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INDIAN
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
IFYOU CAN SEETHE INVISIBLEYOUCAN ACHIEVETHE IMPOSSIBLE
INDIANTEMPLE
ARCHITECTURE
Before considering the north Indian
architecture, we should be aware of
the Indian temple architecture.
BASIC FORM OF ATEMPLE
It was a gradual evolution starting from the rock cut- cave temples to monolithic rathas which finally culminated
in structural temples.
The basic form of a Hindu structural temple consists of the following
1. GARBHAGRIHA
2. MANDAPA
3. SHIKHARA OR VIMANA
4. AMALAKA
5. KALASHA
6. ANTARALA
7. JAGATI
8. VAHANA
GARBHAGRIHA
• It literally means ‘womb-house’ and is a cave like a sanctum.
• In the earliest temples, it was a small cubical structure with a
single entrance.
• Later it grew into a larger complex.
• The Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon (main deity)
which is itself the focus of much ritual attention.
MANDAPA
• It is the entrance to the temple.
• It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of
columns placed at regular intervals) hall that
incorporates space for a large number of
worshippers.
• Dances and such other entertainments are
practiced here.
• Some temples have multiple mandapas in
different sizes named as Ardhamandapa,
Mandapa, and Mahamandapa.
SHIKHARA ORVIMANA
• They are mountain like the spire of a free-
standing temple.
• Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and
Vimana is found in South Indian temples.
• Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has
a pyramidal-like structure.
AMALAKA
It is a stone disc like structure at the top of the
temple and they are common in North Indian
temples.
KALASHA
It is the topmost point of the temple and
commonly seen in North Indian temples.
ANTARALA (VESTIBULE)
Antarala is a transition area between the
Garbhagriha and the temple’s main hall
(mandapa).
JAGATI
It is a raised platform for sitting and praying and is
common in North Indian temples.
VAHANA
It is the mount or vehicle of the temple’s main
deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj which
is placed axially before the sanctum.
North indian temple architecture pdf
North indian temple architecture pdf
DESIGN
The very essence of a Hindu temple is believed to
have developed from the ideology that all things
are one and everything is associated. The four
essential and significant principles which are also
aims of human life according to Indian philosophy
are the quests for Artha - wealth and prosperity;
Kama - sex and pleasure; Dharma - moral life and
virtues; and moksha - self knowledge and
realisation.
The mathematically structured spaces, intricate artworks, decorated
and carved pillars and statues of Hindu temples illustrate and revere
such philosophies. A hollow space without any embellishments
situated at the centre of the temple, usually below the deity, may also
be at the side or above the deity symbolises the complex concept of
Purusha or Purusa meaning the Universal principle, Consciousness,
the cosmic man or self without any form, however, omnipresent and
associates all things. The Hindu temples suggest contemplations,
encouragement and further purification of mind and prompt the
process of self-realisation in devoteeshart, graphic, or video supports
your thesis or claim sentence.
ARTHA
KAMA
MOKSHA
DHARMA
SITE
The areas of Hindu temple sites are usually vast
with many of them built near water bodies, in
the lap of nature. This is probably because
according to ancient Sanskrit texts the most
suitable site for a Hindu temple referred as
‘Mandir’ is at close proximity to water bodies
and gardens where flowers blossom, chirping of
birds and sounds of ducks and swans can be
heard and animals can rest without any fear.
These places exhibiting peace and tranquillity
are recommended by the texts for building
Hindu temples elucidating that Gods reside in
such places.
Part III of Chapter 93 of the Hindu
text Vishnudharmottara Purana also
recommends building of temples within caves
and chiseled out stones; atop hills amidst
spectacular and serene views; within hermitages
and forests; beside gardens; and at the upper end
of a street of a town.
LAYOUT
The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu
Temple Floor Plan, according to
Vastupurusamandala.The 64 grid
is the most sacred and common
Hindu temple template.The
bright saffron center, where
diagonals intersect above,
represents the Purusha of Hindu
philosophy.
A Hindu temple has a Shikhara (Vimana
or Spire) that rises symmetrically above
the central core of the temple.These
spires come in many designs and
shapes, but they all have mathematical
precision and geometric symbolism.
One of the common principles found in
Hindu temple spires is circles and
turning-squares theme (left), and a
concentric layering design (right) that
flows from one to the other as it rises
towards the sky.[
CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN TEMPLES
Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as
• Nagara (in North India) is associated with the land between the Himalayas and Vindhyas.
• Dravida (in South India) with the land between the Krishna and Kaveri rivers.
• Vesara style of temples as an independent style created through the mixing of Nagara and Dravida
orders.
