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Human Resource
Development
Unit 1
HRD Concept
• Human Resource Development is the part of human resource
management that specifically deals with training and development of the
employees in the organization.
• Development of human resources is essential for any organization that
would like to be dynamic and growth-oriented.
• HRD concept was first introduced by Leonard Nadler in 1969 in a
conference in US. “He defined HRD as those learning experience which
are organized, for a specific time, and designed to bring about the
possibility of behavioral change”.
• The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing
the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual
employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers
HRD Definations
• According to Leonard Nadler, "Human resource development is a series of
organised activities, conducted within a specialised time and designed to
produce behavioural changes.“
• According to M.M. Khan, "Human resource development is the across of
increasing knowledge, capabilities and positive work attitudes of all
people working at all levels in a business undertaking."
The Concept of HRD
• Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions
associated with their present or expected future roles;
• Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit
their own inner potentials for their own and/or organisational
development purposes; and
• Develop an organisational culture in which supervisor-subordinate
relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong
and contribute to the professional well being, motivation and pride of
employees.
Difference between HRD and HRM
• The human resource management is mainly maintenance oriented
whereas human resource development is development oriented.
• Organisation structure in case of human resources management is
independent whereas human resource development creates a structure,
which is inter-dependent and inter-related.
• Human resource management mainly aims to improve the efficiency of
the employees whereas aims at the development of the employees as
well as organisation as a whole.
• Responsibility of human resource development is given to the
personnel/human resource management department and specifically to
personnel manager whereas responsibility of HRD is given to all managers
at various levels of the organisation.
• HRM motivates the employees by giving them monetary incentives or
rewards whereas human resource development stresses on motivating
people by satisfying higher-order needs.
The need for HRD
• Growth oriented
• Employee capabilities must be used
• Use their initiative, take risks, experiment,
innovate
• Needs to adapt to the changing environment
HRD Functions
• 1. Employee training and development,
• 2. Career planning and development,
• 3. Succession planning,
• 4. Performance appraisal,
• 5. Employee’s participation in management,
• 6. Quality circles,
• 7. Organization change and organization development.
Features of HRD
1. Systematic approach:
2. Continuous process:
3. Multi-disciplinary subject
4. All-pervasive
5. Techniques:
Scope of HRD
• 1. Recruitment and selection of employees for meeting the present
and future requirements of an organization.
• 2. Performance appraisal of the employees in order to understand
their capabilities and improving them through additional training.
• 3. Offering the employees’ performance counselling and
performance interviews from the superiors.
• 4. Career planning and development programmes for the
employees.
• 5. Development of employees through succession planning.
• 6. Workers’ participation and formation of quality circles.
• 7. Employee learning through group dynamics and empowerment.
• 8. Learning through job rotation and job enrichment.
• 9. Learning through social and religious interactions and
programmes.
• 10. Development of employees through managerial and
behavioural skills.
Objectives of HRD
• Equity:
• Employability:
• Adaptability:
HRD Goals
• Strategy
• Assessment
• Return on investment
• Technology
Challenges of HRD
• Rapid changes in Technology
• Transnational suppliers and customers
• Fierce competition
• Innovation for survival
• World-class Quality-demand of customer
• Mergers, Takeovers and Acquisitions
• High product differentiation achieved by very low
manufacturing costs
• Extremely short lifecycles of products/services
• Quicker response to market
Contributing to HRD climate
• 1) Top Management Style and Philosophy
• 2) Personnel Policies
• 3) HRD Instruments and Systems
• 4) Self-renewal Mechanisms
• 5) Attitudes of Personnel and HRD staff
• 6) Commitment of Line Managers
HRD Practices in Indian Industries
• 1. HRD Departments
• 2. Performance Appraisal
• 3. Potential Appraisal
• 4. Feedback and Counseling
• 5. Training
• 6. Career Planning And Development
• 7. Rewards
• 8. Organization Development
• 9. Human Resources Information System
Learning
Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or
affect that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment.
Several aspects of this definition are important.
First, the focus of learning is change, either by acquiring something new (like
skill in conducting meetings) or modifying something that already exists (like a
soldier becoming more accurate in shooting a rifle).
