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Design
Thinking
PM DR FARIZA HANIS
ABDUL RAZAK
PM DR WAN ABDUL
RAHIM WAN MOHD
ISA
What is Design Thinking?
Design Thinking is a design methodology that
provides a solution-based approach to solving
problems.
It’s extremely useful in tackling complex problems
that are ill-defined or unknown, by understanding
the human needs involved, by reframing the
problem in human-centric ways, by creating many
ideas in brainstorming sessions, and by adopting a
hands-on approach in prototyping and testing.
Understanding these five stages of Design Thinking
will empower anyone to apply the Design Thinking
methods in order to solve complex problems that
occur around us — in our companies, our countries,
and even our planet.
The five-stage model was proposed by the Hasso-Plattner Institute of
Design at Stanford (d.school).
d.school is the leading university when it comes to teaching Design
Thinking.
The five stages of Design Thinking, according to d.school, are as follows:
Empathise, Define (the problem), Ideate, Prototype, and Test.
1. Empathise
To gain an empathic understanding of the
problem you are trying to solve.
◦ This involves consulting experts to find out more
about the area of concern through observing,
engaging and empathizing with people to
understand their experiences and motivations,
as well as immersing yourself in the physical
environment to have a deeper personal
understanding of the issues involved.
Empathy is crucial to a human-centred
design process such as Design Thinking
because it allows design thinkers to set
aside his or her own assumptions about the
world in order to gain insight into users and
their needs.
Empathy Map
User Persona
2. Define
Define the problem as a problem statement in a human-centred
manner.
Rather than saying
◦ “We need to increase our food-product market share among young teenage
girls by 5%”
Better saying,
◦ “Teenage girls need to eat nutritious food in order to thrive, be healthy and
grow”
The Define stage will help the designers gather great ideas to
establish features, functions, and any other elements that will
allow them to solve the problems or, at the very least, allow
users to resolve issues themselves with the minimum of
difficulty.
In the Define stage you will start to progress to the third stage,
Ideate, by asking questions which can help you look for ideas for
solutions by asking:
◦ “How might we… encourage teenage girls to perform an action that
benefits them and also involves your company’s food-product or
service?”
Fishbone Diagram – Cause-Effect
5 Whys – Root Cause Problem
3. Ideate
Start to 'think outside the box' to identify
new solutions to the problem statement
you’ve created, and you can start to look for
alternative ways of viewing the problem.
There are hundreds of Ideation techniques
such as Brainstorm, Brainwrite, Worst
Possible Idea, and SCAMPER.
Brainstorm and Worst Possible Idea sessions
are typically used to stimulate free thinking
and to expand the problem space.
How to
brain
write?
When to
use brain
write?
Worst Possible Idea
The facilitator briefs ideation
session participants about the
problem statement, the overall
goals, and important user
insights.
Then the facilitator asks the
participants to come up with
extremely bad, terrible, stupid,
or even illegal ideas.
◦ Braindumping
As the facilitator, be sure to push
your group to generate extremely
bad ideas!
◦ Open hearts and minds
◦ Use techniques that generate terrible
ideas including listing the attributes of
the worst ideas.
◦ Investigate which attributes of the
ideas make them really bad.
Once the participants have generated a list of their worst ideas, you
as the facilitator should challenge the group to turn those horrible
ideas into good ones.
Scamper
SCAMPER is an acronym that provides a structured way of assisting students
to think out of the box and enhance their knowledge.
SCAMPER was proposed by Alex Osborne in 1953, and was further developed
by Bob Elerle in 1971 in his book; SCAMPER: Games for Imagination
Development
Scamper
QADIM
4. Prototype
The design team will now produce a number of inexpensive, scaled down
versions of the product or specific features found within the product, so they
can investigate the problem solutions generated in the previous stage.
The aim is to identify the best possible solution for each of the problems
identified during the first three stages.
Types of prototype
Examples of low-fidelity prototype
/
5. Test
Designers or evaluators rigorously test the
complete product using the best solutions
identified during the prototyping phase.
01
This is the final stage of the 5 stage-model,
but in an iterative process, the results
generated during the testing phase are
often used to redefine one or more
problems and inform the understanding of
the users, the conditions of use, how people
think, behave, and feel, and to empathise.