NORTH INDIAN
TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
(NAGARA STYLE ARCHITECTURE)
NAGARA STYLE
• Nagara is the style of temple architecture which
became popular in Northern India.
• It is common here to build an entire temple on a
stone platform with steps leading up to it.
• Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have
elaborate boundary walls or gateways.
• Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower),
but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came.
• The garbhagriha is always located directly under
the tallest tower.
NAGARA STYLE ARCHITECTURE
(NORTH INDIAN ARCHITECTURE)
• Nagara is the style of temple architecture which became popular in Northern India.
• It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it.
• Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways.
• Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower), but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came.
• The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower.
TEMPLES CAN BE SUBDIVIDED MAINLY INTOTHREE
– BASED ONTHE SHIKHARATYPE
• Latina/ Rekha prasada
• Phamsana type shikhara
• Valabhi type shikhara
LATINA / REKHA PRASADA
• It is the simple and most common type of
shikhara.
• It is square at the base and the walls curve or
slopes inwards to a point on top.
• Latina types are mainly used for housing the
garbhagriha.
• Later on, the Latina buildings grew complex, and
instead of appearing like a single tower, the
temple began to support many small towers,
which were clustered together like rising
mountain type with the tallest one being in the
centre, and this was the one which was always
above the garbhagriha.
PHAMSANATYPE SHIKHARA
• They are broader and shorter than Latina type.
• Their roof is composed of several
slabs that gently rise to a single point over the
centre of the building, unlike the Latina ones
which look like sharply rising towers.
• Phamsana roofs do not curve inwards; instead,
they slope upward on a straight incline.
• In many north Indian temples, the phamsana
type is used for mandapas while the main
garbhagriha is housed in a Latina building.
VALABHITYPE SHIKHARA
• These are rectangular buildings with a roof
that rises into a vaulted chamber.
• The edge of the vaulted chamber is round, like
the bamboo or wooden wagons that would
have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times.
• The form of this temple is influenced by
ancient building forms that were already in
existence.
NORTH INDIANTEMPLE ARCHITECTURE CAN ALSO BE
SUBDIVIDED BASED ONTHE REGION
• CENTRAL INDIA
• EAST INDIA
• WEST INDIA
• THE HILLS
EAST INDAIAGAIN DIVIDEDAS
• ASSAM
• BENGAL
• ODISHA
ODISHA AGAIN DIVIDEDAS
• REKHAPIDA/ REKHA DEULA/ RATHAKA
DEULA
• PIDHADEULA
• KHAKRADEULA
CENTRAL INDIA
• DASHAVATARA VISHNU TEMPLE
• Even though the patrons and donors of the
temple are unknown, it is believed that this
temple was built in the early 6th century CE.
• This is a classical example of the late Gupta
period.
• This temple is in the Panchayatana style of
architecture. [Panchayatana is an architectural
style where the main shrine is built on a
rectangular plinth with four smaller subsidiary
shrines at the four corners and making it a total
of five shrines – i.e., Pancha]
• There are 3 main reliefs ofVishnu on the temple
walls.
• The temple depicts Vishnu in various forms due to
which it was assumed that the four subsidiary shrines
must also house Vishnu’s avatars and the temple was
mistaken for a dashavatara temple.
• The grand doorway of the west facing temple (west
facing is less common) has the sculptures of Ganga on
the left and Yamuna on the right side.
• The shikhara is in latina/ prasada style which makes it
clear that this is an early example of a classical nagara
style of the temple.
• Sheshayana – on the south (Vishnu reclining on the
sheshanaga called Ananta)
• Nara-Narayana – on the east (discussion between
human soul and the eternal divine)
• Gajendramoksha – on the west (story of achieving
moksha , symbolically communicated by Vishnu’s
suppression o an asura who had taken the form of an
elephant)
• The temple is west facing, which is less common, as
most of the temples are east or north facing.
North indian temple architecture pdf
TEMPLES AT KHAJURAHO, MADHYA PRADESH
• The temples at Khajuraho were made in the
10th century, about 400 years after the temple
at Deogarh and the complex is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.
• The temples were patronized by Chandela
kings.
• We can see how dramatically the shape and
style of the nagara temple architecture had
developed.
• The temples at Khajuraho are all made of Sandstone.
• The largest temple at Khajuraho is the Kandariya Mahadeva
temple which is attributed to king Ganda.
• All the towers or shikhara of the temple rise high, upward in a
curved pyramidal fashion, emphasizing the temple’s vertical thrust
ending in a horizontal fluted disc called an Amalaka topped with a
Kalasha or a vase.