Second, the change must be long-lasting before we can say learning has really
occurred. If an administrative assistant can recall the commands needed to
create a macro operation in a word processing program on the second day of
a training course but cannot remember them four days later back on the job,
learning has not occurred.
Third, the focus of learning can include behavior, cognitions, affect, or any
combination of the three. Learning outcomes can be skill based (climbing a
utility pole), cognitive (procedures for applying for a research grant), or
affective (becoming more safety conscious).
Learning Objectives
1. Identify and discuss several personal characteristics (such as ability,
personality) that affect trainee learning
2. Identify and discuss the training design issues that can be used to
maximize learning
3. Identify and discuss the factors that affect the transfer of training, and
how these can be used to maximize learning
4. Discuss how various individual differences affect the learning process
5. Describe the role that learning styles, learning strategies, and perceptual
preferences play in learning
Basic Learning Principles
1. Contiguity—Objects that are experienced together tend to become
associated with each other. For example, learning vocabulary in a foreign
language usually involves pairing a new word with an object or picture of an
object (like the German word Katze and a picture of a cat).
2. The Law of effect states that a behavior followed by a pleasurable
consequence is likely to be repeated. For example, when a superior
compliments a police officer who values recognition for the way he or she
handled a difficult arrest, the officer associates the compliment with the
arrest method and will likely use that method to make difficult arrests in the
future.
3. Practice—Repeating the events in an association will increase the strength of
the association. For example, the more times someone rappels down a cliff
or wall, the more adept he or she becomes at rappelling. But practice alone
is not enough to guarantee a strong association. The effect of practice is
strengthened with reinforcement, such as receiving a pleasurable
consequence.
Trainee Characteristics
Trainee Characteristics
• Trainability
Motivation
Ability
Perception of the work environment
• Personality and attitudes
Training Design
Training Design
Conditions of practice
• Active practice
• Massed versus spaced practice sessions
• Whole versus part learning
• Overlearning
• Knowledge of results (feedback)
• Task sequencing
Retention of what is learned
• Meaningfulness of material
• Degree of original learning
• Interference
Transfer of Training
Transfer of Training
Identical elements
General principles
Stimulus variability
Support in the work environment
• Opportunity to perform
• Transfer-of-training climate
Types of learning curve/ Rate of Progress
LEARNING STRATEGIES AND STYLES
Kolb’s Learning Styles
A mode of learning is the individual’s orientation toward gathering and
processing information during learning
• Concrete Experience (CE)—
• Abstract Conceptualization (AC)—
• Reflective Observation (RO)—
• Active Experimentation (AE)—
Kolb identifies four learning styles
1. Divergent—a combination of concrete experience and reflective
observation (feeling and watching), emphasizing imagination, an
awareness of values, and the ability to generate alternative courses of
action.
2. Assimilation—a combination of abstract conceptualization and reflective
observation (thinking and watching) that stresses inductive reasoning,
the integration of disparate observations into an explanation, and the
creation of theoretical models.
3. Convergent—a combination of abstract conceptualization and active
experimentation (thinking and doing), with a focus on problem solving,
decision making, and the practical application of ideas.
4. Accommodative—a combination of concrete experience and active
experimentation ( feeling and doing), this style is usually demonstrated by
accomplishment, executing plans, and involvement in new experiences.
Learning Strategies
1. Rehearsal strategies (e.g., repeating items in a list; underlining text in an
article; copying notes)
2. Elaboration strategies (e.g., forming a mental image; taking notes,
paraphrasing, or summarizing new material)
3. Organizational strategies (e.g., grouping or ordering information to be
learned; outlining an article; creating a hierarchy of material)
4. Comprehension monitoring strategies (e.g., self-questioning)
5. Affective strategies (e.g., increasing alertness; relaxation; finding ways to
reduce test anxiety)
Perceptual Preferences
1. Print (reading and writing)
2. Visual (such as graphs and charts)
3. Aural (auditory, i.e., listening)
4. Interactive (discussing, asking questions)
5. Tactile/manipulative (hands-on approaches, such as touching)
6. Kinesthetic/psychomotor (role playing, physical activities)
7. Olfactory (association of ideas with smell or taste)
Gagné’s Theory of Instruction
1. Verbal information
2. Intellectual skills
3. Cognitive strategies
4. Attitudes
5. Motor skills

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HRD-Concept & Goals, Challenges, Climate, Practices in India, Learning and HRD

  • 2. HRD Concept • Human Resource Development is the part of human resource management that specifically deals with training and development of the employees in the organization. • Development of human resources is essential for any organization that would like to be dynamic and growth-oriented. • HRD concept was first introduced by Leonard Nadler in 1969 in a conference in US. “He defined HRD as those learning experience which are organized, for a specific time, and designed to bring about the possibility of behavioral change”. • The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers
  • 3. HRD Definations • According to Leonard Nadler, "Human resource development is a series of organised activities, conducted within a specialised time and designed to produce behavioural changes.“ • According to M.M. Khan, "Human resource development is the across of increasing knowledge, capabilities and positive work attitudes of all people working at all levels in a business undertaking."
