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HEMATOLOGY
Hematocrit and Smear
Page 1 of 1
Figure 1: Normal blood smear
Figure 2: RETICULOCYTE
stain
Figure 3: Thin area of smear
Figure 4: Thick area, plus drying artifacts
Figure 5: (for comparison) TRUE ROULEAUX- when
protein concentration in the blood is high (e.g. multiple
myeloma) red cells are coated and their normal elec-
trostatic repulsion is lost. This leads to the "stacked
coin" appearance seen in the slide.
Figure 6: Drying Artifacts
HEMATOLOGY
Hematocrit and Smear
Page 2 of 2
Figure 7: Drying Artifacts
Figure 8: Normal NEUTROPHIL and LYMPHOCYTE
Figure 9: Normal MONOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE
Figure 10: MONOCYTE
Figure 11: EOSINOPHIL
Figure 12: BASOPHILS
HEMATOLOGY
Hematocrit and Smear
Page 3 of 3
Figure 13: Peripheral blood- MYELOCYTES and
METAMYELOCYTE are not normal findings in periph-
eral blood but may be seen in conditions such as mye-
lophthisis (invasion of the bone marrow), hemolytic
anemias, and other stressful states.
Figure 14: Nucleated RBC (orthochromic normoblast)-
similarly not seen normally but seen with myelophthi-
sis, hemolysis, and other stresses.
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 4 of 4
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood: normal; 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 2 Bone marrow: normal; 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 3 Peripheral blood: iron defi-
ciency anemia 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 4 Peripheral blood: Lead poison-
ing- basophilic stippling 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 5 Peripheral blood: Sideroblastic
anemia- one classically sees dimorphic red cells: a
hypochromic/microcytic population and larger cells
that are not hypochromic. This type of picture could
also be seen after blood transfusion and with partially
treated iron-deficiency anemia. 525x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 5 of 5
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 6 Bone marrow: Sideroblastic
anemia; Prussian blue stain; in pathognomonic ringed
SIDEROBLASTS, the iron appears to surround the nu-
cleus because it is trapped in mitochondria. Ringed
SIDEROBLASTS can be idiopathic (e.g. myelodysplas-
tic syndrome), hereditary, and can occur with drugs
and toxins (especially alcohol). 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral blood: megaloblastic
anemia- The earliest morphologic abnormality in
B12/Folate deficiency is hypersegmentation of the
NEUTROPHILS (greater than 5 lobes). There is pancy-
topenia, oval MACROCYTES, and extreme anisocyto-
sis; 640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 8 Bone marrow: megaloblastic
anemia- the hallmark of megaloblastic change is nu-
clear/cytoplasmic asynchrony or dissociation. Most of
the cells in this field are red cell precursors with cyto-
plasmic maturation but large nuclei with non-
condensed chromatin. 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 9 Peripheral blood: myelofibro-
sis- TEARDROPS and ELLIPTOCYTES are characteris-
tic of myelophthisic processes and are most extreme
in myelofibrosis. Leukoerythroblastosis (immature
myeloid cells and nucleated red blood cells in the
blood) are also most characteristic of myelophthisic
processes and is always seen in myelofibrosis. 640x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 6 of 6
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 10 Peripheral blood: macroglobu-
linemia, ROULEAUX 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 11 Peripheral blood: ECHINO-
CYTES and TARGET CELLS;. 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 12 Peripheral blood: spur cell
anemia (ACANTHOCYTES with liver disease) 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 13 Peripheral blood: STOMATO-
CYTES- most often artifacts, but true stomatocytes can
be seen after alcohol binges and with rare hereditary
conditions; 640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 14 Peripheral blood: autoimmune
hemolytic anemia; SPHEROCYTES, small cells lacking
central pallor, are formed when red blood cells lose
some of their membrane and must maximize surface:
volume ratio. SPHEROCYTES is the predominant ab-
normality in the blood smear in autoimmune hemolytic
anemia and hereditary spherocytosis. Note also in this
slide the large bluish cells, which represent RETICU-
LOCYTES. 640x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 7 of 7
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 15 Peripheral blood: hereditary
spherocytosis cannot be distinguished from autoim-
mune hemolytic anemia on the blood film. The disor-
ders can be distinguished by history, physical exam
(splenomegaly), and DIRECT Coombs' test. 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 16 Peripheral blood: iron defi-
ciency anemia complicated by hemolytic transfusion-
There is underlying hypochromic/microcytic red cells.