• The crowning element Kalasha and Amalaka are to be found on all
nagara temples of this period.
• The Khajuraho temples are also known for their extensive erotic
sculptures (about 10% of total sculptures); the erotic expression
gives equal importance in human experience as a spiritual pursuit,
and it is seen as a part of the larger cosmic whole.
• Many Hindu temples, therefore feature Mithuns (embracing
couples-erotic sculptures) sculptures, considered auspicious.
• Khajuraho sculptures are highly stylized with typical features.
North indian temple architecture pdf
• The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone,
with a granite foundation that is almost
concealed from view.
• The builders didn't use mortar: the stones were
put together with mortise and tenon joints and
they were held in place by gravity. This form of
construction requires very precise joints.
• The columns and architraves were built with
megaliths that weighed up to 20 tons. Some
repair work in the 19th Century was done with
brick and mortar; however, these have aged
faster than original materials and darkened with
time, thereby seeming out of place.
• The Khajuraho and Kalinjar region is home to
superior quality of sandstone, which can be
carved precisely. The surviving sculpture reflect
fine details such as strands of hair, manicured
nails, and intricate jewelry.
Sequ
ence
Modern Temple name Religion Deity
Completed by
(CE)
1 Chausath Yogini Hinduism Devi, 64 Yoginis 885
2 Lalgun Mahadev Hinduism Shiva 900
3 Brahma Temple Hinduism Vishnu 925
4 Lakshmana Hinduism Vaikuntha Vishnu 939
5 Varaha Hinduism Vishnu 950
6 Parshvanatha Jainism Parshvanatha 954
7 Ghantai Jainism Adinatha 960
8 Mahishasuramardini Hinduism Mahishasuramardini 995
9 Vishvanatha Hinduism Shiva 999
10 Matangeshwar Hinduism Shiva 1000
11 Vishnu-Garuda Hinduism Vishnu 1000
12 Ganesha Hinduism Shiva 1000
13 Devi Jagadambi Hinduism Devi, Parvati 1023
14 Chitragupta Hinduism Sun, Chitragupta 1023
15 Adinath Temple Jainism Adinatha 1027
16 Shantinatha temple Jainism Shantinatha 1027
17 Kandariya Mahadeva (the largest temple) Hinduism Shiva 1029
18 Vamana Hinduism Vamana 1062
19 Javeri Hinduism Vishnu 1090
20 Chaturbhuja Hinduism Vishnu 1110
21 Duladeo (Duladeva) Hinduism Shiva 1125
EAST INDIA
• East Indian temples include those found in the
North-East, Bengal, andOdisha and each of
these three areas produces a distinct type of
temple.
• It appears that terracotta was the main medium
of construction.
ASSAM
• An old 6th century sculpted door frame from DaParvatia
near Tezpur and another few stray sculptures from
Rangagora Tea Estate near Tinsukia in Assam bear witness
to the import of the Gupta idiom in that region.
• The post-Gupta style continued in the region well in the
10th
• However, by the 12th to 14th centuries, a distinct regional
style developed in Assam.
• The style that came with the migration of the Tais from
upper Burma mixed with the dominant Pala style of
Bengal and led to the creation of what was later known as
the Ahom style in and around Guwahati.
• Kamakhya temple, a Shakti peeth, is dedicated to goddess
Kamakhya and was built in the 17th century.
BENGAL
• The style of sculptures during the
period between the 9th and 11th centuries in
Bengal (including Bangladesh) and Bihar is
known as the Pala style, named after the
ruling dynasty at that time.
• That style in the mid 11th and mid 13th
centuries is named after the Sena kings.
• While the Palas are celebrated as patrons of
Buddhist monastic sites, the temple of the
region is known to express the Vanga style.
• The Siddheswara Mahadeva temple in
Burdwan,W.B, built in the 9thcentury, shows a
tall curving shikhara crowned by a
large amalaka, is an example of early Pala
style.
• Many of the temples from 9th to 12th centuries
were located at Telkupi in Puruta district,W.B.
• The architecture of these temples heavily
influenced the earliest Bengal Sultanate
buildings at Gaur and Pandya.
• Many local vernacular building traditions of
Bengal also influenced the style of the temple in
that region.
• The most prominent of these was the shape of
the sloping or curving side of the bamboo roof
of a Bengali hut.
• This feature was eventually even adopted in
Mughal buildings and is known as across India
as the Bangla Roof (word Bungalow derived
from this).
ODISHA (KALINGAARCHITECTURE)
• Most of the ancient temples are located in
ancient Kalinga – modern Puri district, including
Bhuvneshwar or ancient Tribhuvaneswar, Puri,
and Konark.
