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HINDU ARCHITECTURE
BY:
RISHITHA -31810610101006
SAI KRISHNA -318106101020
SRILEKHA-31810610101033
BHAVANI-318106101029
ELEMENTS OF HINDU ARCHITECTURE
• Jagati
• Antarala
• Mantapa/ Mandapa
• Garbhagriha
• Sikhara/ Vimana
• Amalaka
• Gopuram
• Urushringa
• Jagati: Jagati is a term used to refer
a raised surface, platform or terrace
upon which the temple is placed.
• Antarla: Antarala is a small
antichamber or foyer between the
Garbh Griha / garbha graha (shrine)
and the mandapa.
• Mandapa: Mandapa is a term to refer to Pillared outdoor hall or
Pavilion for public rituals.
• Ardha Mandapam — intermediary space between the temple
exterior and the GarbhGriha or the other mandapas of the temple
• Kalyana Mandapam — dedicated to ritual marriage celebration of
the Lord with Goddess
• Maha Mandapam — When there are several mandapas in the
temple, it is the biggest and the tallest. It is used for conducting
religious discourses.
• Nandi Mandapam (or Nandi mandir) - In the Shiva temples,
pavilion with a statue of the sacred bull Nandi, looking at the
statue or the lingam of Shiva.
Ardhamandapa Kalyana mandapa
Maha mandapa Nandi mandapa
• Garbhagriha :Grabh Griha the part in
which the idol of the deity in a Hindu
Temple is installed i.e.Sanctum sanctorum.
The area around is referred as to the
Chuttapalam, which generally includes
other deities and the main boundary wall
of the temple. Typically there is also a
Pradikshna area in the Sreekovil and one
outside, where devotees can take
Pradakshinas.
• Shikhara / Vimana: shikar means peak , it is
the spire or tower over the temples. It was
inspired from the clad peak of Himalayas.
• Amalaka: Amalaka is a stone disk, often with
ridges, that sits on a temple's main tower
(Shikhar) Gopuram Gopurams are the elaborate
gateway-towers of south Indian temples, not to
be confused with Shikharas.
Amalaka
Kalasha
• Gopuram :Gopuram is the huge tower at the entrance of a temple. It
serves as the gateway to the temple complex. It is one of the most
prominent things in a temple.
• Urushringa : The urushringa is smaller
and narrower than the shikhara, and "engaged“
or connected to it where they meet, except
right at the top. It strengthens the feeling of
height given by the temple, and may give
some structural support by acting like a
buttress, as well as adding to the visual
symbolism of the temple as a sacred mountain.
DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
• Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions
during ancient India. Three main style of temple architecture are the
Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and
the Vesara, a Hybridized style . But at the same time, there are also
some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas.
Lad Khan Temple
• The Lad Khan Temple, dedicated to Shiva, is one of the oldest Hindu
temples and is located in Aihole in the state of Karnataka, India.
• Built in the 5th century by the kings of the Chalukya dynasty.
• It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, earlier it was dedicated to Lord Vishnu
but now it is a Shivaite temple.
• The shrine has a Garba Griha (inner sanctum) which houses a Shiva
Linga, a mukha mantapa which leads to Sabha Mandapa (hall). There
is also a Maha mandapa (great hall) with open windows. The Mukha
Mantapa is a pillared hall where as the other halls are spacious.
• One of the interesting features of Lad
Khan Temple is that it doesn't have a
Shikhara (gopura). This indicates that
it follows a cave-temple style of
architecture.
• The special feature of this temple is
that it starts with a rectangular
structure and ends with a square
structure. Based on a wooden
construction design, the square and
rectangular plan has a steep roof,
which is an adaptation of wooden
styles in stone.
• Ladkhan temple is a significant temple at Aihole
because of the method of its construction which
marks an important stage in the evolution of the
Chalukyan style of architecture.
• The temple stands on a cellar with moldings and the uppermost molding
is very thick, over which rises the wall of the temple. A similar molding is
found at the roof level. The posterior portion has a square in two tiers
with a slight slope in all the four directions. On them are placed stone
rafters in reproduction of wooden roof of the earlier buildings. Similar is
the roof of the front mandapa, which is rectangular. On the roof of
the sabhamndapa is an upper garbhagriha opening to the east with
pillars and pilasters without any sikhara. These architectural features
have made this temple unique.
