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BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
Presented BY
TARUN KASHNI
INDEX
1. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
2. HISTORY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
3. INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
4. IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ON BUSINESS
5. TYPES OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
6. HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT
7. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT
8. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
9. COMPARISON OF HUMAN RELATION VS BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
WHAT IS BEHAVIORAL APPROACH?
 The behavioral approach emphasizes the scientific study of observable
behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. In other
words its the study of the connection between our minds and behavioral.
 Contemporary behaviorists still emphasize the importance of observing
behavior to understand an individual; however, not every behaviorist today
accepts the earlier behaviorists rejection of thought processes, which are
often called cognition.
HISTORY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
 The behaviorist movement began in 1913
when John Broadus Watson wrote an
article entitled 'Psychology as the
behaviorist views it,' which set out a
number of underlying assumptions
regarding methodology and behavioral
analysis
 Jhon Broadus Watson was an
American psychologist who established
the psychological school of behaviorism.
NOTEABLE WORKS OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
Mary Parker Follett
EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS FOUR
PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
 Coordination requires that people be in direct
contact with one another.
 Coordination is essential during the initial stages
of any endeavor.
 Coordination must address all factors and
phases of any endeavor.
 Coordination is a continuous, ongoing process.
NOTEABLE WORKS OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
Douglas McGregor's
Proposed Styles THEORY X
 Most people dislike work and they avoid it when
they can.
 Coerced and threatened with punishment before
they work.
 Work is a natural activity like play or rest.
 Capable of self direction and self control.
 Committed to organizational objectives
INTRODUCTION
 Behavioral management theories show the human relations aspect of management and how
productivity depends on workforce motivation levels.
 Therefore managers need not have only technical skills but also human relations
skills to interact with their subordinates as human beings.
 According to this school; managers must know why their subordinates behave as they do
and what psychological and social factors influence them. According to these theorists, since
groups provide members with feelings of acceptance and dignity, management can look
upon the workgroup as a potentially productive force.
 Now the Behavioral and Human Relations Approach is followed in most organizations
around the world. Managers are now more likely to recognize the behavioral aspect of
employees and give importance to it.
 Criticism of scientific management by Taylor and administrative management promoted by
Fayol gave birth to the behavioral management theories.These theories were criticized by
several behavioral scientists for their indifference and in-sensitiveness to the human side of
managerial dealings.
IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
ON BUSINESS
EXAMPLE OF BEHAVIORAL
APPROACH
 Daycare
 Companies that offer daycare for children of employees engage in
behavioral management. The idea is that if employees know their children
are nearby and are well cared for, work can proceed with fewer
distractions. This is an example of trusting that the employee wants to
work and giving the employee a work environment that doesn't pit the job
against family life. Providing daycare is a behavioral approach to getting
the most out of employees, because it focuses on employee satisfaction.
EXAMPLE OF BEHAVIORAL
APPROACH
 Employee Suggestion Box
 This electronic version of the suggestion box can give employees the
sense that their ideas have value to the company. Empowering
employees to make suggestions and create initiatives is a behavioral
approach because it helps employees enjoy their jobs and raise their self-
esteem. Management can monitor chat rooms and even join the
conversation to encourage exploration of ideas. When enough people get
behind a suggestion, management can meet with a delegation to discuss
the possibilities.
TYPES OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
BEHAVIORAL
APPRAOCH
HUMAN
RELATION
BEHAVIORAL
SCIENCE
HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT
Human relations Movement refers to the researchers of organizational
development who study the behaviour of people in groups, particularly in workplace
groups and other related concepts in fields such as industrial and organizational
psychology. It originated in the 1930s' Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects
of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The
movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather
than as interchangeable parts, and it resulted in the creation of the discipline
of human relations management.
PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION
MOVEMENT
 Human beings are not interested only in financial gains. They also need
recognition and appreciation.
 Workers are human beings. So they must be treated like human beings
and not like machines. Managers should try to understand the feelings
and emotions of the workers.