SPHEROCYTES are a result of the immune hemolytic
reaction to mismatched blood. 640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 17 Peripheral blood: hereditary
elliptocytosis- usually a mild hereditary hemolytic
anemia. 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 18 Peripheral blood: thalassemia
minor- there is always substantial MICROCYTOSIS.
TARGET CELLS, basophilic stippling, and hy-
pochromia may or may not be prominent. 640x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 8 of 8
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 19 Peripheral blood: thalassemia
major 640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 20 Peripheral blood: sickle cell
anemia- TARGET CELLS are seen in hemoglobi-
nopathies, thalassemias, in liver disease, and asplenia.
640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 21 Peripheral blood: hemoglobin
SC disease- SC patients frequently have compensated
hemolysis (they are not anemic). SICKLE CELLS tend
to be few, TARGET CELLS prominent, and there are a
number of unusual forms (BOAT CELLS). 800x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 22 Peripheral blood:
S-thalassemia- In Sickle-thalassemia, the anemia tends
to be milder than in SS disease, there are few SICKLE
CELLS, and there is MICROCYTOSIS. 640x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 9 of 9
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 23 Peripheral blood: red cell
fragmentation due to artificial valve- In contrast to mi-
croangiopathic hemolysis, the platelet count is not
low. 640x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 24 Peripheral blood: thrombotic
thrombocytopenic purpura- Causes of microan-
giopathic hemolytic anemia include: TTP, hemolytic-
uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagula-
tion, disseminated carcinomatosis, malignant hyper-
tension, and renal vasculitis. Conditions other than
TTP would rarely, if ever, produce a blood smear pic-
ture this severe. In the proper clinical context (neu-
rologic symptoms), this smear would be diagnostic of
TTP. 525x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 25 Peripheral blood: microan-
giopathic hemolytic anemia- In microangiopathic
hemolytic anemias, there are SCHISTOCYTES,
SPHEROCYTES, polychromasia, and thrombocyto-
penia. 800x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 26 Kidney: microangiopathic
hemolytic anemia 200x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells
Page 10 of 10
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 27 Peripheral blood: microan-
giopathic hemolytic anemia associated with dissemi-
nated cancer 800x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 28 Lung: intravascular tumor
125x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 29 Peripheral blood: malaria
parasite- this slide illustrates a ringed form MERO-
ZOITE. 1250x
Lab 1- Kodachrome: 30 Review abnormal red cell
shapes:
HEMATOLOGY
Anemia
Page 11 of 11
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 1 Case A: Iron deficiency anemia,
640x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 2 Case B: Pernicious anemia,
640x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 3 Case B: Pernicious anemia,
1225x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 4 Case B: Pernicious anemia,
640x
HEMATOLOGY
Anemia
Page 12 of 12
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 5 Case C: Sickle Cell Anemia,
525x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 6 Case C: Sickle Cell Anemia,
1225x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 7 Case D: Hereditary Spherocy-
tosis, 640x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 8 Case D: Hereditary Sperocyto-
sis,1225x
HEMATOLOGY
Anemia
Page 13 of 13
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 9 Case E: Postsplenectomy state,
800x
Lab 3- Kodachrome: 10 Case E: Postsplenectomy
state, 1225x
HEMATOLOGY
Lymphoma
Page 14 of 14
Lab 7- Kodachrome: 1 Hodgkin's disease, nodular
sclerosing
Lab 7- Kodachrome: 2 Follicular lymphoma, low power
Lab 7- Kodachrome: 3 Follicular lymphoma, small
cleaved (high power)
Lab 7- Kodachrome: 4 Follicular lymphoma ("BUT-
TOCK" CELL)
HEMATOLOGY
Pancytopenia and Thrombocytopenia
Page 15 of 15
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 2 Peripheral blood
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 3 Bone marrow aspirate
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 4 Bone marrow biopsy
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 5 Reticulin Stain
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 6 Tartrate-resistant acid phos-
phatase
HEMATOLOGY
Pancytopenia and Thrombocytopenia
Page 16 of 16
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral Blood- thrombocy-
topenia
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 8 Peripheral Blood-
MEGATHROMBOCYTE
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 9 Bone marrow/increased
MEGAKARYOCYTES
Lab 8- Kodachrome: 10 Bone marrow/vacuolated
MEGAKARYOCYTE
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 17 of 17
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood: chronic mye-
loid leukemia; The full spectrum of myeloid maturation
visible from immature MYELOCYTES to NEUTRO-
PHILS. There are usually peaks in the differential at the
myeloid and neutrophil stages. A LAP (Leukocyte
Alkaline Phosphatase) score is useful to differentiate
CML (low) from a leukemoid reaction (high). 525x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 2 Peripheral blood: BASOPHILS
in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia; Basophilia
is found in all myeloproliferative disorders and is sign
of acceleration in CML. 800x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 3 Peripheral blood: Myelophthi-
sis. There are numerous TEARDROPS and ELIPTO-
CYTES. Leukoerythroblastosis (immature myeloid
cells and nucleated RBCs in the blood) is also consis-
tent with myelophthisis but especially myelofibrosis.