•
BAIDHYANATH TEMPLE AT DEOGHAR
• It is located in Jharkhand.
Baidhyanath temple is one of the twelve
jyotirlingas, the most sacred abodes of Shiva.
The demon king Ravana worshipped
Shiva at this place.
Lord Shiva descended to cure Ravana who
was injured. As he acted as a
Doctor ,He is referred to as vaidhya.
• Vaidyanath Temple at Deogarh houses a spacious courtyard bound by
stone walls. In the temple complex are twenty-two other temples. The
Baijnath or Vaidyanath temple faces east. The top of the Shiva Lingam is
slightly broken, keeping with the legend that it chipped away when
Ravana tried to uproot it. Near the temple is the Shivaganga Lake.
BHITARGAON TEMPLE
• It is located in Kanpur district, Uttar
Pradesh.
• The largest Indian brick temple to survive
from the time of Gupta empire.
• The temple is a terraced brick building
fronted with a terracotta panel built in the
fifth century during Gupta’s period.
• It is the oldest remaining brick building
with roof and high sikhara.
• The temple is built on a square plan with
double recessed corners and faces east.
The temple is built on a
square plan with double-recessed
corners and faces east. There is a tall
pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha.
The walls are decorated with terracotta
panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva
and Vishnu etc.
• The construction material is bricks and terracotta. The brick size is 18" x
9 x 3" and
• The size of platform on which the temple is built is 36 feet x 47 feet.
• The santum is 15 feet x 15 feet internally.
• The santum is double story.
• The wall thickness is 8 feet.
• The total height from ground to top is 68.25 feet.
• There is no window.
• The terracotta sculpture depicts both secular and religious theme such as
deities like Ganesha and Durga Mahisasurmardini. Myths and stories
representing abduction of Sita and the penance of Nara-Narayana.
• Shikara is a stepped pyramid and got damaged by thunder in 1894.
• The first story of sanctum felled in 1850.
Thank you

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Hindu Architecture

  • 1. HINDU ARCHITECTURE BY: RISHITHA -31810610101006 SAI KRISHNA -318106101020 SRILEKHA-31810610101033 BHAVANI-318106101029
  • 2. ELEMENTS OF HINDU ARCHITECTURE • Jagati • Antarala • Mantapa/ Mandapa • Garbhagriha • Sikhara/ Vimana • Amalaka • Gopuram • Urushringa
  • 3. • Jagati: Jagati is a term used to refer a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which the temple is placed. • Antarla: Antarala is a small antichamber or foyer between the Garbh Griha / garbha graha (shrine) and the mandapa.
  • 4. • Mandapa: Mandapa is a term to refer to Pillared outdoor hall or Pavilion for public rituals. • Ardha Mandapam — intermediary space between the temple exterior and the GarbhGriha or the other mandapas of the temple • Kalyana Mandapam — dedicated to ritual marriage celebration of the Lord with Goddess • Maha Mandapam — When there are several mandapas in the temple, it is the biggest and the tallest. It is used for conducting religious discourses. • Nandi Mandapam (or Nandi mandir) - In the Shiva temples, pavilion with a statue of the sacred bull Nandi, looking at the statue or the lingam of Shiva.
  • 5. Ardhamandapa Kalyana mandapa Maha mandapa Nandi mandapa
  • 6. • Garbhagriha :Grabh Griha the part in which the idol of the deity in a Hindu Temple is installed i.e.Sanctum sanctorum. The area around is referred as to the Chuttapalam, which generally includes other deities and the main boundary wall of the temple. Typically there is also a Pradikshna area in the Sreekovil and one outside, where devotees can take Pradakshinas.
  • 7. • Shikhara / Vimana: shikar means peak , it is the spire or tower over the temples. It was inspired from the clad peak of Himalayas. • Amalaka: Amalaka is a stone disk, often with ridges, that sits on a temple's main tower (Shikhar) Gopuram Gopurams are the elaborate gateway-towers of south Indian temples, not to be confused with Shikharas. Amalaka Kalasha
  • 8. • Gopuram :Gopuram is the huge tower at the entrance of a temple. It serves as the gateway to the temple complex. It is one of the most prominent things in a temple.