• The temples of Odisha constitute a distinct sub-
style within nagara order.
• In general, here the Shikhara called Deul in
Odisha is vertical almost until the top when it
suddenly curves sharply inwards.
• Mandapas in Odisha are called Jagamohanas.
• The ground plan of the main temple is almost
always square, which, in the upper reaches of its
superstructure becomes circular in the crowning
• The exterior of the temple is lavishly curved
while their interiors are generally quite bare.
• Odisha temples usually have outer walls.
ODISHA (KALINGAARCHITECTURE)
A. REKHAPIDA/ REKHA DEULA/ RATHAKA
DEULA:
Rekha means line and it is a tall straight building
with a shape of a sugar loaf. It covers the
garbhagriha.
PIDHADEULA
It is a square building with a pyramid shaped roof
and is mainly found for housing the outer dancing
and offering halls.
KHAKRADEULA
It is a rectangular building with a truncated
pyramid shaped roof.Temples of the female
deities are usually in this form (garbhagriha
usually) and will have a resemblance with
Dravidian temples of the south.
SUN TEMPLE, KONARK, ODISHA
• It is built around 1240 on the shores of the Bay of
Bengal.
• The temple is set on a high base, its walls covered in
extensive, detailed ornamental carving.
• These include 12 pairs of enormous wheels sculpted
with spokes and hubs, representing the chariot wheels of
the sun God who, in mythology, rides a chariot driven by
8 horses, sculpted here at the entrance staircase.
• The whole temple thus comes to resemble a colossal
processional chariot.
• On the southern wall is a massive sculpture of
Surya carved out of green stones.
• It is said that there were 3 such images, carved
out of a different stone placed on the three
temple walls, each facing different directions.
• The fourth wall had the doorway into the temple
from where the actual rays of the sun would
enter the garbhagriha.
JAGANNATHA TEMPLE, PURI, ODISHA
• When most of the deities in the temples of India
are made of stone or metal, the idol of
Jagannatha is made of wood which is
ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or
nineteen years by using sacred trees.
• The temple is believed to be constructed in the
12th century by KingAnatavarman Chodaganga
Deva of the EasternGanga Dynasty.
• The temple is famous for its annual RathaYatra or
Chariot festival.
• The construction of temple is such that the
shadow of the main dome of the temple cannot be
observed at any given time.The shadow of the
main dome is invisible at any time of the
day. Maybe an architectural feat or the Lord’s
desire.
WEST INDIA
• There are too numerous temples in the
northwestern parts of India, including Gujarat
and Rajasthan, and stylistically extendable, at
times, to western Madhya Pradesh.
• The stones to build temples ranges in colour
and type.
• While sandstone is the commonest, a grey to
black basalt can be seen in some of the 10th to
12th-century temple sculptures.
• The most exuberant and famed are the
manipulatable soft white marble which is also
seen in some of the 10th to 12th-century Jain
temples in MountAbu and the 15th-century
temple at Ranatpur.
• Among the most important art, historical sites
in the region are Samlaji in Gujarat.
• It shows how earlier artistic traditions of the
region mixed with a post-Gupta style and gave
rise to a distinct style of sculpture.
• A large number of sculptures made of grey
schist have been found in this region.
SUNTEMPLE, MODHERA, GUJARAT
• The temple dates back to the early 11th century
and was built by Raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki
dynasty.
• The Solanks were a branch off later Chalukyas.
• There is a massive rectangular stepped tank
called Surya Kund in front of it.
• The hundred square metre rectangular pond is
perhaps the grandest temple tank in India.
• A hundred and eight miniature shrines are carved
in between the steps inside the tank.
• A huge ornamental arch-torana leads one to
the sabha mandapa (the assembly hall) which is
open on all sides, as was the fashion of the times in
western and central India temples.
THE HILLS
• A unique form of architecture developed in the
hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Himachal and
Kashmir.
• Kashmir’s proximity to Gandhara site (such as
Taxila, Peshawar and northwest frontier) left
the region a strong Gandhara influence by the
5thcentury CE.
• This began to mix with the Gupta and post-
Gupta traditions that brought to it from
Sarnath, Mathura, and even centres in Gujarat
and Bengal.
• Both Buddhist and Hindu traditions began to
intermingle and spread in the hills.
• The hills also had their own tradition of wooden
building with pitched roofs and as a result, while
the main garbhagriha and shikhara are made in
latina/rekha-prasada type, the mandapa is an
older form of wooden architecture.
• Sometimes, the temple itself takes on a pagoda
shape.
• The Karkota period of Kashmir is the most
significant in terms of architecture.