525x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 4 Bone marrow biopsy: Myelofi-
brosis; Wright's stain. The bone marrow aspirate is
usually dry, and one sees a swirling pattern H/E. 160x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 18 of 18
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 5 Bone marrow biopsy: myelofi-
brosis; Reticulin stain 160x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 6 Bone marrow biopsy: myelofi-
brosis; Masson stain 525x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral blood: acute mye-
loblastic leukemia. There are numerous BLASTS with
pale, blue cytoplasm, an increased N/C ratio, fine un-
condensed chromatin, and +/- nucleoli.
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 8 Peripheral blood: acute mye-
loblasitc leukemia- note the abundance of immature
GRANULOCYTES; Sudan black stain 640x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 19 of 19
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 9 Peripheral blood: acute mye-
loblasitc leukemia; Peroxidase stain 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 10 Peripheral blood: acute mye-
loblasitc leukemia; Approximately 20 % of mye-
loid/monocytic leukemic cells have Auer Rod - linear
condensations of abnormal primary granules.;
Wright's stain; 640x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 11 Bone Marrow: acute promye-
locytic leukemia; The cells are not only morphologi-
cally distinguishable due to the hypergranularity, but
this variant of AML also has a number of distinguish-
ing characteristics including: association with DIC, a
specific chromosomal abnormality (t15;17), and a high
response rate to congenors of retinoic acid.
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 12 Peripheral blood: acute lym-
phoblastic leukemia; Wright's stain, 1225x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 20 of 20
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 13 Peripheral blood: acute lym-
phoblastic leukemia; PAS stain. Both LYMPHOBLASTS
and RED CELL BLASTS in erythroleukemia stain PAS
+. 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 14 Peripheral blood: acute
monocytic leukemia; The malignant cells have the
same characteristics as MONOCYTES with blue-gray
cytoplasm and folded nuclei. There is also a pro-
penisty to invlove extramedullary sites, including the
gums. 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 15 Bone marrow: acute mono-
cytic leukemia; non specific esterase; NSE stains cells
of the monocytic lineage. 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 16 Peripheral blood: Erythroleu-
kemia- the bizarre red cell precursors indicate erythro-
leukemia; 525x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 21 of 21
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 17 Peripheral blood: Chronic
lymphocytic leukemia; There are a number of small,
mature lymphocytes c/w CLL. The diagnosis is usually
confirmed with a bone marrow biopsy or flow cytome-
try which shows MONOCLONAL B CELL proliferation
(classically CD5+)1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 18 Peripheral blood: Follicular B
Cell Lymphoma- The clefted lymphoid cell with a nu-
cleolus ("BUTTOCK” CELL) is characteristic of this
type of lymphoma; 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 19 Bone marrow: Burkitt's lym-
phoma- The Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia cells are
immature, deeply basophilic, and highly vacuolated.
This lymphoma is associated with the t8;21, the Ep-
stein-Barr Virus in the African variant, and has shown
an increased incidence in patients with AIDS and im-
munosuppression. In addition, it is the fastest growing
cancer known to man with a doubling time of 24 hours.
Wright stain.
