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FROM RESEARCH TO PROTOTYPING 
NAVNEET NAIR
AGENDA 
• Introductions 
• The need for a process 
• Forming groups 
• Conducting research 
• Synthesizing data 
• Framing HMWs 
• Brainstorming 
• Prototyping 
• Summarizing
NAVNEET NAIR 
About 19 years of experience. Started off as a 
copywriter. Have since then worked as a designer, 
programmer, user researcher and product manager. 
Design influences my philosophy and philosophy 
influences my design.
THE NEED FOR A PROCESS
DESIGN PROCESS 
• Need for a design process: 
• Understanding users and their needs 
• Envisioning an idealized future 
• Learning through trying 
• Scale, spread and sustain 
• Good design can come from anywhere. Hence the process should be inclusive. 
• A good process removes superfluous design 
• A good process should bring about clarity
FORMING GROUPS
FORM GROUPS 
• Number of groups 
• Have a good mix 
• Have at least one person who can sketch well in a 
group 
• Pick a group name and a product space (need not 
be specific think mobile payments, healthcare, 
payroll etc)
BUILDING TEAMS IN THE REAL WORLD 
• Involve everybody 
• Engineers, Product Managers, Business folks, 
Designers and Researchers can all provide 
valuable insights 
• Have at least one person who can sketch out the 
ideas into prototypes
CONDUCTING RESEARCH
QUESTIONS BEFORE STARTING 
• Is your product idea new or is it an improved version? 
• What is the space the idea or product is targeted? 
• Is your audience defined? 
• Do you understand the competitive landscape well? 
Don’t ask yourselves question on time and cost (both can 
be kept in control)
RECRUITING 
• Recruiting need not be expensive 
• Spend time in getting to talk to the right people 
• Talk to at least 8-15 people 
• Not everybody needs to speak to everybody 
• Have groups of 3-4 researchers go and speak with 
the participants
CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW 
• Be clear about the objectives of the interview. Do not loose 
focus of it during the process. While small talk can build trust 
always try to bring the subject in line with the interview 
objectives. 
• Validate any hypotheses and methods you may already have 
and get them out of the way. If you have new insights validate 
them. But don’t ask direct questions which give away the 
objectives of the interview 
• Gather data as unobtrusively as possible. Synthesize data when 
you get the opportunity. Validate as often as possible
SOME USEFUL TIPS 
• Stop sounding like you built the product (even if you did) 
Ask, “What is important for you as a user?” and “What 
would you expect?” 
• Stop asking what, start wondering why. 
• Do not expect your participants to provide you with new 
ideas. 
• After you ask a question, be silent, let the participant speak. 
• Don’t run a conversation or intimidate the participant.
SYNTHESIZING DATA
CREATING PERSONAS 
• Augment your interviews with quantitative data like user logs 
and surveys to create a broad category of the user. 
• See who among the set of participants is representative of 
this data. 
• Borrow liberally from the interviews. Use insights and 
observations that you feel are important to 
• Some people recommend 30 interview before seeing 
patterns. Usually around 5-8 are more than enough. 
Especially if you augment your data with quantitative insights.
A SAMPLE PERSONA 
Carol 
Carol is a 65 year old grandmother. Carol has a 
part-time job in a local arts and crafts shop. She is 
currently learning to use a computer to help out 
with enquiries that come through the shop’s web 
site. 
She is normally very active but has recently been 
hampered by a broken wrist sustained in a fall. 
Although she usually deals with problems in an 
optimistic and positive manner, she is finding the 
plaster cast very cumbersome. Many everyday 
tasks are now difficult and time-consuming. 
Carol is particularly frustrated by not being able 
to help and play with her grandchildren as much, 
especially as Ellie desperately wants her 
grandmother to finish the fairy costume she’s 
been making for her.