• The most important temples of these regions
are Pandrethan, Laksna-devi Mandir, Jageswar
near Almora,Chambavat near Pithoragarh, etc.
PANDRETHAN JAGESHWAR LAKSNA-DEVI MANDI
KEY POINTS
• Basic form of a temple
• Design process for designing a temple
• Selecting the site and layout of the temple
• Differentiating the styles of architecture based on the basic form of the temples
• About the north Indian architecture
• Types of north Indian temple architecture or nagara style architecture based on the type of sikhara
• North Indian temple architecture or nagara style architecture in different places of India as east, west,
central and those in hills.
THANK YOU

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North indian temple architecture pdf

  • 1. INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IFYOU CAN SEETHE INVISIBLEYOUCAN ACHIEVETHE IMPOSSIBLE
  • 2. INDIANTEMPLE ARCHITECTURE Before considering the north Indian architecture, we should be aware of the Indian temple architecture.
  • 3. BASIC FORM OF ATEMPLE It was a gradual evolution starting from the rock cut- cave temples to monolithic rathas which finally culminated in structural temples. The basic form of a Hindu structural temple consists of the following 1. GARBHAGRIHA 2. MANDAPA 3. SHIKHARA OR VIMANA 4. AMALAKA 5. KALASHA 6. ANTARALA 7. JAGATI 8. VAHANA
  • 4. GARBHAGRIHA • It literally means ‘womb-house’ and is a cave like a sanctum. • In the earliest temples, it was a small cubical structure with a single entrance. • Later it grew into a larger complex. • The Garbhagriha is made to house the main icon (main deity) which is itself the focus of much ritual attention.
  • 5. MANDAPA • It is the entrance to the temple. • It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at regular intervals) hall that incorporates space for a large number of worshippers. • Dances and such other entertainments are practiced here. • Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named as Ardhamandapa, Mandapa, and Mahamandapa.
  • 6. SHIKHARA ORVIMANA • They are mountain like the spire of a free- standing temple. • Shikhara is found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples. • Shikhara has a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal-like structure.
  • 7. AMALAKA It is a stone disc like structure at the top of the temple and they are common in North Indian temples.
  • 8. KALASHA It is the topmost point of the temple and commonly seen in North Indian temples.
  • 9. ANTARALA (VESTIBULE) Antarala is a transition area between the Garbhagriha and the temple’s main hall (mandapa).
  • 10. JAGATI It is a raised platform for sitting and praying and is common in North Indian temples.
  • 11. VAHANA It is the mount or vehicle of the temple’s main deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj which is placed axially before the sanctum.
  • 14. DESIGN The very essence of a Hindu temple is believed to have developed from the ideology that all things are one and everything is associated. The four essential and significant principles which are also aims of human life according to Indian philosophy are the quests for Artha - wealth and prosperity; Kama - sex and pleasure; Dharma - moral life and virtues; and moksha - self knowledge and realisation. The mathematically structured spaces, intricate artworks, decorated and carved pillars and statues of Hindu temples illustrate and revere such philosophies. A hollow space without any embellishments situated at the centre of the temple, usually below the deity, may also be at the side or above the deity symbolises the complex concept of Purusha or Purusa meaning the Universal principle, Consciousness, the cosmic man or self without any form, however, omnipresent and associates all things. The Hindu temples suggest contemplations, encouragement and further purification of mind and prompt the process of self-realisation in devoteeshart, graphic, or video supports your thesis or claim sentence. ARTHA KAMA MOKSHA DHARMA
  • 15. SITE The areas of Hindu temple sites are usually vast with many of them built near water bodies, in the lap of nature. This is probably because according to ancient Sanskrit texts the most suitable site for a Hindu temple referred as ‘Mandir’ is at close proximity to water bodies and gardens where flowers blossom, chirping of birds and sounds of ducks and swans can be heard and animals can rest without any fear. These places exhibiting peace and tranquillity are recommended by the texts for building Hindu temples elucidating that Gods reside in such places. Part III of Chapter 93 of the Hindu text Vishnudharmottara Purana also recommends building of temples within caves and chiseled out stones; atop hills amidst spectacular and serene views; within hermitages and forests; beside gardens; and at the upper end of a street of a town.
  • 16. LAYOUT The 8x8 (64) grid Manduka Hindu Temple Floor Plan, according to Vastupurusamandala.The 64 grid is the most sacred and common Hindu temple template.The bright saffron center, where diagonals intersect above, represents the Purusha of Hindu philosophy.