  • 9. • Urushringa : The urushringa is smaller and narrower than the shikhara, and "engaged“ or connected to it where they meet, except right at the top. It strengthens the feeling of height given by the temple, and may give some structural support by acting like a buttress, as well as adding to the visual symbolism of the temple as a sacred mountain.
  • 10. DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE • Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions during ancient India. Three main style of temple architecture are the Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara, a Hybridized style . But at the same time, there are also some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas.
  • 11. Lad Khan Temple • The Lad Khan Temple, dedicated to Shiva, is one of the oldest Hindu temples and is located in Aihole in the state of Karnataka, India. • Built in the 5th century by the kings of the Chalukya dynasty. • It is dedicated to Lord Shiva, earlier it was dedicated to Lord Vishnu but now it is a Shivaite temple. • The shrine has a Garba Griha (inner sanctum) which houses a Shiva Linga, a mukha mantapa which leads to Sabha Mandapa (hall). There is also a Maha mandapa (great hall) with open windows. The Mukha Mantapa is a pillared hall where as the other halls are spacious.
  • 12. • One of the interesting features of Lad Khan Temple is that it doesn't have a Shikhara (gopura). This indicates that it follows a cave-temple style of architecture. • The special feature of this temple is that it starts with a rectangular structure and ends with a square structure. Based on a wooden construction design, the square and rectangular plan has a steep roof, which is an adaptation of wooden styles in stone.
  • 13. • Ladkhan temple is a significant temple at Aihole because of the method of its construction which marks an important stage in the evolution of the Chalukyan style of architecture.
  • 14. • The temple stands on a cellar with moldings and the uppermost molding is very thick, over which rises the wall of the temple. A similar molding is found at the roof level. The posterior portion has a square in two tiers with a slight slope in all the four directions. On them are placed stone rafters in reproduction of wooden roof of the earlier buildings. Similar is the roof of the front mandapa, which is rectangular. On the roof of the sabhamndapa is an upper garbhagriha opening to the east with pillars and pilasters without any sikhara. These architectural features have made this temple unique. •
  • 15. BAIDHYANATH TEMPLE AT DEOGHAR • It is located in Jharkhand. Baidhyanath temple is one of the twelve jyotirlingas, the most sacred abodes of Shiva. The demon king Ravana worshipped Shiva at this place. Lord Shiva descended to cure Ravana who was injured. As he acted as a Doctor ,He is referred to as vaidhya.
  • 16. • Vaidyanath Temple at Deogarh houses a spacious courtyard bound by stone walls. In the temple complex are twenty-two other temples. The Baijnath or Vaidyanath temple faces east. The top of the Shiva Lingam is slightly broken, keeping with the legend that it chipped away when Ravana tried to uproot it. Near the temple is the Shivaganga Lake.
  • 17. BHITARGAON TEMPLE • It is located in Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh. • The largest Indian brick temple to survive from the time of Gupta empire. • The temple is a terraced brick building fronted with a terracotta panel built in the fifth century during Gupta’s period. • It is the oldest remaining brick building with roof and high sikhara. • The temple is built on a square plan with double recessed corners and faces east.
  • 18. The temple is built on a square plan with double-recessed corners and faces east. There is a tall pyramidal spire over the garbhagriha. The walls are decorated with terracotta panels depicting aquatic monsters, Shiva and Vishnu etc.
  • 19. • The construction material is bricks and terracotta. The brick size is 18" x 9 x 3" and • The size of platform on which the temple is built is 36 feet x 47 feet. • The santum is 15 feet x 15 feet internally. • The santum is double story. • The wall thickness is 8 feet. • The total height from ground to top is 68.25 feet. • There is no window. • The terracotta sculpture depicts both secular and religious theme such as deities like Ganesha and Durga Mahisasurmardini. Myths and stories representing abduction of Sita and the penance of Nara-Narayana. • Shikara is a stepped pyramid and got damaged by thunder in 1894. • The first story of sanctum felled in 1850.