CREATING PRODUCT STRATEGIES 
• Based on Geoffrey Moore’s ‘Crossing The Chasm’ 
• Try and answer the following questions: 
• For (target customer) 
• Who (statement of the need or opportunity) 
• The (product name) is a (product category) 
• That (key benefit, compelling reason to buy) 
• Unlike (primary competitive alternative) 
• Our product (statement of primary differentiation)
CREATING CUSTOMER JOURNEYS 
• Define you stakeholders 
• Understand the user 
• What are they trying to 
achieve 
• Touch-points with 
product 
• Emotional Journey 
• Opportunities to improve
FRAMING HMW TO ADDRESS UNMET NEEDS
GETTING STARTED 
• Everyone speak out their idea and paste post-its with 
ideas on wall 
• Use individual notes to avoid group think. 
• Use the secret phrase: “How might we…” 
• Let ideas flow freely. Using the phrase should inhibit 
judgement. 
• Use self editing to make the idea succinct and specific.
RANKING IDEAS 
• Elect group captains for each team. 
• The captain groups the similar ideas into a single point of view 
(POV). While putting up ideas on the wall researchers can do this 
grouping dynamically. 
• Everyone votes on the ideas. 
• 5 votes per person. 
• Ideas with the most votes bubble to the top. 
• Now each group picks up an idea they are most comfortable 
handling
BRAINSTORMING
RULES OF BRAINSTORMING 
• Defer judgement 
• Collectively gather ideas. If people have similar ideas group them 
together 
• Encourage wild ideas 
• Build on the ideas of others 
• Stay focussed on the context 
• One conversation at a time 
• Be visual 
• Go for quantity
IDEATING DURING BRAINSTORMING 
• Begin with a Point of View (POV) statement. 
• Amp up the good and prune the bad. 
• Explore opposites and challenge assumptions. 
• Change the status quo. 
• Break a POV into smaller pieces.
PROTOTYPING
RUNNING PROTOTYPING SESSIONS 
• Take a minute to think of an initial idea. 
• Take turns sharing ideas. 
• Group captain collects all ideas. 
• Brainstorm for 7 minutes on each topic. 
• When finished, count your ideas.
RAPID PROTOTYPING 
• Building something quickly in 
order to develop or test an idea. 
• Don’t spend time building 
something that everyone will 
already recognize! 
• Build your idea in 15min. 
• Think of a 1 hour / $10 way to 
introduce your idea as an 
experiment 
• Share your idea with your table 
& give/get feedback
SUMMARIZING AND SHARING 
HOW COULD WE DO THIS WORKSHOP BETTER?
Thank you. 
Images used are copyright of respective owners. Used only for educational purposes.

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How Might We...

  • 1. FROM RESEARCH TO PROTOTYPING NAVNEET NAIR
  • 2. AGENDA • Introductions • The need for a process • Forming groups • Conducting research • Synthesizing data • Framing HMWs • Brainstorming • Prototyping • Summarizing
  • 3. NAVNEET NAIR About 19 years of experience. Started off as a copywriter. Have since then worked as a designer, programmer, user researcher and product manager. Design influences my philosophy and philosophy influences my design.
  • 4. THE NEED FOR A PROCESS
  • 5. DESIGN PROCESS • Need for a design process: • Understanding users and their needs • Envisioning an idealized future • Learning through trying • Scale, spread and sustain • Good design can come from anywhere. Hence the process should be inclusive. • A good process removes superfluous design • A good process should bring about clarity
  • 7. FORM GROUPS • Number of groups • Have a good mix • Have at least one person who can sketch well in a group • Pick a group name and a product space (need not be specific think mobile payments, healthcare, payroll etc)
  • 8. BUILDING TEAMS IN THE REAL WORLD • Involve everybody • Engineers, Product Managers, Business folks, Designers and Researchers can all provide valuable insights • Have at least one person who can sketch out the ideas into prototypes
  • 10. QUESTIONS BEFORE STARTING • Is your product idea new or is it an improved version? • What is the space the idea or product is targeted? • Is your audience defined? • Do you understand the competitive landscape well? Don’t ask yourselves question on time and cost (both can be kept in control)
  • 11. RECRUITING • Recruiting need not be expensive • Spend time in getting to talk to the right people • Talk to at least 8-15 people • Not everybody needs to speak to everybody • Have groups of 3-4 researchers go and speak with the participants
  • 12. CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW • Be clear about the objectives of the interview. Do not loose focus of it during the process. While small talk can build trust always try to bring the subject in line with the interview objectives. • Validate any hypotheses and methods you may already have and get them out of the way. If you have new insights validate them. But don’t ask direct questions which give away the objectives of the interview • Gather data as unobtrusively as possible. Synthesize data when you get the opportunity. Validate as often as possible
  • 13. SOME USEFUL TIPS • Stop sounding like you built the product (even if you did) Ask, “What is important for you as a user?” and “What would you expect?” • Stop asking what, start wondering why. • Do not expect your participants to provide you with new ideas. • After you ask a question, be silent, let the participant speak. • Don’t run a conversation or intimidate the participant.