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 20 Peripheral blood: Pelger-huet
anomaly; PELGER-HUET CELLS are mature NEUTRO-
PHILS with 2 symmetric round/oval nuclear lobes with
a thin strand of chromatin in between. These cells are
associated with a benign hereditary condition and an
acquired pseudo-Pelger-Huet abnormality in myelopro-
liferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes, in
addition to reactive processes. 1225x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 22 of 22
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 21 Peripheral blood: Pelger-huet
anomaly; Stodtmeister cell. This is a uninuclear variant
of the Pelger-Huet anomaly.; 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 22 Peripheral blood: Hairy cell
leukemia classically presents with splenomegaly,
pancytopenia with lymphadenopathy. There is an ex-
cellent prognosis with certain treatments including 2-
CDA or IFN.; 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 23 Peripheral blood: Atypical
lymphocytes: excessive cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei,
+/- nucleoli, and the chromatin ay not be completely
clumped. The DDx includes: Infectious mononucleo-
sis, CMV, Toxoplasmosis, and reactive processes. N.B.
In mononucleosis, the B cells are infected, but it is the
T cells which appear atypical; 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 24 Peripheral blood: There are
several reactive LYMPHOCYTES suggestive of infec-
tious mononucleosis; 1225x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 23 of 23
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 25 Peripheral blood: Reactive
Lymphocytosis (influenza)
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 26 Bone Marrow: PLASMA
CELLS characterized by deeply basophilic cytoplasm,
eccentric nuclei, perinuclear clear zone. These cells
are diagnostic of a variant of multiple myeloma (1% of
all cases) called plasma cell leukemia.; 525x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 27 Bone Marrow: Tumor clumps
of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate in the
bone marrow.; 640x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 28 Bone Marrow: Lipid laden
MACROPHAGES consistent with Gaucher's disease, in
which the glucocerebrosidase enzyme is deficient.
800x
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 24 of 24
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 29 Peripheral blood: Extreme
thrombocytosis. Platelet counts this high (1.5 to
2,000,000) are only seen in myeloproliferative disor-
ders, including essential thrombocythemia, which is
charcterized by both hemorrhagic and thrombotic ten-
dencies.; 800x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 30 Peripheral blood:
MEGATHROMBOCYTE (giant platelet)- these are seen
in a reactive processes but also myeloproliferative
disorders. These platelets are often functionally ab-
normal.; 1225x
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 31 Toxic Granulation of NEU-
TROPHIL- a non-specific sign of infection.
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 32 Dohle Body. These areas in
the cytoplasm of NEUTROPHILS stain blue with
Wright's stain due to the increase in RNA present in
the RER of the cells. Dohle bodies are seen in a num-
ber of conditions, including: sepsis, burns, myelodys-
plastic conditions, and hereditary conditions.
HEMATOLOGY
Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets
Page 25 of 25
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 33 Vacuolization of NEUTRO-
PHILS
Lab 9- Kodachrome: 34 LAP stain of NEUTROPHILS;
In this case, the LAP is high, consistent with reactive
neutrophilia. A low LAP score would be consistent
with CML.
HEMATOLOGY
Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders
Page 26 of 26
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 1 Case H: Chronic myelogenous
leukemia- many mature white cells; low LAP score
(high in reactive leukocytosis)
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 2 Case H: Chronic myelogenous
leukemia
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 3 Case I: Hodgkin's disease
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 4 Case I: Hodgkin's disease
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 5 Case J:
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 6 Case K: Hereditary Pelger-
Huet anomaly
HEMATOLOGY
Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders
Page 27 of 27
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 7 Case K: Hereditary Pelger-
Huet anomaly
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 8 Case K: Hereditary Pelger-
Huet anomaly
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 9 Case K: Hereditary Pelger-
Huet anomaly
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 10 Case L: Thrombotic throm-
bocytopenic purpura- marked SCHISTOCYTES, occa-
sional SPHEROCYTES, moderate polychromasia,
thrombocytopenia
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 11 Case L: Thrombotic throm-
bocytopenic purpura- SCHISTOCYTES, thrombocyto-
penia
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 12 Case M: Acute leukemia,
probably lymphoblastic
HEMATOLOGY
Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders
Page 28 of 28
Lab 10- Kodachrome: 13 Case M: Acute leukemia,
probably lymphoblastic

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Hematology

  • 1. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit and Smear Page 1 of 1 Figure 1: Normal blood smear Figure 2: RETICULOCYTE stain Figure 3: Thin area of smear Figure 4: Thick area, plus drying artifacts Figure 5: (for comparison) TRUE ROULEAUX- when protein concentration in the blood is high (e.g. multiple myeloma) red cells are coated and their normal elec- trostatic repulsion is lost. This leads to the "stacked coin" appearance seen in the slide. Figure 6: Drying Artifacts
  • 2. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit and Smear Page 2 of 2 Figure 7: Drying Artifacts Figure 8: Normal NEUTROPHIL and LYMPHOCYTE Figure 9: Normal MONOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE Figure 10: MONOCYTE Figure 11: EOSINOPHIL Figure 12: BASOPHILS
  • 3. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit and Smear Page 3 of 3 Figure 13: Peripheral blood- MYELOCYTES and METAMYELOCYTE are not normal findings in periph- eral blood but may be seen in conditions such as mye- lophthisis (invasion of the bone marrow), hemolytic anemias, and other stressful states. Figure 14: Nucleated RBC (orthochromic normoblast)- similarly not seen normally but seen with myelophthi- sis, hemolysis, and other stresses.