  • 17. A Hindu temple has a Shikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple.These spires come in many designs and shapes, but they all have mathematical precision and geometric symbolism. One of the common principles found in Hindu temple spires is circles and turning-squares theme (left), and a concentric layering design (right) that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.[
  • 18. CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN TEMPLES Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as • Nagara (in North India) is associated with the land between the Himalayas and Vindhyas. • Dravida (in South India) with the land between the Krishna and Kaveri rivers. • Vesara style of temples as an independent style created through the mixing of Nagara and Dravida orders.
  • 20. NAGARA STYLE • Nagara is the style of temple architecture which became popular in Northern India. • It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it. • Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways. • Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower), but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came. • The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower.
  • 21. NAGARA STYLE ARCHITECTURE (NORTH INDIAN ARCHITECTURE) • Nagara is the style of temple architecture which became popular in Northern India. • It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it. • Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways. • Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower), but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came. • The garbhagriha is always located directly under the tallest tower.
  • 22. TEMPLES CAN BE SUBDIVIDED MAINLY INTOTHREE – BASED ONTHE SHIKHARATYPE • Latina/ Rekha prasada • Phamsana type shikhara • Valabhi type shikhara
  • 23. LATINA / REKHA PRASADA • It is the simple and most common type of shikhara. • It is square at the base and the walls curve or slopes inwards to a point on top. • Latina types are mainly used for housing the garbhagriha. • Later on, the Latina buildings grew complex, and instead of appearing like a single tower, the temple began to support many small towers, which were clustered together like rising mountain type with the tallest one being in the centre, and this was the one which was always above the garbhagriha.
  • 24. PHAMSANATYPE SHIKHARA • They are broader and shorter than Latina type. • Their roof is composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the centre of the building, unlike the Latina ones which look like sharply rising towers. • Phamsana roofs do not curve inwards; instead, they slope upward on a straight incline. • In many north Indian temples, the phamsana type is used for mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a Latina building.
  • 25. VALABHITYPE SHIKHARA • These are rectangular buildings with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber. • The edge of the vaulted chamber is round, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times. • The form of this temple is influenced by ancient building forms that were already in existence.
  • 26. NORTH INDIANTEMPLE ARCHITECTURE CAN ALSO BE SUBDIVIDED BASED ONTHE REGION • CENTRAL INDIA • EAST INDIA • WEST INDIA • THE HILLS EAST INDAIAGAIN DIVIDEDAS • ASSAM • BENGAL • ODISHA ODISHA AGAIN DIVIDEDAS • REKHAPIDA/ REKHA DEULA/ RATHAKA DEULA • PIDHADEULA • KHAKRADEULA
  • 28. • Even though the patrons and donors of the temple are unknown, it is believed that this temple was built in the early 6th century CE. • This is a classical example of the late Gupta period. • This temple is in the Panchayatana style of architecture. [Panchayatana is an architectural style where the main shrine is built on a rectangular plinth with four smaller subsidiary shrines at the four corners and making it a total of five shrines – i.e., Pancha] • There are 3 main reliefs ofVishnu on the temple walls.
  • 29. • The temple depicts Vishnu in various forms due to which it was assumed that the four subsidiary shrines must also house Vishnu’s avatars and the temple was mistaken for a dashavatara temple. • The grand doorway of the west facing temple (west facing is less common) has the sculptures of Ganga on the left and Yamuna on the right side. • The shikhara is in latina/ prasada style which makes it clear that this is an early example of a classical nagara style of the temple. • Sheshayana – on the south (Vishnu reclining on the sheshanaga called Ananta) • Nara-Narayana – on the east (discussion between human soul and the eternal divine) • Gajendramoksha – on the west (story of achieving moksha , symbolically communicated by Vishnu’s suppression o an asura who had taken the form of an elephant) • The temple is west facing, which is less common, as most of the temples are east or north facing.
  • 31. TEMPLES AT KHAJURAHO, MADHYA PRADESH • The temples at Khajuraho were made in the 10th century, about 400 years after the temple at Deogarh and the complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • The temples were patronized by Chandela kings. • We can see how dramatically the shape and style of the nagara temple architecture had developed.
  • 32. • The temples at Khajuraho are all made of Sandstone. • The largest temple at Khajuraho is the Kandariya Mahadeva temple which is attributed to king Ganda. • All the towers or shikhara of the temple rise high, upward in a curved pyramidal fashion, emphasizing the temple’s vertical thrust ending in a horizontal fluted disc called an Amalaka topped with a Kalasha or a vase. • The crowning element Kalasha and Amalaka are to be found on all nagara temples of this period. • The Khajuraho temples are also known for their extensive erotic sculptures (about 10% of total sculptures); the erotic expression gives equal importance in human experience as a spiritual pursuit, and it is seen as a part of the larger cosmic whole. • Many Hindu temples, therefore feature Mithuns (embracing couples-erotic sculptures) sculptures, considered auspicious. • Khajuraho sculptures are highly stylized with typical features.