  • 15. CREATING PERSONAS • Augment your interviews with quantitative data like user logs and surveys to create a broad category of the user. • See who among the set of participants is representative of this data. • Borrow liberally from the interviews. Use insights and observations that you feel are important to • Some people recommend 30 interview before seeing patterns. Usually around 5-8 are more than enough. Especially if you augment your data with quantitative insights.
  • 16. A SAMPLE PERSONA Carol Carol is a 65 year old grandmother. Carol has a part-time job in a local arts and crafts shop. She is currently learning to use a computer to help out with enquiries that come through the shop’s web site. She is normally very active but has recently been hampered by a broken wrist sustained in a fall. Although she usually deals with problems in an optimistic and positive manner, she is finding the plaster cast very cumbersome. Many everyday tasks are now difficult and time-consuming. Carol is particularly frustrated by not being able to help and play with her grandchildren as much, especially as Ellie desperately wants her grandmother to finish the fairy costume she’s been making for her.
  • 17. CREATING PRODUCT STRATEGIES • Based on Geoffrey Moore’s ‘Crossing The Chasm’ • Try and answer the following questions: • For (target customer) • Who (statement of the need or opportunity) • The (product name) is a (product category) • That (key benefit, compelling reason to buy) • Unlike (primary competitive alternative) • Our product (statement of primary differentiation)
  • 18. CREATING CUSTOMER JOURNEYS • Define you stakeholders • Understand the user • What are they trying to achieve • Touch-points with product • Emotional Journey • Opportunities to improve
  • 19. FRAMING HMW TO ADDRESS UNMET NEEDS
  • 20. GETTING STARTED • Everyone speak out their idea and paste post-its with ideas on wall • Use individual notes to avoid group think. • Use the secret phrase: “How might we…” • Let ideas flow freely. Using the phrase should inhibit judgement. • Use self editing to make the idea succinct and specific.
  • 21. RANKING IDEAS • Elect group captains for each team. • The captain groups the similar ideas into a single point of view (POV). While putting up ideas on the wall researchers can do this grouping dynamically. • Everyone votes on the ideas. • 5 votes per person. • Ideas with the most votes bubble to the top. • Now each group picks up an idea they are most comfortable handling
  • 23. RULES OF BRAINSTORMING • Defer judgement • Collectively gather ideas. If people have similar ideas group them together • Encourage wild ideas • Build on the ideas of others • Stay focussed on the context • One conversation at a time • Be visual • Go for quantity
  • 24. IDEATING DURING BRAINSTORMING • Begin with a Point of View (POV) statement. • Amp up the good and prune the bad. • Explore opposites and challenge assumptions. • Change the status quo. • Break a POV into smaller pieces.
  • 26. RUNNING PROTOTYPING SESSIONS • Take a minute to think of an initial idea. • Take turns sharing ideas. • Group captain collects all ideas. • Brainstorm for 7 minutes on each topic. • When finished, count your ideas.
  • 27. RAPID PROTOTYPING • Building something quickly in order to develop or test an idea. • Don’t spend time building something that everyone will already recognize! • Build your idea in 15min. • Think of a 1 hour / $10 way to introduce your idea as an experiment • Share your idea with your table & give/get feedback
  • 28. SUMMARIZING AND SHARING HOW COULD WE DO THIS WORKSHOP BETTER?
  • 29. Thank you. Images used are copyright of respective owners. Used only for educational purposes.