  • 4. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 4 of 4 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood: normal; 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 2 Bone marrow: normal; 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 3 Peripheral blood: iron defi- ciency anemia 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 4 Peripheral blood: Lead poison- ing- basophilic stippling 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 5 Peripheral blood: Sideroblastic anemia- one classically sees dimorphic red cells: a hypochromic/microcytic population and larger cells that are not hypochromic. This type of picture could also be seen after blood transfusion and with partially treated iron-deficiency anemia. 525x
  • 5. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 5 of 5 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 6 Bone marrow: Sideroblastic anemia; Prussian blue stain; in pathognomonic ringed SIDEROBLASTS, the iron appears to surround the nu- cleus because it is trapped in mitochondria. Ringed SIDEROBLASTS can be idiopathic (e.g. myelodysplas- tic syndrome), hereditary, and can occur with drugs and toxins (especially alcohol). 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral blood: megaloblastic anemia- The earliest morphologic abnormality in B12/Folate deficiency is hypersegmentation of the NEUTROPHILS (greater than 5 lobes). There is pancy- topenia, oval MACROCYTES, and extreme anisocyto- sis; 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 8 Bone marrow: megaloblastic anemia- the hallmark of megaloblastic change is nu- clear/cytoplasmic asynchrony or dissociation. Most of the cells in this field are red cell precursors with cyto- plasmic maturation but large nuclei with non- condensed chromatin. 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 9 Peripheral blood: myelofibro- sis- TEARDROPS and ELLIPTOCYTES are characteris- tic of myelophthisic processes and are most extreme in myelofibrosis. Leukoerythroblastosis (immature myeloid cells and nucleated red blood cells in the blood) are also most characteristic of myelophthisic processes and is always seen in myelofibrosis. 640x
  • 6. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 6 of 6 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 10 Peripheral blood: macroglobu- linemia, ROULEAUX 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 11 Peripheral blood: ECHINO- CYTES and TARGET CELLS;. 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 12 Peripheral blood: spur cell anemia (ACANTHOCYTES with liver disease) 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 13 Peripheral blood: STOMATO- CYTES- most often artifacts, but true stomatocytes can be seen after alcohol binges and with rare hereditary conditions; 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 14 Peripheral blood: autoimmune hemolytic anemia; SPHEROCYTES, small cells lacking central pallor, are formed when red blood cells lose some of their membrane and must maximize surface: volume ratio. SPHEROCYTES is the predominant ab- normality in the blood smear in autoimmune hemolytic anemia and hereditary spherocytosis. Note also in this slide the large bluish cells, which represent RETICU- LOCYTES. 640x
  • 7. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 7 of 7 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 15 Peripheral blood: hereditary spherocytosis cannot be distinguished from autoim- mune hemolytic anemia on the blood film. The disor- ders can be distinguished by history, physical exam (splenomegaly), and DIRECT Coombs' test. 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 16 Peripheral blood: iron defi- ciency anemia complicated by hemolytic transfusion- There is underlying hypochromic/microcytic red cells. SPHEROCYTES are a result of the immune hemolytic reaction to mismatched blood. 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 17 Peripheral blood: hereditary elliptocytosis- usually a mild hereditary hemolytic anemia. 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 18 Peripheral blood: thalassemia minor- there is always substantial MICROCYTOSIS. TARGET CELLS, basophilic stippling, and hy- pochromia may or may not be prominent. 640x