  • 34. • The Khajuraho temples are made of sandstone, with a granite foundation that is almost concealed from view. • The builders didn't use mortar: the stones were put together with mortise and tenon joints and they were held in place by gravity. This form of construction requires very precise joints. • The columns and architraves were built with megaliths that weighed up to 20 tons. Some repair work in the 19th Century was done with brick and mortar; however, these have aged faster than original materials and darkened with time, thereby seeming out of place. • The Khajuraho and Kalinjar region is home to superior quality of sandstone, which can be carved precisely. The surviving sculpture reflect fine details such as strands of hair, manicured nails, and intricate jewelry.
  • 35. Sequ ence Modern Temple name Religion Deity Completed by (CE) 1 Chausath Yogini Hinduism Devi, 64 Yoginis 885 2 Lalgun Mahadev Hinduism Shiva 900 3 Brahma Temple Hinduism Vishnu 925 4 Lakshmana Hinduism Vaikuntha Vishnu 939 5 Varaha Hinduism Vishnu 950 6 Parshvanatha Jainism Parshvanatha 954 7 Ghantai Jainism Adinatha 960 8 Mahishasuramardini Hinduism Mahishasuramardini 995 9 Vishvanatha Hinduism Shiva 999 10 Matangeshwar Hinduism Shiva 1000 11 Vishnu-Garuda Hinduism Vishnu 1000 12 Ganesha Hinduism Shiva 1000 13 Devi Jagadambi Hinduism Devi, Parvati 1023 14 Chitragupta Hinduism Sun, Chitragupta 1023 15 Adinath Temple Jainism Adinatha 1027 16 Shantinatha temple Jainism Shantinatha 1027 17 Kandariya Mahadeva (the largest temple) Hinduism Shiva 1029 18 Vamana Hinduism Vamana 1062 19 Javeri Hinduism Vishnu 1090 20 Chaturbhuja Hinduism Vishnu 1110 21 Duladeo (Duladeva) Hinduism Shiva 1125
  • 36. EAST INDIA • East Indian temples include those found in the North-East, Bengal, andOdisha and each of these three areas produces a distinct type of temple. • It appears that terracotta was the main medium of construction.
  • 37. ASSAM • An old 6th century sculpted door frame from DaParvatia near Tezpur and another few stray sculptures from Rangagora Tea Estate near Tinsukia in Assam bear witness to the import of the Gupta idiom in that region. • The post-Gupta style continued in the region well in the 10th • However, by the 12th to 14th centuries, a distinct regional style developed in Assam. • The style that came with the migration of the Tais from upper Burma mixed with the dominant Pala style of Bengal and led to the creation of what was later known as the Ahom style in and around Guwahati. • Kamakhya temple, a Shakti peeth, is dedicated to goddess Kamakhya and was built in the 17th century.
  • 38. BENGAL • The style of sculptures during the period between the 9th and 11th centuries in Bengal (including Bangladesh) and Bihar is known as the Pala style, named after the ruling dynasty at that time. • That style in the mid 11th and mid 13th centuries is named after the Sena kings.
  • 39. • While the Palas are celebrated as patrons of Buddhist monastic sites, the temple of the region is known to express the Vanga style. • The Siddheswara Mahadeva temple in Burdwan,W.B, built in the 9thcentury, shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka, is an example of early Pala style. • Many of the temples from 9th to 12th centuries were located at Telkupi in Puruta district,W.B.
  • 40. • The architecture of these temples heavily influenced the earliest Bengal Sultanate buildings at Gaur and Pandya. • Many local vernacular building traditions of Bengal also influenced the style of the temple in that region. • The most prominent of these was the shape of the sloping or curving side of the bamboo roof of a Bengali hut. • This feature was eventually even adopted in Mughal buildings and is known as across India as the Bangla Roof (word Bungalow derived from this).
  • 41. ODISHA (KALINGAARCHITECTURE) • Most of the ancient temples are located in ancient Kalinga – modern Puri district, including Bhuvneshwar or ancient Tribhuvaneswar, Puri, and Konark. • The temples of Odisha constitute a distinct sub- style within nagara order. • In general, here the Shikhara called Deul in Odisha is vertical almost until the top when it suddenly curves sharply inwards. • Mandapas in Odisha are called Jagamohanas. • The ground plan of the main temple is almost always square, which, in the upper reaches of its superstructure becomes circular in the crowning • The exterior of the temple is lavishly curved while their interiors are generally quite bare. • Odisha temples usually have outer walls.
