for a site for a new plant, for example, may select the first site he find that meets basic requirements for transportation, utilities, and price, even though further search might yield a better location.  People may satisfice for a variety of reasons. Managers may simply be unwilling to ignore their own motives and therefore may not be able to continue searching after a minimally acceptable alternative is identified.  The decision maker may be unable to weigh and evaluate large number of alternatives and criteria. Also subjective and personal considerations often interfere with decision situations.  Because of the inherent imperfection of information, bounded rationality, and satisficing, the decisions made by a manager may or may not actually be in the best interests of the organization.
  • 15. Entrepreneurial Approach:  As the caption suggests, this approach is followed in strategic decision- making by the organizations headed by family heads where by the organization is molded to- face the environmental changes.  In the Indian context the business groups such as Reliance, Jyoti Udyog, Nirma, Kothari Products, Mofatlal Group, Dabur Products, T.T.K. Group, and Infosys Technologies are examples.  Entrepreneurial approach warrants constant search for opportunities that changing environment makes available.  The family head is the person who has the exclusive power of making bold and unusual decision. It is founded on rich experience of past and sound judgment that play vital role in making the head as competent authority to make decisions.  always alert and agile and keen observation of business situations is the key to their success.
  • 16. Adaptive Approach  This adaptive approach is reactive rather than proactive  This approach is very common in case of public sector enterprises where decision-making power is divided amongst different constituents.  the aim is to meet the social needs by the government enterprises but are not barred from making profit.  Such an approach is to solve the problem encountered which are more of survival and maintenance or continuation of existing situation rather hunting new opportunities and encashing on them.  The decision-making process is shared by the owners, managers, government agencies, trade unions, financers etc.  The most urgent problem gets the priority over others.
  • 17. Planning Approach  This approach calls for making decisions in anticipation of the future state of affairs where the organization is prepared to face it boldly.  It is widely used by multi-nationals which have formalized and structured strategic decision-making process.  The process of strategy making is founded on analysis of various factors that influence the strategy. These factors are both external and internal. External factors are economic, technological, socio-cultural, political, and ecological and the internal are related with firm’s strengths and weaknesses.  It is a systems approach in that the structure of organization and its parts are geared to make possible the payoffs in terms of costs and benefits.  It is comprehensive process, i.e. all the decisions and strategies that are inter-departmental and inter level of the organization are supporting one another.