  • 8. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 8 of 8 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 19 Peripheral blood: thalassemia major 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 20 Peripheral blood: sickle cell anemia- TARGET CELLS are seen in hemoglobi- nopathies, thalassemias, in liver disease, and asplenia. 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 21 Peripheral blood: hemoglobin SC disease- SC patients frequently have compensated hemolysis (they are not anemic). SICKLE CELLS tend to be few, TARGET CELLS prominent, and there are a number of unusual forms (BOAT CELLS). 800x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 22 Peripheral blood: S-thalassemia- In Sickle-thalassemia, the anemia tends to be milder than in SS disease, there are few SICKLE CELLS, and there is MICROCYTOSIS. 640x
  • 9. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 9 of 9 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 23 Peripheral blood: red cell fragmentation due to artificial valve- In contrast to mi- croangiopathic hemolysis, the platelet count is not low. 640x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 24 Peripheral blood: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura- Causes of microan- giopathic hemolytic anemia include: TTP, hemolytic- uremic syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagula- tion, disseminated carcinomatosis, malignant hyper- tension, and renal vasculitis. Conditions other than TTP would rarely, if ever, produce a blood smear pic- ture this severe. In the proper clinical context (neu- rologic symptoms), this smear would be diagnostic of TTP. 525x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 25 Peripheral blood: microan- giopathic hemolytic anemia- In microangiopathic hemolytic anemias, there are SCHISTOCYTES, SPHEROCYTES, polychromasia, and thrombocyto- penia. 800x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 26 Kidney: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia 200x
  • 10. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Red Blood Cells Page 10 of 10 Lab 1- Kodachrome: 27 Peripheral blood: microan- giopathic hemolytic anemia associated with dissemi- nated cancer 800x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 28 Lung: intravascular tumor 125x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 29 Peripheral blood: malaria parasite- this slide illustrates a ringed form MERO- ZOITE. 1250x Lab 1- Kodachrome: 30 Review abnormal red cell shapes:
  • 11. HEMATOLOGY Anemia Page 11 of 11 Lab 3- Kodachrome: 1 Case A: Iron deficiency anemia, 640x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 2 Case B: Pernicious anemia, 640x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 3 Case B: Pernicious anemia, 1225x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 4 Case B: Pernicious anemia, 640x
  • 12. HEMATOLOGY Anemia Page 12 of 12 Lab 3- Kodachrome: 5 Case C: Sickle Cell Anemia, 525x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 6 Case C: Sickle Cell Anemia, 1225x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 7 Case D: Hereditary Spherocy- tosis, 640x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 8 Case D: Hereditary Sperocyto- sis,1225x
  • 13. HEMATOLOGY Anemia Page 13 of 13 Lab 3- Kodachrome: 9 Case E: Postsplenectomy state, 800x Lab 3- Kodachrome: 10 Case E: Postsplenectomy state, 1225x
  • 14. HEMATOLOGY Lymphoma Page 14 of 14 Lab 7- Kodachrome: 1 Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosing Lab 7- Kodachrome: 2 Follicular lymphoma, low power Lab 7- Kodachrome: 3 Follicular lymphoma, small cleaved (high power) Lab 7- Kodachrome: 4 Follicular lymphoma ("BUT- TOCK" CELL)
  • 15. HEMATOLOGY Pancytopenia and Thrombocytopenia Page 15 of 15 Lab 8- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood Lab 8- Kodachrome: 2 Peripheral blood Lab 8- Kodachrome: 3 Bone marrow aspirate Lab 8- Kodachrome: 4 Bone marrow biopsy Lab 8- Kodachrome: 5 Reticulin Stain Lab 8- Kodachrome: 6 Tartrate-resistant acid phos- phatase
  • 16. HEMATOLOGY Pancytopenia and Thrombocytopenia Page 16 of 16 Lab 8- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral Blood- thrombocy- topenia Lab 8- Kodachrome: 8 Peripheral Blood- MEGATHROMBOCYTE Lab 8- Kodachrome: 9 Bone marrow/increased MEGAKARYOCYTES Lab 8- Kodachrome: 10 Bone marrow/vacuolated MEGAKARYOCYTE