  • 42. ODISHA (KALINGAARCHITECTURE) A. REKHAPIDA/ REKHA DEULA/ RATHAKA DEULA: Rekha means line and it is a tall straight building with a shape of a sugar loaf. It covers the garbhagriha.
  • 43. PIDHADEULA It is a square building with a pyramid shaped roof and is mainly found for housing the outer dancing and offering halls.
  • 44. KHAKRADEULA It is a rectangular building with a truncated pyramid shaped roof.Temples of the female deities are usually in this form (garbhagriha usually) and will have a resemblance with Dravidian temples of the south.
  • 45. SUN TEMPLE, KONARK, ODISHA • It is built around 1240 on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. • The temple is set on a high base, its walls covered in extensive, detailed ornamental carving. • These include 12 pairs of enormous wheels sculpted with spokes and hubs, representing the chariot wheels of the sun God who, in mythology, rides a chariot driven by 8 horses, sculpted here at the entrance staircase. • The whole temple thus comes to resemble a colossal processional chariot.
  • 46. • On the southern wall is a massive sculpture of Surya carved out of green stones. • It is said that there were 3 such images, carved out of a different stone placed on the three temple walls, each facing different directions. • The fourth wall had the doorway into the temple from where the actual rays of the sun would enter the garbhagriha.
  • 47. JAGANNATHA TEMPLE, PURI, ODISHA • When most of the deities in the temples of India are made of stone or metal, the idol of Jagannatha is made of wood which is ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or nineteen years by using sacred trees. • The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by KingAnatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the EasternGanga Dynasty. • The temple is famous for its annual RathaYatra or Chariot festival. • The construction of temple is such that the shadow of the main dome of the temple cannot be observed at any given time.The shadow of the main dome is invisible at any time of the day. Maybe an architectural feat or the Lord’s desire.
  • 48. WEST INDIA • There are too numerous temples in the northwestern parts of India, including Gujarat and Rajasthan, and stylistically extendable, at times, to western Madhya Pradesh. • The stones to build temples ranges in colour and type. • While sandstone is the commonest, a grey to black basalt can be seen in some of the 10th to 12th-century temple sculptures. • The most exuberant and famed are the manipulatable soft white marble which is also seen in some of the 10th to 12th-century Jain temples in MountAbu and the 15th-century temple at Ranatpur. • Among the most important art, historical sites in the region are Samlaji in Gujarat. • It shows how earlier artistic traditions of the region mixed with a post-Gupta style and gave rise to a distinct style of sculpture. • A large number of sculptures made of grey schist have been found in this region.
  • 49. SUNTEMPLE, MODHERA, GUJARAT • The temple dates back to the early 11th century and was built by Raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki dynasty. • The Solanks were a branch off later Chalukyas. • There is a massive rectangular stepped tank called Surya Kund in front of it. • The hundred square metre rectangular pond is perhaps the grandest temple tank in India. • A hundred and eight miniature shrines are carved in between the steps inside the tank. • A huge ornamental arch-torana leads one to the sabha mandapa (the assembly hall) which is open on all sides, as was the fashion of the times in western and central India temples.
  • 50. THE HILLS • A unique form of architecture developed in the hills of Kumaon, Garhwal, Himachal and Kashmir. • Kashmir’s proximity to Gandhara site (such as Taxila, Peshawar and northwest frontier) left the region a strong Gandhara influence by the 5thcentury CE. • This began to mix with the Gupta and post- Gupta traditions that brought to it from Sarnath, Mathura, and even centres in Gujarat and Bengal. • Both Buddhist and Hindu traditions began to intermingle and spread in the hills. • The hills also had their own tradition of wooden building with pitched roofs and as a result, while the main garbhagriha and shikhara are made in latina/rekha-prasada type, the mandapa is an older form of wooden architecture. • Sometimes, the temple itself takes on a pagoda shape. • The Karkota period of Kashmir is the most significant in terms of architecture. • The most important temples of these regions are Pandrethan, Laksna-devi Mandir, Jageswar near Almora,Chambavat near Pithoragarh, etc.
  • 52. KEY POINTS • Basic form of a temple • Design process for designing a temple • Selecting the site and layout of the temple • Differentiating the styles of architecture based on the basic form of the temples • About the north Indian architecture • Types of north Indian temple architecture or nagara style architecture based on the type of sikhara • North Indian temple architecture or nagara style architecture in different places of India as east, west, central and those in hills.