  • 4. The Concept of HRD • Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles; • Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and/or organisational development purposes; and • Develop an organisational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well being, motivation and pride of employees.
  • 5. Difference between HRD and HRM • The human resource management is mainly maintenance oriented whereas human resource development is development oriented. • Organisation structure in case of human resources management is independent whereas human resource development creates a structure, which is inter-dependent and inter-related. • Human resource management mainly aims to improve the efficiency of the employees whereas aims at the development of the employees as well as organisation as a whole. • Responsibility of human resource development is given to the personnel/human resource management department and specifically to personnel manager whereas responsibility of HRD is given to all managers at various levels of the organisation. • HRM motivates the employees by giving them monetary incentives or rewards whereas human resource development stresses on motivating people by satisfying higher-order needs.
  • 6. The need for HRD • Growth oriented • Employee capabilities must be used • Use their initiative, take risks, experiment, innovate • Needs to adapt to the changing environment
  • 7. HRD Functions • 1. Employee training and development, • 2. Career planning and development, • 3. Succession planning, • 4. Performance appraisal, • 5. Employee’s participation in management, • 6. Quality circles, • 7. Organization change and organization development.
  • 8. Features of HRD 1. Systematic approach: 2. Continuous process: 3. Multi-disciplinary subject 4. All-pervasive 5. Techniques:
  • 9. Scope of HRD • 1. Recruitment and selection of employees for meeting the present and future requirements of an organization. • 2. Performance appraisal of the employees in order to understand their capabilities and improving them through additional training. • 3. Offering the employees’ performance counselling and performance interviews from the superiors. • 4. Career planning and development programmes for the employees. • 5. Development of employees through succession planning.
  • 10. • 6. Workers’ participation and formation of quality circles. • 7. Employee learning through group dynamics and empowerment. • 8. Learning through job rotation and job enrichment. • 9. Learning through social and religious interactions and programmes. • 10. Development of employees through managerial and behavioural skills.
  • 11. Objectives of HRD • Equity: • Employability: • Adaptability:
  • 12. HRD Goals • Strategy • Assessment • Return on investment • Technology
  • 13. Challenges of HRD • Rapid changes in Technology • Transnational suppliers and customers • Fierce competition • Innovation for survival • World-class Quality-demand of customer • Mergers, Takeovers and Acquisitions • High product differentiation achieved by very low manufacturing costs • Extremely short lifecycles of products/services • Quicker response to market
  • 14. Contributing to HRD climate • 1) Top Management Style and Philosophy • 2) Personnel Policies • 3) HRD Instruments and Systems • 4) Self-renewal Mechanisms • 5) Attitudes of Personnel and HRD staff • 6) Commitment of Line Managers
  • 15. HRD Practices in Indian Industries • 1. HRD Departments • 2. Performance Appraisal • 3. Potential Appraisal • 4. Feedback and Counseling • 5. Training • 6. Career Planning And Development • 7. Rewards • 8. Organization Development • 9. Human Resources Information System
  • 16. Learning Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment. Several aspects of this definition are important. First, the focus of learning is change, either by acquiring something new (like skill in conducting meetings) or modifying something that already exists (like a soldier becoming more accurate in shooting a rifle). Second, the change must be long-lasting before we can say learning has really occurred. If an administrative assistant can recall the commands needed to create a macro operation in a word processing program on the second day of a training course but cannot remember them four days later back on the job, learning has not occurred. Third, the focus of learning can include behavior, cognitions, affect, or any combination of the three. Learning outcomes can be skill based (climbing a utility pole), cognitive (procedures for applying for a research grant), or affective (becoming more safety conscious).