  • 17. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 17 of 17 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 1 Peripheral blood: chronic mye- loid leukemia; The full spectrum of myeloid maturation visible from immature MYELOCYTES to NEUTRO- PHILS. There are usually peaks in the differential at the myeloid and neutrophil stages. A LAP (Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase) score is useful to differentiate CML (low) from a leukemoid reaction (high). 525x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 2 Peripheral blood: BASOPHILS in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia; Basophilia is found in all myeloproliferative disorders and is sign of acceleration in CML. 800x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 3 Peripheral blood: Myelophthi- sis. There are numerous TEARDROPS and ELIPTO- CYTES. Leukoerythroblastosis (immature myeloid cells and nucleated RBCs in the blood) is also consis- tent with myelophthisis but especially myelofibrosis. 525x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 4 Bone marrow biopsy: Myelofi- brosis; Wright's stain. The bone marrow aspirate is usually dry, and one sees a swirling pattern H/E. 160x
  • 18. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 18 of 18 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 5 Bone marrow biopsy: myelofi- brosis; Reticulin stain 160x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 6 Bone marrow biopsy: myelofi- brosis; Masson stain 525x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 7 Peripheral blood: acute mye- loblastic leukemia. There are numerous BLASTS with pale, blue cytoplasm, an increased N/C ratio, fine un- condensed chromatin, and +/- nucleoli. Lab 9- Kodachrome: 8 Peripheral blood: acute mye- loblasitc leukemia- note the abundance of immature GRANULOCYTES; Sudan black stain 640x
  • 19. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 19 of 19 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 9 Peripheral blood: acute mye- loblasitc leukemia; Peroxidase stain 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 10 Peripheral blood: acute mye- loblasitc leukemia; Approximately 20 % of mye- loid/monocytic leukemic cells have Auer Rod - linear condensations of abnormal primary granules.; Wright's stain; 640x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 11 Bone Marrow: acute promye- locytic leukemia; The cells are not only morphologi- cally distinguishable due to the hypergranularity, but this variant of AML also has a number of distinguish- ing characteristics including: association with DIC, a specific chromosomal abnormality (t15;17), and a high response rate to congenors of retinoic acid. Lab 9- Kodachrome: 12 Peripheral blood: acute lym- phoblastic leukemia; Wright's stain, 1225x
  • 20. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 20 of 20 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 13 Peripheral blood: acute lym- phoblastic leukemia; PAS stain. Both LYMPHOBLASTS and RED CELL BLASTS in erythroleukemia stain PAS +. 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 14 Peripheral blood: acute monocytic leukemia; The malignant cells have the same characteristics as MONOCYTES with blue-gray cytoplasm and folded nuclei. There is also a pro- penisty to invlove extramedullary sites, including the gums. 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 15 Bone marrow: acute mono- cytic leukemia; non specific esterase; NSE stains cells of the monocytic lineage. 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 16 Peripheral blood: Erythroleu- kemia- the bizarre red cell precursors indicate erythro- leukemia; 525x
  • 21. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 21 of 21 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 17 Peripheral blood: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; There are a number of small, mature lymphocytes c/w CLL. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with a bone marrow biopsy or flow cytome- try which shows MONOCLONAL B CELL proliferation (classically CD5+)1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 18 Peripheral blood: Follicular B Cell Lymphoma- The clefted lymphoid cell with a nu- cleolus ("BUTTOCK” CELL) is characteristic of this type of lymphoma; 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 19 Bone marrow: Burkitt's lym- phoma- The Burkitt's lymphoma/leukemia cells are immature, deeply basophilic, and highly vacuolated. This lymphoma is associated with the t8;21, the Ep- stein-Barr Virus in the African variant, and has shown an increased incidence in patients with AIDS and im- munosuppression. In addition, it is the fastest growing cancer known to man with a doubling time of 24 hours. Wright stain. Lab 9- Kodachrome: 20 Peripheral blood: Pelger-huet anomaly; PELGER-HUET CELLS are mature NEUTRO- PHILS with 2 symmetric round/oval nuclear lobes with a thin strand of chromatin in between. These cells are associated with a benign hereditary condition and an acquired pseudo-Pelger-Huet abnormality in myelopro- liferative disorders, myelodysplastic syndromes, in addition to reactive processes. 1225x