 An organization works not only through formal relations, but also through
informal relations. Therefore, managers should encourage informal
relations in the organization along with formal relations.
 Workers need a high degree of job security and job satisfaction.
Therefore, management should give job security and job satisfaction to
the workers.
 Workers want good communication from the managers. Therefore,
managers should communicate effectively without feelings of ego and
superiority complex.
PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION
MOVEMENT
 In any organization, members do not like conflicts and misunderstandings.
Therefore, managers should try to stop conflicts and misunderstandings
among the members of the organization.
 Workers want freedom. They do not want strict supervision. Therefore,
managers should avoid strict supervision and control over the workers.
 Employees would like to participate in decision making, especially, in
those matters affecting their interests. Therefore, management must
encourage workers' participation in management. This will increase
productivity and job satisfaction.
BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE MOVEMENT
The behavioral science approach to management focuses on the psychological and
sociological processes (attitude, motivations, group dynamics) that influence employee
performance. While the classical approach focuses on the job of workers,
the behavioral approach focuses on the workers in these jobs.
Behavioral approach, Human relation VS behavioral science
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
HUMAN RELATION & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
POINTS HUMAN RELATION BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
SCOPE HRA is narrower in scope. It is concerned with
humanization or socialization aspects of managing.
BSA is wider in scope. It is concerned not only with
humanization or socialization aspects of managing;
but also recommends a study of behavioral
sciences towards analyzing complex human
behaviour systematically.
SYSTEM HRA considers organization as a social system,
with a culture of its own.
BSA considers organization as a socio-technical
system; as it also analyses behavioral aspects of
work environment, specially technology.
STUDIES HRA studies individual behaviour BSA studies individual behaviour as also group
behaviour.
RECOGNITION Under HRA all individuals are treated alike, without
regard to their personal attitudes, perceptions,
beliefs etc..
BSA recognizes differences among individuals on
the basis of their personal attitudes, perceptions,
beliefs etc..
CONSIDERATION HRA considers organisational and personal
conflicts as natural, and destructive.
BSA not only considers organisational and personal
conflicts as natural; but also recommends to use
such conflicts for constructive purposes.
THANK YOU

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Behavioral approach, Human relation VS behavioral science

  • 2. INDEX 1. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH 2. HISTORY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH 3. INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIORAL APPROACH 4. IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ON BUSINESS 5. TYPES OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH 6. HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT 7. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT 8. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE 9. COMPARISON OF HUMAN RELATION VS BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  • 3. WHAT IS BEHAVIORAL APPROACH?  The behavioral approach emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. In other words its the study of the connection between our minds and behavioral.  Contemporary behaviorists still emphasize the importance of observing behavior to understand an individual; however, not every behaviorist today accepts the earlier behaviorists rejection of thought processes, which are often called cognition.
  • 4. HISTORY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH  The behaviorist movement began in 1913 when John Broadus Watson wrote an article entitled 'Psychology as the behaviorist views it,' which set out a number of underlying assumptions regarding methodology and behavioral analysis  Jhon Broadus Watson was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
  • 5. NOTEABLE WORKS OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Mary Parker Follett EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS FOUR PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION  Coordination requires that people be in direct contact with one another.  Coordination is essential during the initial stages of any endeavor.  Coordination must address all factors and phases of any endeavor.  Coordination is a continuous, ongoing process.
  • 6. NOTEABLE WORKS OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH Douglas McGregor's Proposed Styles THEORY X  Most people dislike work and they avoid it when they can.  Coerced and threatened with punishment before they work.  Work is a natural activity like play or rest.  Capable of self direction and self control.  Committed to organizational objectives
  • 7. INTRODUCTION  Behavioral management theories show the human relations aspect of management and how productivity depends on workforce motivation levels.  Therefore managers need not have only technical skills but also human relations skills to interact with their subordinates as human beings.  According to this school; managers must know why their subordinates behave as they do and what psychological and social factors influence them. According to these theorists, since groups provide members with feelings of acceptance and dignity, management can look upon the workgroup as a potentially productive force.  Now the Behavioral and Human Relations Approach is followed in most organizations around the world. Managers are now more likely to recognize the behavioral aspect of employees and give importance to it.  Criticism of scientific management by Taylor and administrative management promoted by Fayol gave birth to the behavioral management theories.These theories were criticized by several behavioral scientists for their indifference and in-sensitiveness to the human side of managerial dealings.