02
Usability Evaluation
8. design thinking

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8. design thinking

  • 1. Design Thinking PM DR FARIZA HANIS ABDUL RAZAK PM DR WAN ABDUL RAHIM WAN MOHD ISA
  • 2. What is Design Thinking? Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems. It’s extremely useful in tackling complex problems that are ill-defined or unknown, by understanding the human needs involved, by reframing the problem in human-centric ways, by creating many ideas in brainstorming sessions, and by adopting a hands-on approach in prototyping and testing. Understanding these five stages of Design Thinking will empower anyone to apply the Design Thinking methods in order to solve complex problems that occur around us — in our companies, our countries, and even our planet.
  • 3. The five-stage model was proposed by the Hasso-Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford (d.school). d.school is the leading university when it comes to teaching Design Thinking. The five stages of Design Thinking, according to d.school, are as follows: Empathise, Define (the problem), Ideate, Prototype, and Test.
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  • 6. 1. Empathise To gain an empathic understanding of the problem you are trying to solve. ◦ This involves consulting experts to find out more about the area of concern through observing, engaging and empathizing with people to understand their experiences and motivations, as well as immersing yourself in the physical environment to have a deeper personal understanding of the issues involved. Empathy is crucial to a human-centred design process such as Design Thinking because it allows design thinkers to set aside his or her own assumptions about the world in order to gain insight into users and their needs.
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  • 11. 2. Define Define the problem as a problem statement in a human-centred manner. Rather than saying ◦ “We need to increase our food-product market share among young teenage girls by 5%” Better saying, ◦ “Teenage girls need to eat nutritious food in order to thrive, be healthy and grow”
  • 12. The Define stage will help the designers gather great ideas to establish features, functions, and any other elements that will allow them to solve the problems or, at the very least, allow users to resolve issues themselves with the minimum of difficulty. In the Define stage you will start to progress to the third stage, Ideate, by asking questions which can help you look for ideas for solutions by asking: ◦ “How might we… encourage teenage girls to perform an action that benefits them and also involves your company’s food-product or service?”
  • 13. Fishbone Diagram – Cause-Effect
  • 14. 5 Whys – Root Cause Problem
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  • 16. 3. Ideate Start to 'think outside the box' to identify new solutions to the problem statement you’ve created, and you can start to look for alternative ways of viewing the problem. There are hundreds of Ideation techniques such as Brainstorm, Brainwrite, Worst Possible Idea, and SCAMPER. Brainstorm and Worst Possible Idea sessions are typically used to stimulate free thinking and to expand the problem space.
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  • 22. Worst Possible Idea The facilitator briefs ideation session participants about the problem statement, the overall goals, and important user insights. Then the facilitator asks the participants to come up with extremely bad, terrible, stupid, or even illegal ideas. ◦ Braindumping
  • 23. As the facilitator, be sure to push your group to generate extremely bad ideas! ◦ Open hearts and minds ◦ Use techniques that generate terrible ideas including listing the attributes of the worst ideas. ◦ Investigate which attributes of the ideas make them really bad.
  • 24. Once the participants have generated a list of their worst ideas, you as the facilitator should challenge the group to turn those horrible ideas into good ones.
  • 25. Scamper SCAMPER is an acronym that provides a structured way of assisting students to think out of the box and enhance their knowledge. SCAMPER was proposed by Alex Osborne in 1953, and was further developed by Bob Elerle in 1971 in his book; SCAMPER: Games for Imagination Development
  • 27. QADIM
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  • 29. 4. Prototype The design team will now produce a number of inexpensive, scaled down versions of the product or specific features found within the product, so they can investigate the problem solutions generated in the previous stage. The aim is to identify the best possible solution for each of the problems identified during the first three stages.
  • 30. Types of prototype Examples of low-fidelity prototype
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  • 32. / 5. Test Designers or evaluators rigorously test the complete product using the best solutions identified during the prototyping phase. 01 This is the final stage of the 5 stage-model, but in an iterative process, the results generated during the testing phase are often used to redefine one or more problems and inform the understanding of the users, the conditions of use, how people think, behave, and feel, and to empathise. 02