  • 22. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 22 of 22 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 21 Peripheral blood: Pelger-huet anomaly; Stodtmeister cell. This is a uninuclear variant of the Pelger-Huet anomaly.; 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 22 Peripheral blood: Hairy cell leukemia classically presents with splenomegaly, pancytopenia with lymphadenopathy. There is an ex- cellent prognosis with certain treatments including 2- CDA or IFN.; 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 23 Peripheral blood: Atypical lymphocytes: excessive cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei, +/- nucleoli, and the chromatin ay not be completely clumped. The DDx includes: Infectious mononucleo- sis, CMV, Toxoplasmosis, and reactive processes. N.B. In mononucleosis, the B cells are infected, but it is the T cells which appear atypical; 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 24 Peripheral blood: There are several reactive LYMPHOCYTES suggestive of infec- tious mononucleosis; 1225x
  • 23. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 23 of 23 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 25 Peripheral blood: Reactive Lymphocytosis (influenza) Lab 9- Kodachrome: 26 Bone Marrow: PLASMA CELLS characterized by deeply basophilic cytoplasm, eccentric nuclei, perinuclear clear zone. These cells are diagnostic of a variant of multiple myeloma (1% of all cases) called plasma cell leukemia.; 525x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 27 Bone Marrow: Tumor clumps of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate in the bone marrow.; 640x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 28 Bone Marrow: Lipid laden MACROPHAGES consistent with Gaucher's disease, in which the glucocerebrosidase enzyme is deficient. 800x
  • 24. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 24 of 24 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 29 Peripheral blood: Extreme thrombocytosis. Platelet counts this high (1.5 to 2,000,000) are only seen in myeloproliferative disor- ders, including essential thrombocythemia, which is charcterized by both hemorrhagic and thrombotic ten- dencies.; 800x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 30 Peripheral blood: MEGATHROMBOCYTE (giant platelet)- these are seen in a reactive processes but also myeloproliferative disorders. These platelets are often functionally ab- normal.; 1225x Lab 9- Kodachrome: 31 Toxic Granulation of NEU- TROPHIL- a non-specific sign of infection. Lab 9- Kodachrome: 32 Dohle Body. These areas in the cytoplasm of NEUTROPHILS stain blue with Wright's stain due to the increase in RNA present in the RER of the cells. Dohle bodies are seen in a num- ber of conditions, including: sepsis, burns, myelodys- plastic conditions, and hereditary conditions.
  • 25. HEMATOLOGY Morphological Abnormalities of Leukocytes and Platelets Page 25 of 25 Lab 9- Kodachrome: 33 Vacuolization of NEUTRO- PHILS Lab 9- Kodachrome: 34 LAP stain of NEUTROPHILS; In this case, the LAP is high, consistent with reactive neutrophilia. A low LAP score would be consistent with CML.
  • 26. HEMATOLOGY Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders Page 26 of 26 Lab 10- Kodachrome: 1 Case H: Chronic myelogenous leukemia- many mature white cells; low LAP score (high in reactive leukocytosis) Lab 10- Kodachrome: 2 Case H: Chronic myelogenous leukemia Lab 10- Kodachrome: 3 Case I: Hodgkin's disease Lab 10- Kodachrome: 4 Case I: Hodgkin's disease Lab 10- Kodachrome: 5 Case J: Lab 10- Kodachrome: 6 Case K: Hereditary Pelger- Huet anomaly
  • 27. HEMATOLOGY Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders Page 27 of 27 Lab 10- Kodachrome: 7 Case K: Hereditary Pelger- Huet anomaly Lab 10- Kodachrome: 8 Case K: Hereditary Pelger- Huet anomaly Lab 10- Kodachrome: 9 Case K: Hereditary Pelger- Huet anomaly Lab 10- Kodachrome: 10 Case L: Thrombotic throm- bocytopenic purpura- marked SCHISTOCYTES, occa- sional SPHEROCYTES, moderate polychromasia, thrombocytopenia Lab 10- Kodachrome: 11 Case L: Thrombotic throm- bocytopenic purpura- SCHISTOCYTES, thrombocyto- penia Lab 10- Kodachrome: 12 Case M: Acute leukemia, probably lymphoblastic
  • 28. HEMATOLOGY Leukocyte and Platelet Disorders Page 28 of 28 Lab 10- Kodachrome: 13 Case M: Acute leukemia, probably lymphoblastic