  • 8. IMPACT OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ON BUSINESS
  • 9. EXAMPLE OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH  Daycare  Companies that offer daycare for children of employees engage in behavioral management. The idea is that if employees know their children are nearby and are well cared for, work can proceed with fewer distractions. This is an example of trusting that the employee wants to work and giving the employee a work environment that doesn't pit the job against family life. Providing daycare is a behavioral approach to getting the most out of employees, because it focuses on employee satisfaction.
  • 10. EXAMPLE OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH  Employee Suggestion Box  This electronic version of the suggestion box can give employees the sense that their ideas have value to the company. Empowering employees to make suggestions and create initiatives is a behavioral approach because it helps employees enjoy their jobs and raise their self- esteem. Management can monitor chat rooms and even join the conversation to encourage exploration of ideas. When enough people get behind a suggestion, management can meet with a delegation to discuss the possibilities.
  • 11. TYPES OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACH BEHAVIORAL APPRAOCH HUMAN RELATION BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE
  • 12. HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT Human relations Movement refers to the researchers of organizational development who study the behaviour of people in groups, particularly in workplace groups and other related concepts in fields such as industrial and organizational psychology. It originated in the 1930s' Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts, and it resulted in the creation of the discipline of human relations management.
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT  Human beings are not interested only in financial gains. They also need recognition and appreciation.  Workers are human beings. So they must be treated like human beings and not like machines. Managers should try to understand the feelings and emotions of the workers.  An organization works not only through formal relations, but also through informal relations. Therefore, managers should encourage informal relations in the organization along with formal relations.  Workers need a high degree of job security and job satisfaction. Therefore, management should give job security and job satisfaction to the workers.  Workers want good communication from the managers. Therefore, managers should communicate effectively without feelings of ego and superiority complex.
  • 14. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RELATION MOVEMENT  In any organization, members do not like conflicts and misunderstandings. Therefore, managers should try to stop conflicts and misunderstandings among the members of the organization.  Workers want freedom. They do not want strict supervision. Therefore, managers should avoid strict supervision and control over the workers.  Employees would like to participate in decision making, especially, in those matters affecting their interests. Therefore, management must encourage workers' participation in management. This will increase productivity and job satisfaction.
  • 15. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE MOVEMENT The behavioral science approach to management focuses on the psychological and sociological processes (attitude, motivations, group dynamics) that influence employee performance. While the classical approach focuses on the job of workers, the behavioral approach focuses on the workers in these jobs.
  • 17. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HUMAN RELATION & BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE POINTS HUMAN RELATION BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE SCOPE HRA is narrower in scope. It is concerned with humanization or socialization aspects of managing. BSA is wider in scope. It is concerned not only with humanization or socialization aspects of managing; but also recommends a study of behavioral sciences towards analyzing complex human behaviour systematically. SYSTEM HRA considers organization as a social system, with a culture of its own. BSA considers organization as a socio-technical system; as it also analyses behavioral aspects of work environment, specially technology. STUDIES HRA studies individual behaviour BSA studies individual behaviour as also group behaviour. RECOGNITION Under HRA all individuals are treated alike, without regard to their personal attitudes, perceptions, beliefs etc.. BSA recognizes differences among individuals on the basis of their personal attitudes, perceptions, beliefs etc.. CONSIDERATION HRA considers organisational and personal conflicts as natural, and destructive. BSA not only considers organisational and personal conflicts as natural; but also recommends to use such conflicts for constructive purposes.