  • 17. Learning Objectives 1. Identify and discuss several personal characteristics (such as ability, personality) that affect trainee learning 2. Identify and discuss the training design issues that can be used to maximize learning 3. Identify and discuss the factors that affect the transfer of training, and how these can be used to maximize learning 4. Discuss how various individual differences affect the learning process 5. Describe the role that learning styles, learning strategies, and perceptual preferences play in learning
  • 18. Basic Learning Principles 1. Contiguity—Objects that are experienced together tend to become associated with each other. For example, learning vocabulary in a foreign language usually involves pairing a new word with an object or picture of an object (like the German word Katze and a picture of a cat). 2. The Law of effect states that a behavior followed by a pleasurable consequence is likely to be repeated. For example, when a superior compliments a police officer who values recognition for the way he or she handled a difficult arrest, the officer associates the compliment with the arrest method and will likely use that method to make difficult arrests in the future. 3. Practice—Repeating the events in an association will increase the strength of the association. For example, the more times someone rappels down a cliff or wall, the more adept he or she becomes at rappelling. But practice alone is not enough to guarantee a strong association. The effect of practice is strengthened with reinforcement, such as receiving a pleasurable consequence.
  • 19. Trainee Characteristics Trainee Characteristics • Trainability Motivation Ability Perception of the work environment • Personality and attitudes
  • 20. Training Design Training Design Conditions of practice • Active practice • Massed versus spaced practice sessions • Whole versus part learning • Overlearning • Knowledge of results (feedback) • Task sequencing Retention of what is learned • Meaningfulness of material • Degree of original learning • Interference
  • 21. Transfer of Training Transfer of Training Identical elements General principles Stimulus variability Support in the work environment • Opportunity to perform • Transfer-of-training climate
  • 22. Types of learning curve/ Rate of Progress
  • 23. LEARNING STRATEGIES AND STYLES Kolb’s Learning Styles A mode of learning is the individual’s orientation toward gathering and processing information during learning • Concrete Experience (CE)— • Abstract Conceptualization (AC)— • Reflective Observation (RO)— • Active Experimentation (AE)—
  • 24. Kolb identifies four learning styles 1. Divergent—a combination of concrete experience and reflective observation (feeling and watching), emphasizing imagination, an awareness of values, and the ability to generate alternative courses of action. 2. Assimilation—a combination of abstract conceptualization and reflective observation (thinking and watching) that stresses inductive reasoning, the integration of disparate observations into an explanation, and the creation of theoretical models. 3. Convergent—a combination of abstract conceptualization and active experimentation (thinking and doing), with a focus on problem solving, decision making, and the practical application of ideas. 4. Accommodative—a combination of concrete experience and active experimentation ( feeling and doing), this style is usually demonstrated by accomplishment, executing plans, and involvement in new experiences.
  • 25. Learning Strategies 1. Rehearsal strategies (e.g., repeating items in a list; underlining text in an article; copying notes) 2. Elaboration strategies (e.g., forming a mental image; taking notes, paraphrasing, or summarizing new material) 3. Organizational strategies (e.g., grouping or ordering information to be learned; outlining an article; creating a hierarchy of material) 4. Comprehension monitoring strategies (e.g., self-questioning) 5. Affective strategies (e.g., increasing alertness; relaxation; finding ways to reduce test anxiety)
  • 26. Perceptual Preferences 1. Print (reading and writing) 2. Visual (such as graphs and charts) 3. Aural (auditory, i.e., listening) 4. Interactive (discussing, asking questions) 5. Tactile/manipulative (hands-on approaches, such as touching) 6. Kinesthetic/psychomotor (role playing, physical activities) 7. Olfactory (association of ideas with smell or taste)
  • 27. Gagné’s Theory of Instruction 1. Verbal information 2. Intellectual skills 3. Cognitive strategies 4. Attitudes 5. Motor skills